Provided by: gdisk_0.8.1-1build1_amd64 bug

NAME

       fixparts - MBR partition table repair utility

SYNOPSIS

       fixparts device

DESCRIPTION

       FixParts  (aka fixparts) is a text-mode menu-driven program for repairing certain types of
       problems with Master Boot Record (MBR) partition tables.  The  program  has  three  design
       goals, although a few additional features are supported, as well:

       *      It  can remove stray GUID Partition Table (GPT) data, which can be left behind on a
              disk that was once used as a GPT disk but then incompletely converted to  the  more
              common (as of 2011) MBR form.

       *      It can repair mis-sized extended partitions -- either partitions that extend beyond
              the physical end of the disk  or  that  overlap  with  nearby  primary  partitions.
              FixParts  is  designed in such a way that this type of repair occurs automatically,
              so if it's the only problem with your disk, you can launch  the  program  and  then
              immediately  save  the  partition  table, making no manual changes, and the program
              will fix the problem.

       *      You can change primary partitions into logical  partitions  or  vice-versa,  within
              constraints imposed by the MBR data structures.

       Additional  features  include  the  ability  to change partition type codes or boot/active
       flags, to delete partitions, and to recompute CHS values. With the possible  exception  of
       recomputing  CHS values, these secondary features are better performed with fdisk, because
       fixpart's design means that it's likely  to  alter  partition  numbering  even  when  such
       changes are not requested.

       The fixpart program employs a user interface similar to that of Linux's fdisk, but fixpart
       is much more specialized. Most importantly, you can't create new partitions with  fixpart,
       although you can change primary/logical assignment.

       In the MBR scheme, partitions come in three varieties:

       primary
              These  partitions  are defined in the first sector of the hard disk and are limited
              in number to four. Some OSes, such as Windows and FreeBSD, must boot from a primary
              partition.

       extended
              Extended partitions are specialized primary partitions. They serve as holding areas
              for logical partitions.

       logical
              A disk can contain an arbitrary number of  logical  partitions  (fixpart,  however,
              imposes  a  limit  of  124  logical  partitions). All the logical partitions reside
              inside a single extended partition,  and  are  defined  using  a  linked-list  data
              structure. This fact means that every logical partition be preceded by at least one
              sector of unallocated space to hold its defining data structure (an  Extended  Boot
              Record, or EBR).

       These  distinctions  mean  that  primary  and  logical  partitions  cannot  be arbitrarily
       interspersed. A disk can contain one to three primary partitions, a block of one  or  more
       logical partitions, and one to three more primary partitions (for a total of three primary
       partitions, not counting the extended partition). Primary partitions may not be sandwiched
       between  logical  partitions,  since this would mean placing a primary partition within an
       extended partition (which is just a specific type of primary partition).

       Unlike  most  disk  utilities,  fixpart's  user  interface  ignores  extended  partitions.
       Internally,  the  program discards the information on the original extended partition and,
       when you tell it to save its changes, it generates a new extended partition to contain the
       then-defined   logical   partitions.  This  is  done  because  most  of  the  repairs  and
       manipulations the tool performs require generating a fresh extended partition, so  keeping
       the original in the user interface would only be a complication.

       Another  unusual  feature  of  fixpart's  user  interface is that partition numbers do not
       necessarily correlate with primary/logical  status.  In  most  utilities,  partitions  1-4
       correspond  to  primary partitions, whereas partitions 5 and up are logical partitions. In
       fixpart, any partition number may be assigned primary or logical status, so  long  as  the
       rules  for  layout  described  earlier  are  obeyed.  When  the  partition table is saved,
       partitions will be assigned appropriately and then tools such  as  the  Linux  kernel  and
       fdisk will give them conventional numbers.

       When  it  first  starts,  fixpart  performs  a scan for GPT data. If the disk looks like a
       conventional GPT disk, fixpart refuses to run. If the disk appears to  be  a  conventional
       MBR  disk  but  GPT  signatures  are present in the GPT primary or secondary header areas,
       fixpart offers to delete this extraneous data. If you  tell  it  to  do  so,  the  program
       immediately  wipes the GPT header or headers. (If only one header was found, only that one
       header will be erased, to minimize the risk of damaging a boot loader or other  data  that
       might have overwritten just one of the GPT headers.)

       With  the  exception of optionally erasing leftover GPT data when it first starts, fixpart
       keeps all changes in memory until the user writes changes with the w  command.  Thus,  you
       can  adjust  your  partitions in the user interface and abort those changes by typing q to
       quit without saving changes.

OPTIONS

       The fixparts utility supports no command-line options, except  for  specification  of  the
       target device.

