Provided by: isc-dhcp-server_4.1.ESV-R4-0ubuntu5_i386 bug


       dhcpd - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server


       dhcpd  [  -p  port  ] [ -f ] [ -d ] [ -q ] [ -t | -T ] [ -4 | -6 ] [ -s
       server ] [ -cf config-file ] [ -lf lease-file ]  [  -pf  pid-file  ]  [
       --no-pid  ]  [  -tf trace-output-file ] [ -play trace-playback-file ] [
       if0 [ ...ifN ] ]

       dhcpd --version


       The Internet Systems Consortium  DHCP  Server,  dhcpd,  implements  the
       Dynamic  Host  Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and the Internet Bootstrap
       Protocol (BOOTP).  DHCP allows hosts on a TCP/IP network to request and
       be  assigned  IP  addresses, and also to discover information about the
       network  to  which  they  are   attached.    BOOTP   provides   similar
       functionality, with certain restrictions.


       The  DHCP  protocol  allows  a  host  which  is  unknown to the network
       administrator to be automatically assigned a new IP address  out  of  a
       pool  of IP addresses for its network.   In order for this to work, the
       network administrator allocates address pools in each subnet and enters
       them into the dhcpd.conf(5) file.

       There  are  two  versions  of  the DHCP protocol DHCPv4 and DHCPv6.  At
       startup the server  may be started for one or the other via the  -4  or
       -6 arguments.

       On  startup,  dhcpd  reads  the  dhcpd.conf  file  and stores a list of
       available addresses on each subnet in memory.  When a  client  requests
       an  address using the DHCP protocol, dhcpd allocates an address for it.
       Each client is assigned a lease, which expires after an amount of  time
       chosen  by  the  administrator  (by  default,  one day).  Before leases
       expire, the clients to which leases are assigned are expected to  renew
       them  in  order  to  continue  to  use the addresses.  Once a lease has
       expired, the client to which that  lease  was  assigned  is  no  longer
       permitted to use the leased IP address.

       In  order  to  keep  track  of  leases across system reboots and server
       restarts, dhcpd  keeps  a  list  of  leases  it  has  assigned  in  the
       dhcpd.leases(5)  file.    Before  dhcpd  grants  a  lease to a host, it
       records the lease in this file and makes sure that the contents of  the
       file  are  flushed  to disk.   This ensures that even in the event of a
       system crash, dhcpd will not forget about a lease that it has assigned.
       On  startup,  after  reading  the  dhcpd.conf  file,  dhcpd  reads  the
       dhcpd.leases file to refresh its memory about  what  leases  have  been

       New leases are appended to the end of the dhcpd.leases file.   In order
       to prevent the file from becoming arbitrarily large, from time to  time
       dhcpd  creates a new dhcpd.leases file from its in-core lease database.
       Once this file has been written  to  disk,  the  old  file  is  renamed
       dhcpd.leases~,  and  the  new  file  is  renamed dhcpd.leases.   If the
       system crashes in the middle of this  process,  whichever  dhcpd.leases
       file  remains  will  contain  all the lease information, so there is no
       need for a special crash recovery process.

       BOOTP support is also provided by this server.  Unlike DHCP, the  BOOTP
       protocol  does  not  provide  a  protocol  for  recovering dynamically-
       assigned addresses once they  are  no  longer  needed.    It  is  still
       possible  to  dynamically  assign  addresses to BOOTP clients, but some
       administrative process  for  reclaiming  addresses  is  required.    By
       default,  leases  are  granted to BOOTP clients in perpetuity, although
       the network administrator may set an earlier cutoff date or  a  shorter
       lease length for BOOTP leases if that makes sense.

       BOOTP  clients  may also be served in the old standard way, which is to
       simply provide a declaration in the  dhcpd.conf  file  for  each  BOOTP
       client, permanently assigning an address to each client.

       Whenever  changes  are  made  to  the  dhcpd.conf  file,  dhcpd must be
       restarted.   To restart dhcpd,  send  a  SIGTERM  (signal  15)  to  the
       process  ID  contained  in  RUNDIR/, and then re-invoke dhcpd.
       Because the DHCP server database is  not  as  lightweight  as  a  BOOTP
       database,  dhcpd  does  not automatically restart itself when it sees a
       change to the dhcpd.conf file.

