Provided by: maradns_2.0.04+really1.4.09-1_amd64 bug

NAME

       maradns - DNS server

SYNOPSIS

       maradns [ -v | -f mararc_file_location ]

TABLE OF CONTENTS

       This man page has the following sections:

           Name
           Synopsis
           Table of Contents
           Description
           Usage
           Firewall Configuration
           Frequently Asked Questions
           Bugs
           Unimplemented Features
           Legal Disclaimer
           Authors

DESCRIPTION

       maradns is a DNS server written with security, simplicity, and performance in mind.

       maradns has two forms of arguments, both of which are optional.

       The first is the location of a mararc file which MaraDNS obtains all configuration
       information from.  The default location of this file is /etc/mararc.  This is specified in
       the form maradns -f mararc_file_location; mararc_file_location is the location of the
       mararc file.

       It is also possible to have MaraDNS display the version number and exit. This is specified
       by invoking maradns in the form maradns -v or maradns --version

USAGE

       If MaraDNS is functioning only as a recursive nameserver, just one file needs to be set
       up: The mararc file.

       In order for MaraDNS to function as an authoritative nameserver, two or more files need to
       be set up: the mararc file and one or more "csv2" (or "csv1") zone files.

       The format of a csv2 zone file can be obtained from the csv2(5) manual page. The
       configuration format of the mararc file can be obtained from the mararc(5) manual page.

       In order to have MaraDNS run as a daemon, the duende program is used to daemonize MaraDNS.
       See the duende(8) manual page for details.

FIREWALL CONFIGURATION

       If MaraDNS is being used as an authoritative nameserver, allow UDP connections from all
       hosts on the internet to UDP port 53 for the IP that the authoritative nameserver uses.

       If MaraDNS is being used as a recursive nameserver, the firewall needs to allow the
       following packets to go to and from the IP the recursive nameserver uses:

       * Allow UDP connections from the MaraDNS-running server to any machine on the internet
         where the UDP destination port is 53

       * Allow UDP connections from any machine on the internet to the IP of the recursive
         server, where the source port from the remote server is 53, and the destination port is
         between 15000 and 19095 (inclusive)

       * Allow UDP connections from IPs that use MaraDNS as a recursive DNS server to port 53 of
         the MaraDNS server

       MaraDNS uses a strong secure RNG for both the query (16 bits of entropy) and the source
       port of the query (12 bits of entropy). This makes spoofing replies to a MaraDNS server
       more difficult, since the attacker has only a one in 250 million chance that a given
       spoofed reply will be considered valid.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

    INDEX

           1. I'm using an older version of MaraDNS

           2. How do I try out MaraDNS?

           3. What license is MaraDNS released under?

           4. How do I report bugs in MaraDNS?

           5. Some of the postings to the mailing list do not talk about MaraDNS!

           6. How do I get off the mailing list?

           7. How do I set up reverse DNS on MaraDNS?

           8. I am on a slow network, and MaraDNS can not process recursive queries

           9. When I try to run MaraDNS, I get a cryptic error message.

           10. After I start MaraDNS, I can not see the process when I run netstat -na

           11. What string library does MaraDNS use?

           12. Why does MaraDNS use a multi-threaded model?

           13. I feel that XXX feature should be added to MaraDNS

           14. I feel that MaraDNS should use another documentation format

           15. Is there any process I need to follow to add a patch to MaraDNS?

           16. Can MaraDNS act as a primary nameserver?

           17. Can MaraDNS act as a secondary nameserver?

           18. What is the difference between an authoritative and a recursive DNS server?

           19. The getzone client isn't allowing me to add certain hostnames to my zone

           20. Is MaraDNS portable?

           21. Can I use MaraDNS in Windows?

           22. MaraDNS freezes up after being used for a while

           23. What kind of Python integration does MaraDNS have

           24. Doesn't "kvar" mean "four" in Esperanto?

           25. How scalable is MaraDNS?

           26. I am having problems setting upstream_servers

           27. Why doesn't the MaraDNS.org web page validate?

           28. How do MX records work?

           29. Does MaraDNS have support for SPF?

           30. I'm having problems resolving CNAMES I have set up.

           31. I have a NS delegation, and MaraDNS is doing strange things.

           32. I am transferring a zone from another server, but the NS records are these strange
           "synth-ip" records.

           33. Where is the root.hints file?

           34. Are there any plans to use autoconf to build MaraDNS?

           35. How do I change the compiler or compile-time flags with MaraDNS' build process?

           36. Will you make a package for the particular Linux distribution I am using?

           37. I am using the native Windows port of MaraDNS, and some features are not working.

           38. MaraDNS isn't starting up

           39. You make a lot of releases of MaraDNS; at our ISP/IT department, updating software
           is non-trivial.

           40. I have star records in my zones, and am having problems with NXDOMAINs/IPV6
           resolution

           41. I have a zone with only SOA/NS records, and the zone is not working.

           42. I am having problems registering my domain with AFNIC (the registrar for .fr
           domains)

           43. I can't see the full answers for subdomains I have delegated

           44. MaraDNS 1 has a problem resolving a domain

           45. MaraDNS 1.2 has issues with NXDOMAINS and case sensitivity.

           46. Can MaraDNS offer protection from phishing and malicious sites?

           47. Does maradns support star (wildcard) records?

           48. I'm having problems using MaraDNS with some *NIX command line applications like
           telnet

           49. My virus scanner reports that MaraDNS or Deadwood has a virus

           50. I can not subscribe to the MaraDNS mailing list

           51. How does MaraDNS respond to EDNS (RFC2671) packets?

           52. How to I get MaraDNS to always give the same IP to all DNS queries?

    ANSWERS

    1. I'm using an older version of MaraDNS

       Upgrade to MaraDNS 1.4. MaraDNS 1.4 is compatible with older versions of MaraDNS, with the
       relatively few changes need to upgrade documented.

