Provided by: hdparm_9.37-0ubuntu3_i386 bug


       hdparm - get/set SATA/IDE device parameters


       hdparm [options] [device ...]


       hdparm  provides  a command line interface to various kernel interfaces
       supported by the Linux SATA/PATA/SAS "libata" subsystem and  the  older
       IDE driver subsystem.  Many newer (2008 and later) USB drive enclosures
       now also support "SAT" (SCSI-ATA Command Translation) and therefore may
       also  work  with  hdparm.   E.g. recent WD "Passport" models and recent
       NexStar-3 enclosures.  Some options may work correctly  only  with  the
       latest kernels.


       When  no  options  are  given,  -acdgkmur  is  assumed.   For "Get/set"
       options, a query without the optional parameter (e.g.  -d)  will  query
       (get)  the  device state, and with a parameter (e.g., -d0) will set the
       device state.

       -a     Get/set sector count for filesystem (software) read-ahead.  This
              is  used  to  improve  performance  in sequential reads of large
              files, by prefetching additional blocks in anticipation of  them
              being  needed  by the running task.  Many IDE drives also have a
              separate  built-in  read-ahead  function,  which  augments  this
              filesystem (software) read-ahead function.

       -A     Get/set  the  IDE  drive´s read-lookahead feature (usually ON by
              default).  Usage: -A0 (disable) or -A1 (enable).

       -b     Get/set bus state.

       -B     Get/set Advanced Power Management feature, if the drive supports
              it.  A  low  value  means aggressive power management and a high
              value means better performance.  Possible  settings  range  from
              values  1  through  127 (which permit spin-down), and values 128
              through 254 (which do not permit spin-down).  The highest degree
              of  power  management  is  attained with a setting of 1, and the
              highest I/O performance with a setting of 254.  A value  of  255
              tells  hdparm to disable Advanced Power Management altogether on
              the drive (not all drives support disabling it, but most do).

       -c     Get/set (E)IDE 32-bit I/O support.  A numeric parameter  can  be
              used  to enable/disable 32-bit I/O support.  Currently supported
              values include 0 to disable 32-bit  I/O  support,  1  to  enable
              32-bit  data  transfers,  and  3 to enable 32-bit data transfers
              with a special sync sequence required  by  many  chipsets.   The
              value  3  works  with nearly all 32-bit IDE chipsets, but incurs
              slightly more overhead.   Note  that  "32-bit"  refers  to  data
              transfers  across  a  PCI or VLB bus to the interface card only;
              all (E)IDE drives still have only a 16-bit connection  over  the
              ribbon cable from the interface card.

       -C     Check  the  current  IDE power mode status, which will always be
              one  of  unknown  (drive  does  not   support   this   command),
              active/idle  (normal  operation), standby (low power mode, drive
              has spun  down),  or  sleeping  (lowest  power  mode,  drive  is
              completely  shut  down).   The -S, -y, -Y, and -Z options can be
              used to manipulate the IDE power modes.

       -d     Get/set the "using_dma" flag for this drive.   This  option  now
              works  with most combinations of drives and PCI interfaces which
              support DMA and which are known to the kernel IDE driver.  It is
              also a good idea to use the appropriate -X option in combination
              with -d1 to ensure that the drive itself is programmed  for  the
              correct  DMA mode, although most BIOSs should do this for you at
              boot time.  Using DMA nearly always gives the best  performance,
              with  fast  I/O  throughput and low CPU usage.  But there are at
              least a few configurations of chipsets and drives for which  DMA
              does not make much of a difference, or may even slow things down
              (on really messed up hardware!).  Your mileage may vary.

              DCO stands for Device Configuration Overlay, a way  for  vendors
              to  selectively disable certain features of a drive.  The --dco-
              freeze option will freeze/lock the current drive  configuration,
              thereby  preventing  software (or malware) from changing any DCO
              settings until after the next power-on reset.

              Query  and  dump  information  regarding   drive   configuration
              settings  which  can be disabled by the vendor or OEM installer.
              These settings show capabilities of the  drive  which  might  be
              disabled  by  the  vendor  for  "enhanced  compatibility".  When
              disabled, they are otherwise hidden and will not show in the  -I
              identify  output.  For example, system vendors sometimes disable
              48_bit addressing on large drives, for compatibility  (and  loss
              of  capacity)  with  a  specific  BIOS.   In  such cases, --dco-
              identify will show that the drive is 48_bit capable, but -I will
              not show it, and nor will the drive accept 48_bit commands.