       Note: We get a lot of complaints about this.   We realize that it would
       be nice if one could send a SIGHUP to the server and have it reload the
       database.   This is not technically impossible, but it would require  a
       great  deal  of work, our resources are extremely limited, and they can
       be better spent elsewhere.   So please don't complain about this on the
       mailing list unless you're prepared to fund a project to implement this
       feature, or prepared to do it yourself.


       The names of the network interfaces on which dhcpd  should  listen  for
       broadcasts  may  be specified on the command line.  This should be done
       on systems where dhcpd is unable to identify non-broadcast  interfaces,
       but should not be required on other systems.  If no interface names are
       specified  on  the  command  line  dhcpd  will  identify  all   network
       interfaces  which  are  up,  eliminating  non-broadcast  interfaces  if
       possible, and listen for DHCP broadcasts on each interface.


       -4     Run as a DHCP server.  This cannot be combined with -6.

       -6     Run as a DHCPv6 server.  This  is  the  default  and  cannot  be
              combined with -4.

       -p port
              The   udp   port  number  on  which  dhcpd  should  listen.   If
              unspecified dhcpd uses the default port of 67.  This  is  mostly
              useful for debugging purposes.

       -s address
              Specify  an  address  or  host  name  to which dhcpd should send
              replies rather than  the  broadcast  address  (
              This option is only supported in IPv4.

       -f     Force  dhcpd  to  run  as  a  foreground process instead of as a
              daemon in the background.  This is  useful  when  running  dhcpd
              under  a debugger, or when running it out of inittab on System V

       -d     Send log messages to the standard error descriptor.  This can be
              useful  for debugging, and also at sites where a complete log of
              all dhcp activity must be kept but syslogd is  not  reliable  or
              otherwise  cannot be used.   Normally, dhcpd will log all output
              using the syslog(3)  function  with  the  log  facility  set  to
              LOG_DAEMON.   Note  that -d implies -f (the daemon will not fork
              itself into the background).

       -q     Be quiet at startup.  This suppresses the printing of the entire
              copyright  message during startup.  This might be desirable when
              starting dhcpd from a system startup script (e.g., /etc/rc).

       -t     Test the configuration file.  The server tests the configuration
              file  for  correct  syntax,  but will not attempt to perform any
              network  operations.    This  can  be  used  to   test   a   new
              configuration file automatically before installing it.

       -T     Test  the  lease  file.   The  server  tests  the lease file for
              correct syntax, but will not  attempt  to  perform  any  network
              operations.    This  can  be  used  to  test  a  new  leaes file
              automatically before installing it.

       -tf tracefile
              Specify a file into which the entire startup state of the server
              and  all  the transactions it processes are logged.  This can be
              useful in submitting bug reports - if you  are  getting  a  core
              dump  every  so  often,  you  can  start the server with the -tf
              option and then, when the server dumps core, the trace file will
              contain  all the transactions that led up to it dumping core, so
              that the problem can be easily debugged with -play.

       -play playfile
              Specify a file from which the entire startup state of the server
              and  all  the  transactions  it  processed  are read.  The -play
              option must be specified with an alternate lease file, using the
              -lf  switch,  so  that  the  DHCP  server  doesn't wipe out your
              existing lease file with its test data.  The  DHCP  server  will
              refuse  to  operate  in  playback  mode  unless  you  specify an
              alternate lease file.

              Print version number and exit.

       Modifying default file locations: The following options can be used  to
       modify  the  locations  dhcpd  uses  for  it's  files.   Because of the
       importance of using the same lease database at all times  when  running
       dhcpd  in  production,  these  options  should be used only for testing
       lease files or database files in a non-production environment.

       -cf config-file
              Path to alternate configuration file.

       -lf lease-file
              Path to alternate lease file.

       -pf pid-file
              Path to alternate pid file.

              Option to disable writing pid files.   By  default  the  program
              will  write  a  pid  file.   If the program is invoked with this
              option it will not check for an existing server process.


       The syntax of the dhcpd.conf(5) file is  discussed  separately.    This
       section should be used as an overview of the configuration process, and
       the  dhcpd.conf(5)  documentation  should  be  consulted  for  detailed
       reference information.


       dhcpd  needs to know the subnet numbers and netmasks of all subnets for
       which it  will  be  providing  service.    In  addition,  in  order  to
       dynamically  allocate addresses, it must be assigned one or more ranges
       of addresses on each subnet which it can in turn assign to client hosts
       as  they  boot.    Thus,  a  very  simple  configuration providing DHCP
       support might look like this:

            subnet netmask {

       Multiple address ranges may be specified like this:

            subnet netmask {

       If a subnet will only be provided with BOOTP  service  and  no  dynamic
       address  assignment, the range clause can be left out entirely, but the
       subnet statement must appear.