       MaraDNS 1.0 and 1.2 are only supported for critical security updates, and will no longer
       be supported on December 21, 2010. MaraDNS 1.3 is also only supported for critical
       security updates, and support will stop on December 21, 2012. MaraDNS 1.4 will be fully
       supported (security and other important bug fixes) for the foreseeable future, alongside
       MaraDNS 2.0 when and if it comes out.

    2. How do I try out MaraDNS?

       Read the quick start guide, which is the file named 0QuickStart in the MaraDNS
       distribution.

    3. What license is MaraDNS released under?

       MaraDNS 1.2 is released with the following two-clause BSD-type license:

           Copyright (c) 2002-2009 Sam Trenholme and others

           TERMS

           Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are
           permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

           1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of
           conditions and the following disclaimer.

           2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list
           of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
           provided with the distribution.

           This software is provided 'as is' with no guarantees of correctness or fitness for
           purpose.

    4. How do I report bugs in MaraDNS?

       Send an email to the MaraDNS mailing list. Details on how to do this are at
       http://www.maradns.org/

    5. Some of the postings to the mailing list do not talk about MaraDNS!

       Topic drift sometimes happens. It's a part of life.

    6. How do I get off the mailing list?

       Send an email to list-request@maradns.org with "unsubscribe" as the subject line.

    7. How do I set up reverse DNS on MaraDNS?

       Reverse DNS (sometimes called "reverse mapping") is set up by using PTR (pointer) records.
       For example, the PTR record which performs the reverse DNS lookup for the ip 10.2.3.4
       looks like this in a CSV2 zone file:

           4.3.2.10.in-addr.arpa. PTR www.example.com.

       It is also possible to use a special "FQDN4" which automatically sets up the reverse
       mapping of a given record:

           www.example.com. FQDN4 10.2.3.4

       If you wish to have a PTR (reverse DNS lookup; getting a DNS name from a numeric IP)
       record work on the internet at large, it is not a simple matter of just adding a record
       like this to a MaraDNS zonefile. One also needs control of the appropriate in-addr.arpa.
       domain.

       While it can make logical sense to contact the IP 10.11.12.13 when trying to get the
       reverse DNS lookup (fully qualified domain name) for a given IP, DNS servers don't do
       this. DNS server, instead, contact the root DNS servers for a given in-addr.arpa name to
       get the reverse DNS lookup, just like they do with any other record type.

       When an internet service provider is given a block of IPs, they are also given control of
       the DNS zones which allow them to control reverse DNS lookups for those IPs. While it is
       possible to obtain a domain and run a DNS server without the knowledge or intervention of
       an ISP, being able to control reverse DNS lookups for those IPs requires ISP intervention.

    8. I am on a slow network, and MaraDNS can not process recursive queries

       MaraDNS, by default, only waits two seconds for a reply from a remote DNS server. This
       default can be increased by adding a line like this in the mararc file:

           timeout_seconds = 5

       Note that making this too high will slow MaraDNS down when DNS servers are down, which is,
       alas, all too common on today's internet.

    9. When I try to run MaraDNS, I get a cryptic error message.

       There is usually some context of where there is a syntax error in a data file before the
       cryptic error message. For example, when there is a syntax error in a csv2 zone file,
       MaraDNS will tell you exactly at what point it had to terminate parsing of the zone file.

       If MaraDNS does return a cryptic error message without letting you know what is wrong, let
       us know on the mailing list so that we can fix the bug. MaraDNS is designed to be easy to
       use; cryptic error messages go against this spirit.

    10. After I start MaraDNS, I can not see the process when I run netstat -na

       Udp services do not have a prominent "LISTEN" when netstat is run.

       When MaraDNS is up, the relevant line in the netstat output looks like this: udp 0 0
       127.0.0.1:53 0.0.0.0:*

       While on the topic of netstat, if you run netstat -nap as root on Linux and some other
       *nix operating systems, you can see the names of the processes which are providing
       internet services.

    11. What string library does MaraDNS use?

       MaraDNS uses its own string library, which is called the "js_string" library. Man pages
       for most of the functions in the js_string library are in the folder doc/man of the
       MaraDNS distribution

    12. Why does MaraDNS use a multi-threaded model?

       The multi-threaded model is, plain and simple, the simplest way to write a functioning
       recursive DNS server. There is a reason why MaraDNS, pdnsd, and BIND 9 all use the multi-
       threaded model.

       MaraDNS 2.0, when and if it is released, will not use threads.

    13. I feel that XXX feature should be added to MaraDNS

       The only thing that will convince me to implement a given feature for MaraDNS is cold,
       hard cash. If you want me to keep a given feature proprietary, you better have lots of
       cold hard cash.