              Reset  all  drive  settings, features, and accessible capacities
              back to factory defaults and full  capabilities.   This  command
              will  fail  if  DCO  is  frozen/locked, or if a -Np maximum size
              restriction has also been set.  This is EXTREMELY DANGEROUS  and
              will  very  likely  cause massive loss of data.  DO NOT USE THIS

              Use the kernel´s "O_DIRECT" flag when  performing  a  -t  timing
              test.   This  bypasses  the  page cache, causing the reads to go
              directly from the drive into hdparm's buffers,  using  so-called
              "raw"  I/O.  In many cases, this can produce results that appear
              much faster than the usual page cache method,  giving  a  better
              indication of raw device and driver performance.

              VERY  DANGEROUS,  DON'T  EVEN THINK ABOUT USING IT.  This option
              causes hdparm to issue an IDENTIFY command to  the  kernel,  but
              incorrectly marked as a "non-data" command.  This results in the
              drive being left with its  DataReQust(DRQ)  line  "stuck"  high.
              This  confuses  the  kernel  drivers,  and  may crash the system
              immediately with massive data loss.  The option exists  to  help
              in  testing and fortifying the kernel against similar real-world
              drive malfunctions.  VERY DANGEROUS, DO NOT USE!!

       -D     Enable/disable the on-drive defect management  feature,  whereby
              the  drive  firmware  tries  to  automatically  manage defective
              sectors by relocating them to "spare" sectors  reserved  by  the
              factory  for such.  Control of this feature via the -D option is
              not supported for most modern  drives  since  ATA-4;  thus  this
              command may fail.

       -E     Set  cd/dvd  drive  speed.   This  is  NOT necessary for regular
              operation, as the drive will automatically switch speeds on  its
              own.   But  if  you  want  to  play with it, just supply a speed
              number after the option, usually a number like 2 or 4.  This can
              be  useful  in  some  cases,  though,  to  smooth  out DVD video

       -f     Sync and flush the buffer cache for the device  on  exit.   This
              operation  is also performed internally as part of the -t and -T
              timings and other options.

              This option currently works only  on  ext4  and  xfs  filesystem
              types.   When  used,  this  must  be  the only option given.  It
              requires two parameters: the desired  file  size  in  kilo-bytes
              (byte  count  divided by 1024), followed by the pathname for the
              new file.  It will create a new file of the specified size,  but
              without  actually  having  to  write any data to the file.  This
              will normally complete very quickly, and without  thrashing  the
              storage device.

              E.g. Create a 10KByte file: hdparm --fallocate 10 temp_file

              When  used,  this  must be the only option given.  It requires a
              file path as a parameter, and will print out a list of the block
              extents  (sector  ranges) occupied by that file on disk.  Sector
              numbers are given  as  absolute  LBA  numbers,  referenced  from
              sector  0  of the physical device rather than from the partition
              or filesystem.  This information can then be used for a  variety
              of  purposes,  such  as  examining the degree of fragmenation of
              larger files, or determining appropriate sectors to deliberately
              corrupt during fault-injection testing procedures.

              This  option  uses the new FIEMAP (file extent map) ioctl() when
              available, and falls back to the older FIBMAP (file  block  map)
              ioctl()  otherwise.   Note  that  FIBMAP  suffers  from a 32-bit
              block-number interface, and thus not work beyond  8TB  or  16TB.
              FIBMAP   is  also  very  slow,  and  does  not  deal  well  with
              preallocated uncommitted extents in ext4/xfs filesystems, unless
              a sync() is done before using this option.

              When  used, this should be the only option given.  It requires a
              file path immediately after the option, indicating where the new
              drive  firmware  should be read from.  The contents of this file
              will be sent to the drive using the  (S)ATA  DOWNLOAD  MICROCODE
              command, using either transfer protocol 7 (entire file at once),
              or, if the drive supports it,  transfer  protocol  3  (segmented
              download).   This  command  is  EXTREMELY  DANGEROUS  and  could
              destroy both the drive and all data on  it.   DO  NOT  USE  THIS
              COMMAND.   The --fwdownload-mode3 , --fwdownload-mode3-max , and
              --fwdownload-mode7  variations  on  basic   --fwdownload   allow
              overriding  automatic  protocol  detection  in favour of forcing
              hdparm to use a specific transfer protocol, for testing purposes

       -F     Flush  the  on-drive  write  cache  buffer (older drives may not
              implement this).