Lease Lengths

       DHCP leases can be assigned almost any  length  from  zero  seconds  to
       infinity.    What lease length makes sense for any given subnet, or for
       any given installation, will vary depending on the kinds of hosts being

       For example, in an office environment where systems are added from time
       to  time  and  removed  from  time  to  time,   but   move   relatively
       infrequently,  it  might  make sense to allow lease times of a month or
       more.   In a final test environment on a manufacturing  floor,  it  may
       make more sense to assign a maximum lease length of 30 minutes - enough
       time to go through a simple  test  procedure  on  a  network  appliance
       before packaging it up for delivery.

       It  is  possible  to specify two lease lengths: the default length that
       will be assigned if a client  doesn't  ask  for  any  particular  lease
       length, and a maximum lease length.   These are specified as clauses to
       the subnet command:

            subnet netmask {
              default-lease-time 600;
              max-lease-time 7200;

       This particular subnet declaration specifies a default  lease  time  of
       600  seconds  (ten  minutes),  and a maximum lease time of 7200 seconds
       (two hours).   Other common values would be  86400  (one  day),  604800
       (one week) and 2592000 (30 days).

       Each  subnet  need  not  have  the  same leaseā€”in the case of an office
       environment and a manufacturing environment served  by  the  same  DHCP
       server, it might make sense to have widely disparate values for default
       and maximum lease times on each subnet.

BOOTP Support

       Each BOOTP client must be explicitly declared in the  dhcpd.conf  file.
       A  very  basic  client  declaration  will  specify  the  client network
       interface's hardware address and the  IP  address  to  assign  to  that
       client.    If  the client needs to be able to load a boot file from the
       server, that file's name must be specified.    A  simple  bootp  client
       declaration might look like this:

            host haagen {
              hardware ethernet 08:00:2b:4c:59:23;
              filename "/tftpboot/haagen.boot";


       DHCP  (and  also  BOOTP  with  Vendor  Extensions)  provide a mechanism
       whereby the server can provide the client with information about how to
       configure  its  network interface (e.g., subnet mask), and also how the
       client can access various network services (e.g., DNS, IP routers,  and
       so on).

       These  options  can  be specified on a per-subnet basis, and, for BOOTP
       clients, also on a per-client basis.   In the event that a BOOTP client
       declaration  specifies  options  that  are also specified in its subnet
       declaration, the options  specified  in  the  client  declaration  take
       precedence.    A  reasonably  complete  DHCP  configuration  might look
       something like this:

            subnet netmask {
              default-lease-time 600 max-lease-time 7200;
              option subnet-mask;
              option broadcast-address;
              option routers;
              option domain-name-servers,;
              option domain-name "";

       A bootp host on that subnet that needs to be in a different domain  and
       use a different name server might be declared as follows:

            host haagen {
              hardware ethernet 08:00:2b:4c:59:23;
              filename "/tftpboot/haagen.boot";
              option domain-name-servers;
              option domain-name "";

       A  more  complete description of the dhcpd.conf file syntax is provided
       in dhcpd.conf(5).


       The  DHCP  server  provides  the  capability  to  modify  some  of  its
       configuration  while  it is running, without stopping it, modifying its
       database files,  and  restarting  it.   This  capability  is  currently
       provided  using  OMAPI - an API for manipulating remote objects.  OMAPI
       clients connect to the server using TCP/IP, authenticate, and can  then
       examine the server's current status and make changes to it.

       Rather  than  implementing the underlying OMAPI protocol directly, user
       programs should use the dhcpctl API or OMAPI  itself.    Dhcpctl  is  a
       wrapper  that  handles  some of the housekeeping chores that OMAPI does
       not do automatically.   Dhcpctl and OMAPI are documented in  dhcpctl(3)
       and omapi(3).

       OMAPI  exports  objects, which can then be examined and modified.   The
       DHCP server exports the following objects: lease, host,  failover-state
       and  group.    Each  object  has a number of methods that are provided:
       lookup, create, and destroy.   In addition, it is possible to  look  at
       attributes  that  are  stored  on  objects, and in some cases to modify
       those attributes.