       The only feature I will implement for free is to finish up full recursion in Deadwood,
       including IPv6 support. I have no plans to implement DNS curve, nor DNSsec, Geo IP, or
       whatever feature you want me to implement for fun and for free.

       Keep in mind that both the BIND and NSD name servers were developed by having the
       programmers paid to work on the programs.  PowerDNS was originally commercial software
       with the author only reluctantly made GPL after seeing that the market for a commercial
       DNS server is very small. All of the other DNS servers which have been developed as
       hobbyist projects (Posadis, Pdnsd, and djbdns) are no longer being actively worked on by
       the primary developer.

    14. I feel that MaraDNS should use another documentation format

       The reason that MaraDNS uses its own documentation format is to satisfy both the needs of
       translators to have a unified document format and my own need to use a documentation
       format that is simple enough to be readily understood and which I can add features on an
       as needed basis.

       The documentation format is essentially simplified HTML with some special tags added to
       meet MaraDNS' special needs.

       This gives me more flexibility to adapt the documentation format to changing needs. For
       example, when someone pointed out that it's not a good idea to have man pages with hi-bit
       characters, it was a simple matter to add a new HIBIT tag which allows man pages to be
       without hi-bit characters, and other document formats to retain hi-bit characters.

       Having a given program have its own documentation format is not without precedent; Perl
       uses its own "pod" documentation format.

    15. Is there any process I need to follow to add a patch to MaraDNS?

       Yes.

       Here is the procedure for making a proper patch:

       * Enter the directory that the file is in, for example maradns-1.4.01/server

       * Copy over the file that you wish to modify to another file name. For example: cp
         MaraDNS.c MaraDNS.c.orig

       * Edit the file in question, e.g: vi MaraDNS.c

       * After editing, do something like this:
         diff -u MaraDNS.c.orig MaraDNS.c > maradns.patch

       * Make sure the modified version compiles cleanly

       Send a patch to the MaraDNS mailing list, along with a statement that you place the
       contents of the patch under MaraDNS' BSD license. If I find that the patch works well, I
       will integrate it in to MaraDNS.

    16. Can MaraDNS act as a primary nameserver?

       Yes.

       The zoneserver program serves zones so that other DNS servers can be secondaries for zones
       which MaraDNS serves. This is a separate program from the maradns server, which processes
       both authoritative and recursive UDP DNS queries.

       See the DNS master document in the MaraDNS tutorial for details.

    17. Can MaraDNS act as a secondary nameserver?

       Yes.

       Please read the DNS slave document, which is part of the MaraDNS tutorial.

    18. What is the difference between an authoritative and a recursive DNS server?

       A recursive DNS server is a DNS server that is able to contact other DNS servers in order
       to resolve a given domain name label. This is the kind of DNS server one points to in
       /etc/resolve.conf

       An authoritative DNS server is a DNS server that a recursive server contacts in order to
       find out the answer to a given DNS query.

    19. The fetchzone client isn't allowing me to add certain hostnames to my zone

       For security reasons, MaraDNS' fetchzone client does not add records which are not part of
       the zone in question. For example, if someone has a zone for example.com, and this record
       in the zone:

       1.1.1.10.in-addr.arpa. PTR dns.example.com.

       MaraDNS will not add the record, since the record is out-of-bailiwick.  In other words, it
       is a host name that does not end in .example.com.

       There are two workarounds for this issue:

       * Create a zone file for 1.1.10.in-addr.arpa., and put the PTR records there.

       * Use rcp, rsync, or another method to copy over the zone files in question.

    20. Is MaraDNS portable?

       MaraDNS is developed on a CentOS 5 and Windows XP dual boot laptop.  MaraDNS may or may
       not compile and run on other systems.

    21. Can I use MaraDNS in Windows?

       Yes. There is both a partial mingw32 (native win32 binary) port and a full Cygwin port of
       MaraDNS; both of these ports are part of the native build of MaraDNS. Deadwood has full
       Windows support, including the ability to run as a service.

    22. MaraDNS freezes up after being used for a while

       There is a bug with the Linux kernel which causes UDP clients to freeze unless code is
       written to work around the kernel bug. This workaround was first introduced in MaraDNS
       1.0.28 and 1.1.35 and accidently disabled in 1.2.03.1.

       If using your ISP's name servers or some other name servers which are not, in fact, root
       name servers, please make sure that you are using the upstream_servers dictionary variable
       instead of the root_servers dictionary variable.

       If you still see MaraDNS freeze up after making this correction, please send a bug report
       to the mailing list.

    23. What kind of Python integration does MaraDNS have

       The mararc file uses the same syntax that Python uses; in fact, Python can parse a
       properly formatted mararc file.

       There is currently no other integration with Python.

    24. Doesn't "kvar" mean "four" in Esperanto?

       Indeed, it does. However the use of "kvar" in the MaraDNS source code only coincidentally
       is an Esperanto word. "kvar" is short for "Kiwi variable"; a lot of the parsing code comes
       from the code used in the Kiwi spam filter project.

    25. How scalable is MaraDNS?

       MaraDNS is optimized for serving a small number of domains as quickly as possible. That
       said, MaraDNS is remarkably efficnent for serving a large number of domains, as long as
       the server MaraDNS is on has the memory to fit all of the domains, and as long as the
       startup time for loading a large number of domains can be worked around.

