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       wngloss - glossary of terms used in WordNet system


       The  WordNet  Reference  Manual  consists  of  Unix-style  manual pages
       divided into sections as follows:

                 │SectionDescription               │
                 │   1    │ WordNet User Commands                   │
                 │   3    │ WordNet Library Functions               │
                 │   5    │ WordNet File Formats                    │
                 │   7    │ Miscellaneous Information about WordNet │

   System Description
       The WordNet system consists of lexicographer  files,  code  to  convert
       these  files  into  a database, and search routines and interfaces that
       display  information  from  the  database.   The  lexicographer   files
       organize  nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs into groups of synonyms,
       and describe relations between synonym groups.  grind(1WN) converts the
       lexicographer  files into a database that encodes the relations between
       the synonym groups.  The different interfaces to the  WordNet  database
       utilize a common library of search routines to display these relations.
       Note that the  lexicographer  files  and  grind(1WN)  program  are  not
       generally distributed.

   Database Organization
       Information  in  WordNet  is  organized around logical groupings called
       synsets.  Each synset  consists  of  a  list  of  synonymous  words  or
       collocations  (eg.  "fountain  pen",  "take  in"),  and  pointers  that
       describe the relations between this synset and other synsets.   A  word
       or collocation may appear in more than one synset, and in more than one
       part of speech.  The words in a synset are grouped such that  they  are
       interchangeable in some context.

       Two  kinds  of  relations  are  represented  by  pointers:  lexical and
       semantic.  Lexical relations hold  between  semantically  related  word
       forms;  semantic relations hold between word meanings.  These relations
       include    (but    are    not    limited     to)     hypernymy/hyponymy
       (superordinate/subordinate),       antonymy,       entailment,      and

       Nouns  and  verbs  are  organized  into  hierarchies   based   on   the
       hypernymy/hyponymy  relation  between synsets.  Additional pointers are
       be used to indicate other relations.

       Adjectives  are  arranged  in  clusters  containing  head  synsets  and
       satellite  synsets.   Each cluster is organized around antonymous pairs
       (and occasionally  antonymous  triplets).   The  antonymous  pairs  (or
       triplets)  are  indicated  in the head synsets of a cluster.  Most head
       synsets have one or more satellite synsets, each of which represents  a
       concept  that  is  similar in meaning to the concept represented by the
       head synset.  One way to think of the adjective cluster organization is
       to  visualize  a  wheel,  with  a  head synset as the hub and satellite
       synsets as the spokes.  Two or more wheels are logically connected  via
       antonymy, which can be thought of as an axle between the wheels.

       Pertainyms  are  relational  adjectives and do not follow the structure
       just described.  Pertainyms do not have  antonyms;  the  synset  for  a
       pertainym  most  often  contains  only  one  word  or collocation and a
       lexical pointer to the noun that  the  adjective  is  "pertaining  to".
       Participial adjectives have lexical pointers to the verbs that they are
       derived from.

       Adverbs are often derived from adjectives, and sometimes have antonyms;
       therefore  the  synset for an adverb usually contains a lexical pointer
       to the adjective from which it is derived.

       See wndb(5WN) for a detailed description of the database files and  how
       the data are represented.


       Many  terms  used  in  the  WordNet  Reference Manual are unique to the
       WordNet system.  Other general terms have specific meanings  when  used
       in  the WordNet documentation.  Definitions for many of these terms are
       given  to  help  with  the  interpretation  and  understanding  of  the
       reference manual, and in the use of the WordNet system.

       In following definitions word is used in place of word or collocation.

       adjective cluster        A   group   of   adjective  synsets  that  are
                                organized around antonymous pairs or triplets.
                                An adjective cluster contains two or more head
                                synsets which represent  antonymous  concepts.
                                Each  head  synset  has  one or more satellite

       attribute                A noun for which  adjectives  express  values.
                                The noun weight is an attribute, for which the
                                adjectives light and heavy express values.

       base form                The base form of a word or collocation is  the
                                form to which inflections are added.

       basic synset             Syntactically,  same  as synset.  Term is used
                                in wninput(5WN) to help explain differences in
                                entering synsets in lexicographer files.

       collocation              A collocation in WordNet is a string of two or
                                more words, connected by  spaces  or  hyphens.
                                Examples  are:  man-eating shark, blue-collar,
                                depend on, line of products.  In the  database
                                files spaces are represented as underscore (_)

       coordinate               Coordinate terms are nouns or verbs that  have
                                the same hypernym.

       cross-cluster pointer    A  semantic pointer from one adjective cluster
                                to another.

       derivationally related forms
                                Terms in different syntactic  categories  that
                                have  the  same root form and are semantically

       direct antonyms          A pair of words  between  which  there  is  an
                                associative bond resulting from their frequent
                                co-occurrence.  In adjective clusters,  direct
                                antonyms appears only in head synsets.