       Leases can't currently be created or destroyed, but they can be  looked
       up to examine and modify their state.

       Leases have the following attributes:

       state integer lookup, examine
            1 = free
            2 = active
            3 = expired
            4 = released
            5 = abandoned
            6 = reset
            7 = backup
            8 = reserved
            9 = bootp

       ip-address data lookup, examine
            The IP address of the lease.

       dhcp-client-identifier data lookup, examine, update
            The  client  identifier  that the client used when it acquired the
            lease.  Not all clients send client identifiers, so  this  may  be

       client-hostname data examine, update
            The value the client sent in the host-name option.

       host handle examine
            the host declaration associated with this lease, if any.

       subnet handle examine
            the subnet object associated with this lease (the subnet object is
            not currently supported).

       pool handle examine
            the pool object associated with this lease (the pool object is not
            currently supported).

       billing-class handle examine
            the  handle  to the class to which this lease is currently billed,
            if any (the class object is not currently supported).

       hardware-address data examine, update
            the hardware address (chaddr) field sent by  the  client  when  it
            acquired its lease.

       hardware-type integer examine, update
            the type of the network interface that the client reported when it
            acquired its lease.

       ends time examine
            the time when the lease's current state ends, as understood by the

       tstp time examine
            the time when the lease's current state ends, as understood by the
       tsfp time examine
            the  adjusted  time  when  the  lease's  current  state  ends,  as
            understood  by  the  failover  peer (if there is no failover peer,
            this value is undefined).  Generally this value is  only  adjusted
            for  expired,  released,  or  reset  leases  while  the  server is
            operating in partner-down state, and otherwise is simply the value
            supplied by the peer.
       atsfp time examine
            the actual tsfp value sent from the peer.  This value is forgotten
            when  a  lease  binding  state  change  is  made,  to   facilitate
            retransmission logic.

       cltt time examine
            The time of the last transaction with the client on this lease.


       Hosts  can be created, destroyed, looked up, examined and modified.  If
       a host declaration is created or deleted using OMAPI, that  information
       will  be  recorded  in  the  dhcpd.leases  file.   It is permissible to
       delete host declarations that are declared in the dhcpd.conf file.

       Hosts have the following attributes:

       name data lookup, examine, modify
            the name of the host declaration.   This name must be unique among
            all host declarations.

       group handle examine, modify
            the  named group associated with the host declaration, if there is

       hardware-address data lookup, examine, modify
            the link-layer address that will be used to match the  client,  if
            any.  Only valid if hardware-type is also present.

       hardware-type integer lookup, examine, modify
            the  type  of the network interface that will be used to match the
            client, if any.   Only valid if hardware-address is also present.

       dhcp-client-identifier data lookup, examine, modify
            the dhcp-client-identifier option that will be used to  match  the
            client, if any.

       ip-address data examine, modify
            a  fixed  IP  address  which  is  reserved  for a DHCP client that
            matches this host declaration.    The  IP  address  will  only  be
            assigned  to  the client if it is valid for the network segment to
            which the client is connected.

       statements data modify
            a list of statements in the format of  the  dhcpd.conf  file  that
            will  be  executed  whenever  a  message  from the client is being

       known integer examine, modify
            if nonzero, indicates that a client matching this host declaration
            will  be  treated  as  known  in pool permit lists.   If zero, the
            client will not be treated as known.


       Named groups  can  be  created,  destroyed,  looked  up,  examined  and
       modified.   If  a  group declaration is created or deleted using OMAPI,
       that information will be recorded in  the  dhcpd.leases  file.   It  is
       permissible  to  delete  group  declarations  that  are declared in the
       dhcpd.conf file.

       Named groups currently can only be associated with hosts - this  allows
       one  set of statements to be efficiently attached to more than one host

       Groups have the following attributes:

       name data
            the name of the group.  All groups that are  created  using  OMAPI
            must have names, and the names must be unique among all groups.

       statements data
            a  list  of  statements  in the format of the dhcpd.conf file that
            will be executed whenever a  message  from  a  client  whose  host
            declaration references this group is processed.


       The  control object allows you to shut the server down.   If the server
       is doing failover with another peer, it will make  a  clean  transition
       into  the  shutdown  state and notify its peer, so that the peer can go
       into partner down, and then record the "recover"  state  in  the  lease
       file  so  that  when  the  server  is  restarted, it will automatically
       resynchronize with its peer.