       The "big-O" or "theta" growth rates for various MaraDNS functions are as follows, where N
       is the number of authoritative host names being served:

       Startup time                            N
       Memory usage                            N
       Processing incoming DNS requests        1

       As can be seen, MaraDNS will process 1 or 100000 domains in the same amount of time, once
       the domain names are loaded in to memory.

    26. I am having problems setting upstream_servers

       The upstream_servers mararc variable is set thusly:

           upstream_servers["."] = "10.3.28.79, 10.2.19.83"

       Note the ["."]. The reason for this is so future versions of MaraDNS may have more fine-
       grained control over the upstream_servers and root_servers values.

       Note that the upstream_servers variable needs to be initialized before being used via
       upstream_servers = {} (the reason for this is so that a mararc file has 100% Python-
       compatible syntax). A complete mararc file that uses upstream_servers may look like this:

       ipv4_bind_addresses = "127.0.0.1"
       chroot_dir = "/etc/maradns"
       recursive_acl = "127.0.0.1/8"
       upstream_servers = {}
       upstream_servers["."] = "10.1.2.3, 10.2.4.6"

    27. Why doesn't the MaraDNS.org web page validate?

       HTML pages on the MaraDNS.org web site should validate as HTML 4.0 Transitional. However,
       the CSS will not validate.

       I have designed MaraDNS' web page to be usable and as attractive as possible in any major
       browser released in the last ten years. Cross-browser support is more important than
       strict W3 validation. The reason why the CSS does not validate is because I need a way to
       make sure there is always a scrollbar on the web page, even if the content is not big
       enough to merit one; this is to avoid the content jumping from page to page. There is no
       standard CSS tag that lets me do this. I'm using a non-standard tag to enable this in
       Gecko (Firefox's rendering engine); this is enabled by default in Trident (Internet
       Explorer's rendering engine). The standards are deficient and blind adherence to them
       would result in an inferior web site.

       There are also two validation warnings generated by redefinitions which are needed as part
       of the CSS filters used to make the site attractive on older browsers with limited CSS
       support.

       On a related note, the reason why I use tables instead of CSS for some of the layout is
       because Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 and other browsers do not have support for the max-
       width CSS property. Without this property, the web page will not scale down correctly
       without using tables.  Additionally, tables allow a reasonably attractive header in
       browsers without CSS support.

    28. How do MX records work?

       How MX records work:

       * The mail transport agent (Sendmail, Postfix, Qmail, MS Exchange, etc.)  looks up the MX
         record for the domain

       * For each of the records returned, the MTA (mail transport agent) looks up the IP for the
         names.

       * It will choose, at random, any of the MXes with the lowest priority number.

       * Should that server fail, it will try another server with the same priority number.

       * Should all MX records with a given priority number fail, the MTA will try sending email
         to any of the MX records with the second-lowest priority value.

       As an aside, do not have MX records point to CNAMEs.

    29. Does MaraDNS have support for SPF?

       SPF, or sender policy framework, is method of using DNS that makes it more difficult to
       forge email. MaraDNS has full support for SPF, both via TXT records and, starting with
       MaraDNS 1.2.08, via RFC4408 SPF records.

       SPF configuration is beyond the scope of MaraDNS' documentation.  However, at the time of
       this FAQ entry being written (June, 2006), information and documentation concerning SPF is
       available at http://openspf.org. The BIND examples will work in MaraDNS csv2 zone files as
       long as the double quotes (") are replaced by single quotes ('). For example, a SPF TXT
       record that looks like example.net. IN TXT "v=spf1 +mx a:colo.example.com/28 -all" in a
       BIND zone file will look like example.net. TXT 'v=spf1 +mx a:colo.example.com/28 -all' in
       a MaraDNS zone file. MaraDNS version 1.2.08 and higher can also make the corresponding SPF
       record, which will have the syntax example.net. SPF 'v=spf1 +mx a:colo.example.com/28
       -all'.

    30. I'm having problems resolving CNAMES I have set up.

       This is probably because you have set up what MaraDNS calls a dangling CNAME record.

       Let us suppose we have a CNAME record without an A record in the local DNS server's
       database, such as:

            google.example.com. CNAME www.google.com.

       This record, which is a CNAME record for "google.example.com", points to "www.google.com".
       Some DNS servers will recursively look up www.google.com, and render the above record like
       this:

            google.example.com. CNAME www.google.com.
            www.google.com. CNAME 66.102.7.104

       For security reasons, MaraDNS doesn't do this. Instead, MaraDNS will simply output:

            google.example.com. CNAME www.google.com.

       Some stub resolvers will be unable to resolve google.example.com as a consequence.

       If you set up MaraDNS to resolve CNAMEs thusly, you will get a warning in your logs about
       having a dangling CNAME record.

       If you want to remove these warnings, add the following to your mararc file:

            no_cname_warnings = 1

       Information about how to get MaraDNS to resolve dangling CNAME records is in the tutorial
       file dangling.html

    31. I have a NS delegation, and MaraDNS is doing strange things.

       In the case of there being a NS delegation, MaraDNS handles recursive queries and non-
       recursive DNS queries differently. Basically, unless you use askmara with the -n option,
       dig with the +norecuse option, or nslookup with the -norec option, MaraDNS will try to
       recursively resolve the record that is delegated.

