Provided by: postgresql-client-8.4_8.4.11-1_amd64 bug

NAME

       VALUES - compute a set of rows

SYNOPSIS

       VALUES ( expression [, ...] ) [, ...]
           [ ORDER BY sort_expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [, ...] ]
           [ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]
           [ OFFSET start [ ROW | ROWS ] ]
           [ FETCH { FIRST | NEXT } [ count ] { ROW | ROWS } ONLY ]

DESCRIPTION

       VALUES  computes  a  row  value or set of row values specified by value expressions. It is
       most commonly used to generate a ``constant table'' within a larger command, but it can be
       used on its own.

       When  more  than one row is specified, all the rows must have the same number of elements.
       The data types of the resulting table's columns are determined by combining  the  explicit
       or inferred types of the expressions appearing in that column, using the same rules as for
       UNION (see in the documentation).

       Within larger commands, VALUES is syntactically allowed anywhere that SELECT  is.  Because
       it  is treated like a SELECT by the grammar, it is possible to use the ORDER BY, LIMIT (or
       equivalently FETCH FIRST), and OFFSET clauses with a VALUES command.

PARAMETERS

       expression
              A constant or expression to compute and  insert  at  the  indicated  place  in  the
              resulting  table  (set  of rows). In a VALUES list appearing at the top level of an
              INSERT, an expression can be replaced by DEFAULT to indicate that  the  destination
              column's  default  value  should  be  inserted.  DEFAULT cannot be used when VALUES
              appears in other contexts.

       sort_expression
              An expression or integer constant indicating how to  sort  the  result  rows.  This
              expression  can refer to the columns of the VALUES result as column1, column2, etc.
              For more details see ORDER BY Clause [select(7)].

       operator
              A sorting operator. For details see ORDER BY Clause [select(7)].

       count  The maximum number of rows to return. For details see LIMIT Clause [select(7)].

       start  The number of rows to skip before starting to return rows.  For details  see  LIMIT
              Clause [select(7)].

NOTES

       VALUES  lists  with  very  large numbers of rows should be avoided, as you might encounter
       out-of-memory failures or poor performance.  VALUES appearing within INSERT is  a  special
       case  (because the desired column types are known from the INSERT's target table, and need
       not be inferred by scanning the VALUES list), so it  can  handle  larger  lists  than  are
       practical in other contexts.

EXAMPLES

       A bare VALUES command:

       VALUES (1, 'one'), (2, 'two'), (3, 'three');

       This will return a table of two columns and three rows. It's effectively equivalent to:

       SELECT 1 AS column1, 'one' AS column2
       UNION ALL
       SELECT 2, 'two'
       UNION ALL
       SELECT 3, 'three';

       More  usually,  VALUES  is  used  within  a larger SQL command.  The most common use is in
       INSERT:

       INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind)
           VALUES ('T_601', 'Yojimbo', 106, '1961-06-16', 'Drama');

       In the context of INSERT, entries of a VALUES list can be DEFAULT  to  indicate  that  the
       column default should be used here instead of specifying a value:

       INSERT INTO films VALUES
           ('UA502', 'Bananas', 105, DEFAULT, 'Comedy', '82 minutes'),
           ('T_601', 'Yojimbo', 106, DEFAULT, 'Drama', DEFAULT);

       VALUES can also be used where a sub-SELECT might be written, for example in a FROM clause:

       SELECT f.*
         FROM films f, (VALUES('MGM', 'Horror'), ('UA', 'Sci-Fi')) AS t (studio, kind)
         WHERE f.studio = t.studio AND f.kind = t.kind;

       UPDATE employees SET salary = salary * v.increase
         FROM (VALUES(1, 200000, 1.2), (2, 400000, 1.4)) AS v (depno, target, increase)
         WHERE employees.depno = v.depno AND employees.sales >= v.target;

       Note  that  an AS clause is required when VALUES is used in a FROM clause, just as is true
       for SELECT. It is not required that the AS clause specify names for all the  columns,  but
       it's  good  practice to do so.  (The default column names for VALUES are column1, column2,
       etc in PostgreSQL, but these names might be different in other database systems.)

       When VALUES is used in INSERT, the values are all automatically coerced to the  data  type
       of  the  corresponding  destination  column. When it's used in other contexts, it might be
       necessary to specify the correct  data  type.  If  the  entries  are  all  quoted  literal
       constants, coercing the first is sufficient to determine the assumed type for all:

       SELECT * FROM machines
       WHERE ip_address IN (VALUES('192.168.0.1'::inet), ('192.168.0.10'), ('192.168.1.43'));

              Tip:  For  simple  IN  tests, it's better to rely on the list-of-scalars form of IN
              than to write a VALUES query as shown above. The list of  scalars  method  requires
              less writing and is often more efficient.

COMPATIBILITY

       VALUES conforms to the SQL standard.  LIMIT and OFFSET are PostgreSQL extensions; see also
       under SELECT [select(7)].

SEE ALSO

       INSERT [insert(7)], SELECT [select(7)]