       -g     Display the drive geometry (cylinders, heads, sectors), the size
              (in sectors) of the device, and the starting offset (in sectors)
              of the device from the beginning of the drive.

       -h     Display terse usage information (help).

       -H     Read the temperature from some (mostly  Hitachi)  drives.   Also
              reports  if  the temperature is within operating condition range
              (this may not be reliable). Does not cause the drive to spin  up
              if idle.

       -i     Display  the  identification info which the kernel drivers (IDE,
              libata) have stored  from  boot/configuration  time.   This  may
              differ from the current information obtainable directly from the
              drive itself with the -I option.  The data returned may  or  may
              not  be current, depending on activity since booting the system.
              For a more detailed interpretation of the  identification  info,
              refer  to  AT  Attachment  Interface  for  Disk Drives, ANSI ASC
              X3T9.2 working  draft,  revision  4a,  April  19/93,  and  later

              Issue  an  ATA  IDLE_IMMEDIATE  command, to put the drive into a
              lower power state.  Usually the device remains spun-up.

              Issue an ATA IDLE_IMMEDIATE_WITH_UNLOAD command,  to  unload  or
              park  the  heads  and  put  the  drive into a lower power state.
              Usually the device remains spun-up.

       -I     Request identification info directly from the  drive,  which  is
              displayed in a new expanded format with considerably more detail
              than with the older -i option.

              This is a special variation on the -I option,  which  accepts  a
              drive  identification block as standard input instead of using a
              /dev/hd* parameter.  The format of this block  must  be  exactly
              the  same as that found in the /proc/ide/*/hd*/identify "files",
              or that produced by the --Istdout option described below.   This
              variation  is  designed  for  use  with collected "libraries" of
              drive identification information, and can also be used on  ATAPI
              drives  which may give media errors with the standard mechanism.
              When --Istdin is used, it must be the *only* parameter given.

              This option dumps the drive's identify data in hex to stdout, in
              a format similar to that from /proc/ide/*/identify, and suitable
              for later use with the --Istdin option.

       -k     Get/set the "keep_settings_over_reset" flag for the drive.  When
              this flag is set, the drive will preserve the -dmu settings over
              a soft reset, (as done  during  the  error  recovery  sequence).
              This  option defaults to off, to prevent drive reset loops which
              could be caused by combinations of -dmu settings.  The -k option
              should  therefore  only be set after one has achieved confidence
              in correct system operation with a chosen set  of  configuration
              settings.   In practice, all that is typically necessary to test
              a configuration (prior to using -k) is to verify that the  drive
              can  be  read/written,  and that no error logs (kernel messages)
              are generated in the process (look in /var/adm/messages on  most

       -K     Set  the  drive´s "keep_features_over_reset" flag.  Setting this
              enables the drive to retain the settings for -APSWXZ over a soft
              reset  (as  done  during  the error recovery sequence).  Not all
              drives support this feature.

       -L     Set the drive´s doorlock flag.  Setting this to 1 will lock  the
              door mechanism of some removable hard drives (e.g. Syquest, ZIP,
              Jazz..), and setting it to 0 will  unlock  the  door  mechanism.
              Normally,   Linux   maintains   the   door   locking   mechanism
              automatically, depending  on  drive  usage  (locked  whenever  a
              filesystem  is  mounted).  But on system shutdown, this can be a
              nuisance if the root partition is on a removable disk, since the
              root  partition is left mounted (read-only) after shutdown.  So,
              by using  this  command  to  unlock  the  door  after  the  root
              filesystem  is  remounted  read-only,  one  can  then remove the
              cartridge from the drive after shutdown.