       The thinking is this: A normal recursive DNS query is usually one where one wants to know
       the final DNS output. So, if MaraDNS delegates a given record to another DNS server, and
       gets a recursive request for said query, MaraDNS will recursively resolve the query for
       you.

       For example, let us suppose we have a mararc file that looks like this:

       chroot_dir = "/etc/maradns"
       ipv4_bind_addresses = "10.1.2.3"
       chroot_dir = "/etc/maradns"
       recursive_acl = "127.0.0.1/8, 10.0.0.0/8"
       csv2 = {}
       csv2["example.com."] = "db.example.com"

       And a db.example.com file that looks like this:

       www.example.com.    10.1.2.3
       joe.example.com.    NS ns.joe.example.com.
       ns.joe.example.com. A 10.1.2.4

       Next, you are trying to find out why www.joe.example.com is not resolving. If you naively
       send a query to 10.1.2.3 for www.joe.example.com as askmara Awww.joe.example.com. 10.1.2.3
       or as dig @10.1.2.3 www.joe.example.com. or as nslookup www.joe.example.com. 10.1.2.3, you
       will not get any information that will help you solve the problem, since 10.1.2.3 will try
       to contact 10.1.2.4 to resolve www.joe.example.com.

       The solution is to run your DNS query client thusly:

       * Askmara would be run thusly:

       askmara -n Awww.joe.example.com. 10.1.2.3

       * Dig would be run thusly:

       dig +norecurse @10.1.2.3 www.joe.example.com

       * Nslookup would be run thusly:

       nslookup -norec www.joe.example.com 10.1.2.3

       This will allow you to see that packets MaraDNS actually sends to a recursive DNS server.

       As an aside, this particular problem will not happen if MaraDNS is run only as an
       authoritative nameserver.

    32. I am transferring a zone from another server, but the NS records are these strange
    "synth-ip" records.

       MaraDNS expects, in csv2 zone files, for all delegation NS records to be between the SOA
       record and the first non-NS record.

       If a zone looks like this:

       example.net. +600 soa ns1.example.net.
       hostmaster@example.net 10 10800 3600 604800 1080
       example.net. +600 mx 10 mail.example.net.
       example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.5
       example.net. +600 ns ns1.example.net.
       example.net. +600 ns ns3.example.net.
       mail.example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.7
       www.example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.11

       Then the NS records will be "synth-ip" records.

       The zone should look like this:

       example.net. +600 soa ns1.example.net.
       hostmaster@example.net 10 10800 3600 604800 1080
       example.net. +600 ns ns1.example.net.
       example.net. +600 ns ns3.example.net.
       example.net. +600 mx 10 mail.example.net.
       example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.5
       mail.example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.7
       www.example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.11

       This will remove the "synth-ip" records.

       To automate this process, this awk script is useful:

       fetchzone whatever.zone.foo 10.1.2.3 | awk '
       {if($3 ~ /ns/ || $3 ~ /soa/){print}
       else{a = a "\n" $0}}
       END{print a}' > zonefile.csv2

       Replace "whatever.zone.foo" with the name of the zone you are fetchin 10.1.2.3 with the IP
       address of the DNS master, and zonefile.csv2 with the name of the zone file MaraDNS loads.

    33. Where is the root.hints file?

       MaraDNS, unlike BIND, does not need a complicated root.hints file in order to have custom
       root servers. In order to change the root.hints file, add something like this to your
       mararc file:

       root_servers["."] =  "131.161.247.232,"
       root_servers["."] += "208.185.249.250,"
       root_servers["."] += "66.227.42.140,"
       root_servers["."] += "66.227.42.149,"
       root_servers["."] += "65.243.92.254"

       Note that there is no "+=" in the first line, and the last line does not have a comma at
       the end. Read the recursive tutorial document for more information.

    34. Are there any plans to use autoconf to build MaraDNS?

       No. OK, let me qualify that: I won't do it unless you pay me enough money.

       In more detail, MaraDNS does not use autoconf for the following reasons:

       * Autoconf is designed to solve a problem that existed in the mid 1990s but does not exist
         today: A large number of different incompatible C compilers and libc implementations.
         These days, most systems are using gcc as the compiler and some version of glibc as the
         libc. There is no longer a need, for example, to figure out whether a given
         implementation of getopt() allows '--' options.  MaraDNS's ./configure script can be run
         in only a second or two; compare this to the 3-5 minute process autoconf's ./configure
         needs.

       * Autoconf leaves GPL-tained files in a program's build tree. MaraDNS is licensed under a
         BSD license that is not GPL-compatible, so MaraDNS can not be distributed with these
         GPL-licensed files.

       This leads us to the next question:

    35. How do I change the compiler or compile-time flags with MaraDNS' build process?

       To change the compiler used by MaraDNS:

       * Run the ./configure script

       * Open up the file Makefile with an editor

       * Look for a line that starts with CC

       * If there is no line that starts with CC, create one just before the line that starts
         with FLAGS

       * Change (or create) that line to look something like CC=gcc296 In this example, the 2.96
         version of gcc is used to compile MaraDNS.

       * Note that it is important to not remove anything from this line you do not understand;
         doing so will make MaraDNS unable to compile or run. So, if the CC line looks like
         CC=gcc $(LDFLAGS) -DNO_FLOCK and you want to compile with gcc 2.96, change the
         line to look like CC=gcc296 $(LDFLAGS) -DNO_FLOCK retaining the flags added by
         the configuration script.