       domain                   A topical classification to which a synset has
                                been linked with a CATEGORY, REGION  or  USAGE

       domain term              A  synset  belonging  to  a  topical class.  A
                                domain term is further identified as  being  a
                                CATEGORY_TERM, REGION_TERM or USAGE_TERM.

       entailment               A  verb X entails Y if X cannot be done unless
                                Y is, or has been, done.

       exception list           Morphological transformations for  words  that
                                are   not  regular  and  therefore  cannot  be
                                processed in an algorithmic manner.

       group                    Verb senses that similar in meaning  and  have
                                been manually grouped together.

       gloss                    Each  synset  contains  gloss  consisting of a
                                definition and optionally example sentences.

       head synset              Synset in an adjective cluster  containing  at
                                least one word that has a direct antonym.

       holonym                  The  name  of  the  whole of which the meronym
                                names a part.  Y is a holonym of X if X  is  a
                                part of Y.

       hypernym                 The  generic  term  used  to designate a whole
                                class of specific instances.  Y is a  hypernym
                                of X if X is a (kind of) Y.

       hyponym                  The  specific  term used to designate a member
                                of a class.  X is a hyponym of Y  if  X  is  a
                                (kind of) Y.

       indirect antonym         An  adjective  in a satellite synset that does
                                not have a  direct  antonym  has  an  indirect
                                antonyms  via  the  direct antonym of the head

       instance                 A proper noun that  refers  to  a  particular,
                                unique  referent  (as distinguished from nouns
                                that refer to classes).  This  is  a  specific
                                form of hyponym.

       lemma                    Lower  case ASCII text of word as found in the
                                WordNet database  index  files.   Usually  the
                                base form for a word or collocation.

       lexical pointer          A lexical pointer indicates a relation between
                                words in synsets (word forms).

       lexicographer file       Files containing  the  raw  data  for  WordNet
                                synsets,  edited  by  lexicographers, that are
                                input to  the  grind  program  to  generate  a
                                WordNet database.

       lexicographer id (lex id)
                                A  decimal  integer  that,  when appended onto
                                lemma, uniquely identifies a  sense  within  a
                                lexicographer file.

       monosemous               Having only one sense in a syntactic category.

       meronym                  The   name  of  a  constituent  part  of,  the
                                substance of, or a member of something.  X  is
                                a meronym of Y if X is a part of Y.

       part of speech           WordNet  defines  "part  of  speech" as either
                                noun, verb, adjective,  or  adverb.   Same  as
                                syntactic category.

       participial adjective    An adjective that is derived from a verb.

       pertainym                A  relational  adjective.  Adjectives that are
                                pertainyms are usually defined by such phrases
                                as  "of  or  pertaining  to"  and  do not have
                                antonyms.  A pertainym can point to a noun  or
                                another pertainym.

       polysemous               Having  more  than  one  sense  in a syntactic

       polysemy count           Number of senses of  a  word  in  a  syntactic
                                category, in WordNet.

       postnominal              A    postnominal    adjective    occurs   only
                                immediately  following  the   noun   that   it

       predicative              An   adjective   that  can  be  used  only  in
                                predicate positions.   If  X  is  a  predicate
                                adjective, it can only be used in such phrases
                                as "it is X" and never prenominally.

       prenominal               An adjective that can occur  only  before  the
                                noun  that  it  modifies:  it  cannot  be used

       satellite synset         Synset in an adjective cluster representing  a
                                concept  that  is  similar  in  meaning to the
                                concept represented by its head synset.

       semantic concordance     A textual corpus (e.g. the Brown Corpus) and a
                                lexicon  (e.g. WordNet) so combined that every
                                substantive word in the text is linked to  its
                                appropriate   sense   in  the  lexicon  via  a
                                semantic tag.

       semantic tag             A pointer from a word in  a  text  file  to  a
                                specific  sense  of  that  word in the WordNet
                                database.   A  semantic  tag  in  a   semantic
                                concordance is represented by a sense key.

       semantic pointer         A   semantic   pointer  indicates  a  relation
                                between synsets (concepts).

       sense                    A meaning of a word in WordNet.  Each sense of
                                a word is in a different synset.

       sense key                Information  necessary  to find a sense in the
                                WordNet database.   A  sense  key  combines  a
                                lemma  field  and  codes  for the synset type,
                                lexicographer id, lexicographer  file  number,
                                and   information  about  a  satellite's  head
                                synset, if required.  See senseidx(5WN) for  a
                                description of the format of a sense key.

       subordinate              Same as hyponym.

       superordinate            Same as hypernym.

       synset                   A  synonym  set;  a  set  of  words  that  are
                                interchangeable  in   some   context   without
                                changing the truth value of the preposition in
                                which they are embedded.

       troponym                 A   verb   expressing   a   specific    manner
                                elaboration  of another verb.  X is a troponym
                                of Y if to X is to Y in some manner.

       unique beginner          A noun synset with no superordinate.