       -m     Get/set sector count for multiple sector I/O on  the  drive.   A
              setting  of  0 disables this feature.  Multiple sector mode (aka
              IDE Block Mode), is a feature of most modern  IDE  hard  drives,
              permitting  the  transfer of multiple sectors per I/O interrupt,
              rather than the usual  one  sector  per  interrupt.   When  this
              feature  is  enabled,  it  typically  reduces  operating  system
              overhead for disk I/O by  30-50%.   On  many  systems,  it  also
              provides  increased  data throughput of anywhere from 5% to 50%.
              Some drives, however (most notably the WD Caviar  series),  seem
              to  run  slower  with  multiple  mode enabled.  Your mileage may
              vary.  Most drives support the minimum settings of 2, 4,  8,  or
              16  (sectors).   Larger settings may also be possible, depending
              on the drive.  A setting of 16  or  32  seems  optimal  on  many
              systems.  Western Digital recommends lower settings of 4 to 8 on
              many of their drives, due tiny (32kB)  drive  buffers  and  non-
              optimized  buffering  algorithms.   The -i option can be used to
              find the maximum setting supported by an installed  drive  (look
              for  MaxMultSect  in  the output).  Some drives claim to support
              multiple mode, but lose  data  at  some  settings.   Under  rare
              circumstances,  such  failures  can result in massive filesystem

              Deliberately create a bad sector (aka.  "media  error")  on  the
              can  be  useful  for  testing  of  device/RAID  error   recovery
              mechanisms.   The sector number is given as a (base10) parameter
              after the option.  Depending on the device, hdparm  will  choose
              one of two possible ATA commands for corrupting the sector.  The
              WRITE_LONG works on most drives,  but  only  up  to  the  28-bit
              sector boundary.  Some very recent drives (2008) may support the
              new WRITE_UNCORRECTABLE_EXT command, which works for  any  LBA48
              sector.   If  available,  hdparm  will use that in preference to
              WRITE_LONG.  The WRITE_UNCORRECTABLE_EXT command itself presents
              a  choice  of how the new bad sector should behave.  By default,
              it will look like any other bad sector, and the drive  may  take
              some  time  to retry and fail on subsequent READs of the sector.
              However, if a single letter f is prepended immediately in  front
              of  the  first digit of the sector number parameter, then hdparm
              will issue a "flagged" WRITE_UNCORRECTABLE_EXT, which causes the
              drive  to  merely  flag the sector as bad (rather than genuinely
              corrupt it), and  subsequent  READs  of  the  sector  will  fail
              immediately (rather than after several retries).  Note also that
              the --repair-sector option can be  used  to  restore  (any)  bad
              sectors  when  they are no longer needed, including sectors that
              were genuinely bad (the drive will likely remap those to a fresh
              area on the media).

       -M     Get/set Automatic Acoustic Management (AAM) setting. Most modern
              harddisk  drives  have  the  ability  to  speed  down  the  head
              movements to reduce their noise output.  The possible values are
              between 0 and 254. 128 is the most quiet (and therefore slowest)
              setting and 254 the fastest (and loudest). Some drives have only
              two levels (quiet /  fast),  while  others  may  have  different
              levels  between  128  and  254.  At the moment, most drives only
              support 3 options,  off,  quiet,  and  fast.   These  have  been
              assigned  the  values  0, 128, and 254 at present, respectively,
              but integer space has been incorporated  for  future  expansion,
              should this change.

       -n     Get or set the "ignore_write_errors" flag in the driver.  Do NOT
              play with this without grokking the driver source code first.