       Changing compile-time flags is a similar process:

       * Run the ./configure script

       * Open up the file Makefile with an editor

       * Look for a line that starts with FLAGS

       * Change (or create) that line to look something like FLAGS=-O3 In this example, MaraDNS
         is compiled with the -O3 option.

       * Note that it is important to not remove anything from this line you do not understand;
         doing so will make MaraDNS unable to compile or run. So, if the FLAGS line looks like
         FLAGS=-O2 -Wall -DSELECT_PROBLEM and you want to compile at optimization level
         three, change this line to look like FLAGS=-O2 -Wall -DSELECT_PROBLEM
         retaining the flags added by the configuration script. -DSELECT_PROBLEM for example, is
         needed in the Linux compile or MaraDNS will have problems with freezing up.

    36. Will you make a package for the particular Linux distribution I am using?

       No. OK, let me qualify that: I won't do it unless you pay me enough money.

       There is, however, a CentOS 5-compatible RPM spec file in the build directory.

    37. I am using the native Windows port of MaraDNS, and some features are not working.

       Since Windows 32 does not have some features that *NIX OSes have, the native Windows port
       does not have all of the features of the *NIX version of MaraDNS. In particular, the
       following features are disabled:

       * ipv6 (this is actually a mingw32, not a Windows deficiency)

       * The chroot_dir mararc variable

       * The maradns_gid and maradns_uid mararc variables

       * The maxprocs mararc variable

       * The synth_soa_serial variable can not have a value of 2

       If any of the above features are desired, try compiling MaraDNS using Cygwin. Note that
       the Cygwin port of MaraDNS does not have ipv6 support, and that while chroot_dir works in
       Cygwin, it does not have the security that the *NIX chroot() call has.

    38. MaraDNS isn't starting up

       This is usually caused by a syntax error in one's mararc file, or by another MaraDNS
       process already running. To see what is happening, look at your system log
       (/var/log/messages in Centos 3) to see what errors MaraDNS reports. If you do not know how
       to look at a system log, you can also invoke MaraDNS from the command line as root; any
       errors will be visible when starting MaraDNS.

    39. You make a lot of releases of MaraDNS; at our ISP/IT department, updating software is
    non-trivial.

       The number of releases seen in the changelog is not an accurate reflection of how often
       someone using a stable branch of MaraDNS will need to update.

       MaraDNS 1.2 and 1.3.07, the older stable branches of MaraDNS, were last updated in August
       of 2008.

       I go to a great deal of effort to make sure MaraDNS releases are as painless to update as
       possible. I ensure configuration file format compatibility, even between major versions of
       MaraDNS. With the exception of configuration file parser bugfixes, MaraDNS 1.0
       configuration files are compatible with MaraDNS 1.4.

       It is impossible to make code that is bug-free or without security problems. This is
       especially true with code that runs on the public internet.<sup><font
       size=-2>1</font></sup> Code has to be updated from time to time. What I do in order to
       minimize the disruption caused by an update is to always have a stable bugfix-only branch
       of MaraDNS (right now I have two bugfix-only branches), and to, as much as possible,
       evenly space out the bugfix updates.

       Footnote 1: Even DJB's code has security problems. Both Qmail and DjbDNS have known
       security problems, and need to be patched before put on a public internet server.

    40. I have star records in my zones, and am having problems with NXDOMAINs/IPV6 resolution

       This was a bug in MaraDNS 1.2 which has long since been fixed.

    41. I have a zone with only SOA/NS records, and the zone is not working.

       MaraDNS 1.2 has a bug where it does not correctly process zones without any "normal"
       records. For example, suppose a zone like this:

       % SOA localhost. root@localhost. 1 7200 600 1209600 3600
       % NS localhost.

       This zone will not work until some non-SOA/NS record is added, such as in this zone file:

       % SOA localhost. root@localhost. 1 7200 600 1209600 3600
       % NS localhost.
       foo.% TXT 'MaraDNS 1.2 needs this record.'

       This bug has been fixed in MaraDNS 1.3 and 1.4; since this is not a security bug (there is
       a perfectly good workaround), this bug will not be fixed in MaraDNS 1.2 unless you pay me
       to fix it.

    42. I am having problems registering my domain with AFNIC (the registrar for .fr domains)

       Because of an issue with AFNIC (who, annoyingly enough, check the RA bit when registering
       a domain), in order to register a domain with AFNIC using MaraDNS as your DNS server, the
       following steps need to be followed:

       * MaraDNS version 1.4 needs to be used; if you're using an older version of MaraDNS,
         upgrade.

       * It is necessary to have recursion disabled. This can be done either by compiling MaraDNS
         without recursive support (./configure --authonly ; make), or by making sure MaraDNS
         does not have recursion enabled (by not having recursive_acl set in one's mararc file)

       If one wishes to both register domains with AFNIC and use MaraDNS as a recursive DNS
       server, it is required to have the recursive server be a separate instance of MaraDNS on a
       separate IP. It is not possible to have the same DNS server both send DNS packets in a way
       that both makes AFNIC happy and allows recursive queries.

       Note also: AFNIC gives warnings about reverse DNS lookups; more information about this
       issue can be found in the FAQ entry about reverse DNS mappings (question 7). In addition,
       AFNIC requires DNS-over-TCP to work; information on configuring MaraDNS to have this can
       be found in the DNS-over-TCP tutorial.