       On shutdown the server will also attempt to cleanly shut down all OMAPI
       connections.   If  these  connections do not go down cleanly after five
       seconds, they are shut down preemptively.  It can take as  much  as  25
       seconds from the beginning of the shutdown process to the time that the
       server actually exits.

       To shut the server down, open its control  object  and  set  the  state
       attribute to 2.


       The  failover-state  object  is the object that tracks the state of the
       failover protocol as it is being managed for  a  given  failover  peer.
       The failover object has the following attributes (please see dhcpd.conf
       (5) for explanations about what these attributes mean):

       name data examine
            Indicates the name of the failover peer relationship, as described
            in the server's dhcpd.conf file.

       partner-address data examine
            Indicates the failover partner's IP address.

       local-address data examine
            Indicates the IP address that is being used by the DHCP server for
            this failover pair.

       partner-port data examine
            Indicates the TCP port on which the failover partner is  listening
            for failover protocol connections.

       local-port data examine
            Indicates  the  TCP port on which the DHCP server is listening for
            failover protocol connections for this failover pair.

       max-outstanding-updates integer examine
            Indicates the number  of  updates  that  can  be  outstanding  and
            unacknowledged at any given time, in this failover relationship.

       mclt integer examine
            Indicates   the   maximum   client  lead  time  in  this  failover

       load-balance-max-secs integer examine
            Indicates the maximum value for the secs field in a client request
            before load balancing is bypassed.

       load-balance-hba data examine
            Indicates  the  load balancing hash bucket array for this failover

       local-state integer examine, modify
            Indicates the present state of the DHCP server  in  this  failover
            relationship.   Possible values for state are:

                 1   - startup
                 2   - normal
                 3   - communications interrupted
                 4   - partner down
                 5   - potential conflict
                 6   - recover
                 7   - paused
                 8   - shutdown
                 9   - recover done
                 10  - resolution interrupted
                 11  - conflict done
                 254 - recover wait

            (Note  that  some  of  the  above  values  have changed since DHCP

            In general it is not a good idea to make changes  to  this  state.
            However,  in  the  case  that  the failover partner is known to be
            down, it can be useful to set the DHCP server's failover state  to
            partner  down.    At  this  point  the  DHCP server will take over
            service of the failover partner's leases as soon as possible,  and
            will  give  out  normal  leases, not leases that are restricted by
            MCLT.   If you do put the DHCP server into the  partner-down  when
            the other DHCP server is not in the partner-down state, but is not
            reachable, IP address  assignment  conflicts  are  possible,  even
            likely.    Once  a server has been put into partner-down mode, its
            failover  partner  must  not  be   brought   back   online   until
            communication is possible between the two servers.

       partner-state integer examine
            Indicates the present state of the failover partner.

       local-stos integer examine
            Indicates  the  time  at which the DHCP server entered its present
            state in this failover relationship.

       partner-stos integer examine
            Indicates the time at  which  the  failover  partner  entered  its
            present state.

       hierarchy integer examine
            Indicates  whether the DHCP server is primary (0) or secondary (1)
            in this failover relationship.

       last-packet-sent integer examine
            Indicates the time at which the most recent  failover  packet  was
            sent by this DHCP server to its failover partner.

       last-timestamp-received integer examine
            Indicates  the  timestamp  that  was  on the failover message most
            recently received from the failover partner.

       skew integer examine
            Indicates the skew between the failover partner's clock  and  this
            DHCP server's clock

       max-response-delay integer examine
            Indicates  the  time  in  seconds  after  which,  if no message is
            received from the failover partner, the partner is assumed  to  be
            out of communication.

       cur-unacked-updates integer examine
            Indicates  the  number  of update messages that have been received
            from the failover partner but not yet processed.


       ETCDIR/dhcpd.conf,        DBDIR/dhcpd.leases,         RUNDIR/,


       dhclient(8), dhcrelay(8), dhcpd.conf(5), dhcpd.leases(5)


       dhcpd(8)  was  originally  written  by  Ted Lemon under a contract with
       Vixie Labs.  Funding for this project was provided by Internet  Systems
       Consortium.    Version 3 of the DHCP server was funded by Nominum, Inc.
       Information  about  Internet  Systems  Consortium   is   available   at