       -N     Get/set max visible number of sectors, also known  as  the  Host
              Protected  Area  setting.   Without a parameter, -N displays the
              current setting, which is reported  as  two  values:  the  first
              gives  the current max sectors setting, and the second shows the
              native (real) hardware  limit  for  the  disk.   The  difference
              between  these two values indicates how many sectors of the disk
              are currently hidden from the operating system, in the form of a
              Host  Protected Area (HPA).  This area is often used by computer
              makers to  hold  diagnostic  software,  and/or  a  copy  of  the
              originally  provided  operating  system  for  recovery purposes.
              Another possible use is to hide the  true  capacity  of  a  very
              large  disk  from  a  BIOS/system that cannot normally cope with
              drives of that size (eg. most current {2010} BIOSs  cannot  deal
              with  drives larger than 2TB, so an HPA could be used to cause a
              3TB drive to report itself as  a  2TB  drive).   To  change  the
              current  max  (VERY DANGEROUS, DATA LOSS IS EXTREMELY LIKELY), a
              new value should be provided (in base10)  immediately  following
              the  -N  option.  This value is specified as a count of sectors,
              rather than the "max sector address" of the drive.  Drives  have
              the  concept  of a temporary (volatile) setting which is lost on
              the next hardware reset, as  well  as  a  more  permanent  (non-
              volatile)  value  which  survives  resets  and power cycles.  By
              default, -N affects only the temporary (volatile)  setting.   To
              change  the  permanent (non-volatile) value, prepend a leading p
              character immediately before  the  first  digit  of  the  value.
              Drives  are supposed to allow only a single permanent change per
              session.  A hardware reset (or power cycle) is  required  before
              another  permanent  -N  operation  can  succeed.   Note that any
              attempt to set this value may fail if the disk is being accessed
              by other software at the same time.  This is because setting the
              value requires a pair of back-to-back drive commands, but  there
              is  no  way  to  prevent  some other command from being inserted
              between them by the kernel.  So if it fails initially, just  try
              again.   Kernel  support  for -N is buggy for many adapter types
              across many kernel versions, in that an  incorrect  (too  small)
              max  size value is sometimes reported.  As of the 2.6.27 kernel,
              this does finally seem to be working on most hardware.

              Offsets to given number of GiB (1024*1024*1024) when  performing
              -t  timings  of device reads.  Speed changes (about twice) along
              many  mechanical  drives.   Usually  the  maximum  is   at   the
              beginning,  but  not  always.   Solid-state drives (SSDs) should
              show similar timings regardless of offset.

       -p     Attempt to reprogram the IDE interface chipset for the specified
              PIO  mode,  or  attempt  to  auto-tune  for  the "best" PIO mode
              supported by the drive.  This feature is supported in the kernel
              for  only  a  few "known" chipsets, and even then the support is
              iffy at best.  Some IDE chipsets are unable  to  alter  the  PIO
              mode for a single drive, in which case this option may cause the
              PIO mode for both drives to be set.  Many IDE  chipsets  support
              either  fewer  or more than the standard six (0 to 5) PIO modes,
              so the exact speed setting that  is  actually  implemented  will
              vary   by   chipset/driver  sophistication.   Use  with  extreme
              caution!  This feature includes zero protection for the  unwary,
              and  an  unsuccessful  outcome  may  result in severe filesystem

       -P     Set the maximum sector count for the drive´s  internal  prefetch
              mechanism.   Not  all  drives  support  this feature, and it was
              dropped from the offical spec as of ATA-4.

              When using the  SAT  (SCSI  ATA  Translation)  protocol,  hdparm
              normally  prefers  to  use  the  16-byte command format whenever
              possible.  But some USB drive enclosures  don't  work  correctly
              with  16-byte commands.  This option can be used to force use of
              the smaller 12-byte command format  with  such  drives.   hdparm
              will  still revert to 16-byte commands for things that cannot be
              done with  the  12-byte  format  (e.g.  sector  accesses  beyond

       -q     Handle  the  next option quietly, suppressing normal output (but
              not error messages).  This is useful for reducing screen clutter
              when running from system startup scripts.  Not applicable to the
              -i or -v or -t or -T options.

       -Q     Get or set the device's command queue_depth, if supported by the
              hardware.   This  only works with 2.6.xx (or later) kernels, and
              only with device and driver combinations which support  changing
              the  queue_depth.   For  SATA  disks, this is the Native Command
              Queuing (NCQ) queue depth.

       -r     Get/set  read-only  flag  for  the  device.   When  set,   Linux
              disallows write operations on the device.

              Reads  from  the specified sector number, and dumps the contents
              in hex to standard output.  The  sector  number  must  be  given
              (base10)  after this option.  hdparm will issue a low-level read
              (completely  bypassing  the   usual   block   layer   read/write
              mechanisms)  for  the  specified  sector.   This  can be used to
              definitively check whether a given sector is bad  (media  error)
              or not (doing so through the usual mechanisms can sometimes give
              false positives).

              This is an alias for the --write-sector option.  VERY DANGEROUS.