    43. I can't see the full answers for subdomains I have delegated

       To have the subdomains be visible to recursive nameservers, add the following to your
       mararc file:

       recurse_delegation = 1

    44. MaraDNS 1 has a problem resolving a domain

       This issue should be fixed when I release MaraDNS 2.0.

       Here's what happening: I have rewritten the recursive resolver for MaraDNS.  The old code
       was always designed to be a placeholder until I wrote a new recursive resolver.

       The new recursive resolver is called "Deadwood"; right now it's fully functional and
       undergoing beta-testing. More information is here:

       http://maradns.blogspot.com/search/label/Deadwood

       http://maradns.org/deadwood/

       Since the old recursive code is a bit difficult to maintain, and since I in the process of
       rewriting the recursive code, my rule is that I will only resolve security issues with
       MaraDNS 1.0's recursive resolver without getting paid.

       If resolving a given domain with MaraDNS' code is an urgent issue for you, please consider
       helping beta-test Deadwood, or sponsoring MaraDNS:

       http://www.maradns.org/products.html

    45. MaraDNS 1.2 has issues with NXDOMAINS and case sensitivity.

       There is a known bug in MaraDNS 1.2.12 where, should a client ask for a non-existent
       record in all caps, MaraDNS 1.2.12 will return a NXDOMAIN instead of a "not there" reply.
       This can cause there to be problems delivering email to the host in question if a mail
       transport agent asks for a name in all caps.

       If this is an issue for your organization, please upgrade to a newer version of MaraDNS;
       MaraDNS 1.4 does not have this bug. If you want to see this bug fixed in MaraDNS 1.2,
       please help sponsor MaraDNS.

    46. Can MaraDNS offer protection from phishing and malicious sites?

       Yes.

       Here is a webpage that explains how its done:

       http://www.malwaredomains.com/?p=288

       Should that website be down, I have made a local mirror of the Perl script here:

       createmaradns-pl.txt

    47. Does maradns support star (wildcard) records?

       Yes.

       MaraDNS supports both having stars at the beginning of records and the end of records. For
       example, to have anything.example.com.  have the IP 10.1.2.3, add this line to the zone
       file for example.com:

       *.example.com. A 10.1.2.3

       To have stars at the end of records, csv2_default_zonefile has to be set. The mararc
       parameter bind_star_handling affects how star records are handled. More information is in
       the mararc man page.

    48. I'm having problems using MaraDNS with some *NIX command line applications like telnet.

       Some *NIX command line networking applications, such as telnet and ssh, try to do either a
       reverse DNS lookup (IP-to-host name conversion) or an IPv6 lookup. This slows things down
       and sometimes causes the applications to not work at all.

       For people who do not need IPv6 lookups, add the following line to one's mararc file to
       have MaraDNS respond to all IPv6 lookups with a bogus "not found" reply:

       reject_aaaa = 1

       If knowing the hostname a given IP has isn't important, these kinds of lookups can also be
       disabled:

       reject_ptr = 1

    49. My virus scanner reports that MaraDNS or Deadwood has a virus

       This can be caused either by a poorly written anti-virus program reporting a false
       positive, or because a virus on your system has infected your copy of MaraDNS/Deadwood.

       Please use GPG to verify that the file which your scanner reports having a virus in has
       not been altered.  In addition, please scan the file with AVG (free for non-commercial
       use) to verify your virus scanner has not reported a false positive.

       If you have verified the GPG signature of the program and AVG reports a virus, please let
       us know on the MaraDNS mailing list. Otherwise, please use a better virus scanner and make
       sure there are no viruses on your computer.

    50. I can not subscribe to the MaraDNS mailing list

       The procedure for subscribing to the mailing list is as follows:

       * Send an email to list-request@maradns.org with "Subscribe" as the subject

       * You will get an email from list-request@maradns.org asking you to confirm your
         subscription. This can be done by replying to the message, or, more simply, by clicking
         on the link in the message.

       * Once you click on that link, click on the button marked "subscribe to list list"

       * You will now get a message stating 'Welcome to the "list" mailing list'.

       * This email will tell you how to post to the mailing list. I suggest reading it.

       If you get an email from list-request@maradns.org with the subject "The results of your
       email commands", you did not correctly send an email to list-request@maradns.org with the
       subject "Subscribe".

       If you do not get the email from list-request@maradns.org asking you for a confirmation,
       ensure that this email is not in your "spam" or "junk mail" folder. If you are unable to
       get these emails at your email address, please get a gmail email account, which can
       successfully subscribe to the MaraDNS mailing list.

    51. How does MaraDNS respond to EDNS (RFC2671) packets?

       MaraDNS 1.4 responds to EDNS packets by ignoring the OPT record and acting as if it the
       packet did not have an OPT record.

       Deadwood (the recursive resolver for Deadwood 2.0, available in the deadwood-#.#.##
       directory of any 1.4 MaraDNS release), up through Deadwood 2.9.02 responds to EDNS packets
       by discarding the packet and not responding. This was changed in Deadwood 2.9.03:
       Deadwood, as per RFC2671 section 5.3, now responds to EDNS queries by replying with the
       NOTIMPL ("not implemented") error code instead of answering the query.  This was changed
       again in Deadwood 2.9.04: Deadwood now, like MaraDNS 1 (as well as DJBdns), handles a EDNS
       packet as if the OPT record did not exist.