       Most  interactions  with  fixparts  occur  with  its  interactive text-mode menu. Specific
       functions are:

       a      Toggle the active/boot flag. This flag is required by some boot loaders and OSes.

       c      Recompute the cylinder/head/sector (CHS) values for all partitions. CHS  addressing
              mode  is  largely obsolete, but some OSes and utilities complain if they don't like
              the CHS values. Note that fixparts' CHS values are likely to be incorrect on  disks
              smaller than about 8 GiB except on Linux.

       l      Change  a  partition's status to logical. This option will only work if the current
              partition layout supports such a change. Note that if changing a partition's status
              in  this  way  is  not  currently  possible,  making  some other change may make it
              possible. For instance, omitting a partition that precedes the target partition may
              enable  converting  a  partition  to logical form if there had been no free sectors
              between the two partitions.

       o      Omit a partition. Once omitted, the partition will  still  appear  in  the  fixpart
              partition  list, but it will be flagged as omitted. You can subsequently convert it
              to primary or logical form with the r or l commands, respectively.  When  you  save
              your changes with w, though, the partition will be lost.

       p      Display  basic  partition  summary  data.  This  includes  partition's  number, the
              boot/active    flag's    status,    starting    and    ending    sector    numbers,
              primary/logical/omitted  status,  whether  or not the partition may be converted to
              logical form, and the partition's MBR types code.

       q      Quit from the program without saving your changes.  Use this  option  if  you  just
              wanted  to  view  information  or if you make a mistake and want to back out of all
              your changes.

       r      Change a partition's status to primary. This option will only work if  the  current
              partition   layout   supports   such  a  change.  Note  that  every  partition  can
              theoretically become a primary partition, although in some  configurations,  making
              this  change  will  require omitting some partitions.  If fixparts refuses to allow
              changing a partition to primary, you  may  need  to  convert  other  partitions  to
              logical form or omit them entirely.

       s      Sort partition entries. This option orders partitions in the display to match their
              on-disk positions, which can make understanding the  disk  layout  easier  in  some
              cases.  This  option  has no effect on the ultimate ordering of logical partitions,
              which are sorted before being saved. The order of primary partitions in  the  final
              saved  partition  table  may  be affected by this option. In both cases, as already
              noted, the partition numbers displayed by fixparts may not be  the  same  as  those
              used by the kernel or displayed by other partitioning tools.

       t      Change  a  partition's  type  code.  You  enter  the  type  code  using  a one-byte
              hexadecimal number.

       w      Write data. Use this command to save your changes and exit from the program.

       ?      Print the menu. Type this command (or any other  unrecognized  command)  to  see  a
              summary of available options.

BUGS

       As  of  September 2011 (version 0.8.1), fixparts should be considered beta software. Known
       bugs and limitations include:

       *      The program compiles correctly only on Linux,  FreeBSD,  Mac  OS  X,  and  Windows.
              Linux  versions  for  x86-64 (64-bit), x86 (32-bit), and PowerPC (32-bit) have been
              tested, with the x86-64 version having seen the most testing. Under FreeBSD, 32-bit
              (x86)  and  64-bit (x86-64) versions have been tested. Only 32-bit versions for Mac
              OS X and Windows have been tested.

       *      The FreeBSD version of the program can't write changes to the partition table to  a
              disk  when  existing  partitions on that disk are mounted. (The same problem exists
              with many other FreeBSD utilities, such as gpt, fdisk, and dd.) This limitation can
              be overcome by typing sysctl kern.geom.debugflags=16 at a shell prompt.

       *      The  program  can  load  only  up  to  128 partitions (4 primary partitions and 124
              logical partitions). This limit can be raised by changing the #define MAX_MBR_PARTS
              line in the basicmbr.h source code file and recompiling.

       *      The  program  can  read  partitions  only  if  the  disk  has correct LBA partition
              descriptors. These descriptors should be present on any disk over 8 GiB in size  or
              on smaller disks partitioned with any but very ancient software.

       *      The  program  makes  no  effort  to  preserve  partition  numbers.  This  can  have
              consequences for boot loaders and for mounting filesystems via /etc/fstab.  It  may
              be necessary to edit configuration files or even to re-install your boot loader.

       *

              The program may change the order of partitions in the partition table.

AUTHORS

       Primary author: Roderick W. Smith (rodsmith@rodsbooks.com)

       Contributors:

       * Yves Blusseau (1otnwmz02@sneakemail.com)

       * David Hubbard (david.c.hubbard@gmail.com)

       * Justin Maggard (justin.maggard@netgear.com)

       * Dwight Schauer (dschauer@ti.com)

       * Florian Zumbiehl (florz@florz.de)

SEE ALSO

       cfdisk (8), cgdisk (8), fdisk (8), mkfs (8), parted (8), sfdisk (8) gdisk (8) sgdisk (8)

       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record

       http://www.rodsbooks.com/fixparts/

AVAILABILITY

       The fixparts command is part of the GPT fdisk package and is available from Rod Smith.