       -s     Enable/disable the power-on in standby feature, if supported  by
              the   drive.   VERY  DANGEROUS.   Do  not  use  unless  you  are
              absolutely certain that both the system BIOS (or  firmware)  and
              the  operating  system  kernel (Linux >= 2.6.22) support probing
              for drives that use this feature.  When enabled,  the  drive  is
              powered-up  in  the  standby  mode  to  allow  the controller to
              sequence the spin-up  of  devices,  reducing  the  instantaneous
              current  draw  burden  when  many  drives  share a power supply.
              Primarily for use in large RAID setups.  This feature is usually
              disabled  and the drive is powered-up in the active mode (see -C
              above).  Note that a drive may also allow enabling this  feature
              by  a  jumper.   Some  SATA  drives  support the control of this
              feature by pin 11 of the SATA power connector. In  these  cases,
              this command may be unsupported or may have no effect.

       -S     Put  the  drive  into  idle  (low-power)  mode, and also set the
              standby (spindown) timeout for the drive.  This timeout value is
              used  by  the  drive to determine how long to wait (with no disk
              activity) before turning off the spindle motor  to  save  power.
              Under  such  circumstances,  the  drive  may  take as long as 30
              seconds to respond to a  subsequent  disk  access,  though  most
              drives  are  much quicker.  The encoding of the timeout value is
              somewhat  peculiar.   A  value  of  zero  means  "timeouts   are
              disabled": the device will not automatically enter standby mode.
              Values from 1 to 240 specify multiples of  5  seconds,  yielding
              timeouts  from  5 seconds to 20 minutes.  Values from 241 to 251
              specify from 1 to 11 units of 30 minutes, yielding timeouts from
              30  minutes to 5.5 hours.  A value of 252 signifies a timeout of
              21 minutes. A value of 253 sets a vendor-defined timeout  period
              between  8  and 12 hours, and the value 254 is reserved.  255 is
              interpreted as 21 minutes plus 15 seconds.  Note that some older
              drives may have very different interpretations of these values.

       -t     Perform  timings  of  device  reads for benchmark and comparison
              purposes.  For meaningful  results,  this  operation  should  be
              repeated  2-3  times  on  an otherwise inactive system (no other
              active processes) with at least a couple of  megabytes  of  free
              memory.   This  displays the speed of reading through the buffer
              cache to the disk without  any  prior  caching  of  data.   This
              measurement  is  an indication of how fast the drive can sustain
              sequential  data  reads  under  Linux,  without  any  filesystem
              overhead.   To ensure accurate measurements, the buffer cache is
              flushed during the processing of -t using the BLKFLSBUF ioctl.

       -T     Perform timings of cache  reads  for  benchmark  and  comparison
              purposes.   For  meaningful  results,  this  operation should be
              repeated 2-3 times on an otherwise  inactive  system  (no  other
              active  processes)  with  at least a couple of megabytes of free
              memory.  This displays the speed of reading  directly  from  the
              Linux  buffer  cache  without  disk access.  This measurement is
              essentially an indication of the throughput  of  the  processor,
              cache, and memory of the system under test.

              For  Solid State Drives (SSDs).  EXCEPTIONALLY DANGEROUS. DO NOT
              USE THIS OPTION!!  Tells the drive firmware to discard  unneeded
              data  sectors,  destroying  any  data that may have been present
              within them.  This makes those sectors available  for  immediate
              use  by  the firmware's garbage collection mechanism, to improve
              scheduling for wear-leveling of the flash  media.   This  option
              expects  one  or  more  sector range pairs immediately after the
              option: an LBA starting address, a colon,  and  a  sector  count
              (max   65535),   with   no  intervening  spaces.   EXCEPTIONALLY

              E.g.  hdparm --trim-sector-ranges 1000:4 7894:16 /dev/sdz

              Identical to --trim-sector-ranges  above,  except  the  list  of
              lba:count  pairs  is read from stdin rather than being specified
              on the command line.  This can be used to  avoid  problems  with
              excessively  long  command  lines.   It also permits batching of
              many more sector ranges into single commands to the drive, up to
              the currently configured transfer limit (max_sectors_kb).

       -u     Get/set the interrupt-unmask flag for the drive.  A setting of 1
              permits the driver to unmask other interrupts during  processing
              of   a   disk   interrupt,   which   greatly   improves  Linux´s
              responsiveness and eliminates "serial port overrun" errors.  Use
              this feature with caution: some drive/controller combinations do
              not tolerate the increased  I/O  latencies  possible  when  this
              feature  is enabled, resulting in massive filesystem corruption.
              In particular, CMD-640B and  RZ1000  (E)IDE  interfaces  can  be
              unreliable  (due  to  a  hardware flaw) when this option is used
              with kernel versions earlier than  2.0.13.   Disabling  the  IDE
              prefetch  feature  of  these  interfaces  (usually  a  BIOS/CMOS
              setting) provides a safe  fix  for  the  problem  for  use  with
              earlier kernels.

       -v     Display some basic settings, similar to -acdgkmur for IDE.  This
              is also the default behaviour when no options are specified.

              Display extra diagnostics from some commands.

       -w     Perform a device reset (DANGEROUS).  Do NOT use this option.  It
              exists for unlikely situations where a reboot might otherwise be
              required to get a confused drive back into a useable state.

              Writes zeros to the specified sector  number.   VERY  DANGEROUS.
              The  sector  number  must  be  given (base10) after this option.
              hdparm will issue a low-level write  (completely  bypassing  the
              usual  block  layer  read/write  mechanisms)  to  the  specified
              sector.  This can be used to force  a  drive  to  repair  a  bad
              sector (media error).

       -W     Get/set the IDE/SATA drive´s write-caching feature.

       -X     Set  the  IDE  transfer  mode  for  (E)IDE/ATA  drives.  This is
              typically used in combination with -d1 when enabling DMA to/from
              a drive on a supported interface chipset, where -X mdma2 is used
              to select multiword DMA mode2 transfers and -X sdma1 is used  to
              select  simple mode 1 DMA transfers.  With systems which support
              UltraDMA burst timings, -X udma2  is  used  to  select  UltraDMA
              mode2 transfers (you´ll need to prepare the chipset for UltraDMA
              beforehand).  Apart from that, use  of  this  option  is  seldom
              necessary  since  most/all  modern  IDE  drives default to their
              fastest PIO transfer mode at power-on.  Fiddling with  this  can
              be  both  needless and risky.  On drives which support alternate
              transfer modes, -X can be used to switch the mode of  the  drive
              only.   Prior  to  changing the transfer mode, the IDE interface
              should be jumpered or programmed (see -p  option)  for  the  new
              mode  setting  to  prevent  loss and/or corruption of data.  Use
              this  with   extreme   caution!    For   the   PIO   (Programmed
              Input/Output) transfer modes used by Linux, this value is simply
              the desired PIO mode number plus 8.  Thus, a value  of  09  sets
              PIO  mode1,  10  enables  PIO  mode2,  and 11 selects PIO mode3.
              Setting 00 restores the  drive´s  "default"  PIO  mode,  and  01
              disables  IORDY.   For  multiword  DMA,  the  value  used is the
              desired DMA mode number plus 32.  for UltraDMA, the value is the
              desired UltraDMA mode number plus 64.

       -y     Force   an   IDE  drive  to  immediately  enter  the  low  power
              consumption standby mode, usually causing it to spin down.   The
              current power mode status can be checked using the -C option.

       -Y     Force  an  IDE  drive  to  immediately  enter  the  lowest power
              consumption sleep mode, causing it to shut down  completely.   A
              hard  or soft reset is required before the drive can be accessed
              again (the Linux IDE driver will automatically handle issuing  a
              reset  if/when  needed).   The  current power mode status can be
              checked using the -C option.

       -z     Force a kernel re-read of the partition table of  the  specified

       -Z     Disable  the  automatic power-saving function of certain Seagate
              drives (ST3xxx models?), to prevent them  from  idling/spinning-
              down at inconvenient times.

       ATA Security Feature Set

       These  switches  are  DANGEROUS  to experiment with, and might not work
       with some kernels.  USE AT YOUR OWN RISK.

              Display terse usage info for all of the --security-* options.

              Freeze the drive´s security settings.  The drive does not accept
              any  security  commands  until  next  power-on  reset.  Use this
              function in combination with --security-unlock to protect  drive
              from  any attempt to set a new password. Can be used standalone,
              too.  No other options are permitted on the  command  line  with
              this one.

       --security-unlock PWD
              Unlock  the  drive, using password PWD.  Password is given as an
              ASCII string and is padded with NULs to  reach  32  bytes.   The
              applicable  drive  password  is  selected with the --user-master
              switch (default is  "user"  password).   No  other  options  are
              permitted on the command line with this one.

       --security-set-pass PWD
              Lock  the  drive, using password PWD (Set Password) (DANGEROUS).
              Password is given as an ASCII string and is padded with NULs  to
              reach  32  bytes.  Use the special password NULL to set an empty
              password.  The applicable drive password is  selected  with  the
              --user-master  switch  (default  is  "user"  password)  and  the
              applicable security mode with the  --security-mode  switch.   No
              other options are permitted on the command line with this one.

       --security-disable PWD
              Disable drive locking, using password PWD.  Password is given as
              an ASCII string and is padded with NULs to reach 32 bytes.   The
              applicable  drive  password  is  selected with the --user-master
              switch (default is  "user"  password).   No  other  options  are
              permitted on the command line with this one.

       --security-erase PWD
              Erase  (locked) drive, using password PWD (DANGEROUS).  Password
              is given as an ASCII string and is padded with NULs to reach  32
              bytes.   Use  the  special  password  NULL to represent an empty
              password.  The applicable drive password is  selected  with  the
              --user-master  switch  (default  is  "user" password).  No other
              options are permitted on the command line with this one.

       --security-erase-enhanced PWD
              Enhanced erase (locked) drive, using password  PWD  (DANGEROUS).
              Password  is given as an ASCII string and is padded with NULs to
              reach 32 bytes.  The applicable drive password is selected  with
              the --user-master switch (default is "user" password).  No other
              options are permitted on the command line with this one.

       --user-master USER
              Specifies which password (user/master) to select.   Defaults  to
              user  password.   Only  useful  in  combination with --security-
              unlock,  --security-set-pass,  --security-disable,   --security-
              erase or --security-erase-enhanced.
                      u       user password
                      m       master password

       --security-mode MODE
              Specifies  which  security mode (high/maximum) to set.  Defaults
              to high.  Only useful in combination with --security-set-pass.
                      h       high security
                      m       maximum security

              OWN RISK.




       As  noted  above, the -m sectcount and -u 1 options should be used with
       caution at first, preferably on a read-only  filesystem.   Most  drives
       work  well with these features, but a few drive/controller combinations
       are not 100% compatible.  Filesystem  corruption  may  result.   Backup
       everything before experimenting!

       Some  options  (e.g.  -r  for  SCSI)  may  not work with old kernels as
       necessary ioctl()´s were not supported.

       Although this utility is intended primarily for use with SATA/IDE  hard
       disk devices, several of the options are also valid (and permitted) for
       use with SCSI  hard  disk  devices  and  MFM/RLL  hard  disks  with  XT

       The  Linux  kernel  up until 2.6.12 (and probably later) doesn´t handle
       the security unlock and disable commands gracefully and  will  segfault
       and  in  some  cases  even  panic.  The security commands however might
       indeed have been executed by the  drive.  This  poor  kernel  behaviour
       makes the PIO data security commands rather useless at the moment.

       Note  that  the  "security  erase" and "security disable" commands have
       been implemented as two consecutive PIO  data  commands  and  will  not
       succeed on a locked drive because the second command will not be issued
       after the segfault.  See the code for hints how patch it to work around
       this  problem.  Despite  the segfault it is often still possible to run
       two instances of hdparm  consecutively  and  issue  the  two  necessary
       commands that way.


       hdparm  has  been  written by Mark Lord <>, the original
       primary developer and maintainer of the (E)IDE driver  for  Linux,  and
       current contributer to the libata subsystem, along with suggestions and
       patches from many netfolk.

       The  disable  Seagate  auto-powersaving  code  is  courtesy   of   Tomi

       Security freeze command by Benjamin Benz, 2005.

       PIO  data  out security commands by Leonard den Ottolander, 2005.  Some
       other parts by Benjamin Benz and others.

SEE ALSO Technical Committee T13 AT  Attachment  (ATA/ATAPI)
       Interface. Serial ATA International Organization. CompactFlash Association.