       MicroDNS (available in the tools/misc directory of any 1.4 MaraDNS release), as of MaraDNS
       1.4.05, responds to EDNS queries the same way Deadwood 2.9.03 did: By giving back
       "NOTIMPL" instead of answering the query with the default IP. NanoDNS, in the interest of
       minimizing code side, responds to EDNS requests by returning NOTIMPL in the header, giving
       the OPT query in the AN section of the response, and giving the default IP in the AR
       section of the DNS reply packet.

    52. How to I get MaraDNS to always give the same IP to all DNS queries?

       There are three ways to have MaraDNS always give the same IP in reply to any DNS query
       given to it:

       * The best way to do this is to set up a default zonefile that causes any and all A
         queries to always give the IP (and also allows all AAAA queries to always give out the
         same IP6, all SPF or TXT queries to give out the same SPF record, etc.).

       * Another possibility, if someone just wants a simple DNS server that always gives out the
         same IP address to any and all DNS queries, is to use the MicroDNS program, available in
         tools/misc, as well as having its own web page.

       * If MicroDNS is too bloated, there is also NanoDNS, which I will include the source code
         of below:

       /*Placed in the public domain by Sam Trenholme*/
       #include &lt;arpa/inet.h&gt;
       #include &lt;string.h&gt;
       #include &lt;stdint.h&gt;
       #define Z struct sockaddr
       #define Y sizeof(d)
       int main(int a,char **b){uint32_t i;char q[512]
       ,p[17]="\xc0\f\0\x01\0\x01\0\0\0\0\0\x04";if(a&gt;
       1){struct sockaddr_in d;socklen_t f=511;bzero(&amp;
       d,Y);a=socket(AF_INET,SOCK_DGRAM,0);*((uint32_t
       *)(p+12))=inet_addr(b[1]);d.sin_family=AF_INET;
       d.sin_port=htons(53);bind(a,(Z*)&amp;d,Y);for(;;){i
       =recvfrom(a,q,255,0,(Z*)&amp;d,&amp;f);if(i&gt;9&amp;&amp;q[2]&gt;=0)
       {q[2]|=128;q[11]?q[3]|=4:1;q[7]++;memcpy(q+i,p,
       16);sendto(a,q,i+16,0,(Z*)&amp;d,Y);}}}return 0;}

       NanoDNS takes one argument: The IP we return. This program binds to all IP addresses a
       given machine has on the UDP DNS port (port 53). For example, to make a DNS server that
       binds to all IPs your system has and return the IP 10.11.12.13 to any UDP DNS queries sent
       to it, compile the above C program, call it NanoDNS, and invoke it with NanoDNS
       10.11.12.13 Note that NanoDNS does not daemonize, nor log anything, nor have any other
       space-wasting features.

BUGS

       In the unusual case of having a csv2 zone file with Macintosh-style newlines (as opposed
       to DOS or UNIX newlines), while the file will parse, any errors in the file will be
       reported as being on line 1.

       The maximum allowed number of threads is 5000.

       The system startup script included with MaraDNS assumes that the only MaraDNS processes
       running are started by the script; it stops all MaraDNS processes running on the server
       when asked to stop MaraDNS.

       When a resolver asks for an A record, and the A record is a CNAME which points to a list
       of IPs, MaraDNS' recursive resolver only returns the first IP listed along with the CNAME.
       This is somewhat worked around by having a CNAME record only stay in the recursive cache
       for 15 minutes.

       When a resolver asks for an A record, and the A record is a CNAME that points to another
       CNAME (and possibly a longer CNAME chain), while MaraDNS returns the correct IP (as long
       as the glueless level is not exceeded), MaraDNS will incorrectly state that the first
       CNAME in the chain directly points to the IP.

       If a NS record points to a list of IPs, and the NS record in question is a "glueless"
       record (MaraDNS had to go back to the root servers to find out the IP of the machine in
       question), MaraDNS' recursive resolver only uses the first listed IP as a name server.

       When MaraDNS' recursive resolver receives a "host not there" reply, instead of using the
       SOA minimum of the "host not there" reply as the TTL (Look at RFC1034 section 4.3.4),
       MaraDNS uses the TTL of the SOA reply.

       MaraDNS keeps referral NS records in the cache for one day instead of the TTL specified by
       the remote server.

       MaraDNS needs to use the zoneserver program to serve DNS records over TCP. See
       zoneserver(8) for usage information.

       MaraDNS does not use the zone file ("master file") format specified in chapter 5 of
       RFC1035.

       MaraDNS default behavior with star records is not RFC-compliant.  In more detail, if a
       wildcard MX record exists in the form "*.example.com", and there is an A record for
       "www.example.com", but no MX record for "www.example.com", the correct behavior (based on
       RFC1034 section 4.3.3) is to return "no host" (nothing in the answer section, SOA in the
       authority section, 0 result code) for a MX request to "www.example.com".  Instead, MaraDNS
       returns the MX record attached to "*.example.com".  This can be changed by setting
       bind_star_handling to 1.

       Star records (what RFC1034 calls "wildcards") can not be attached to NS records.

       MaraDNS recursive resolver treats any TTL shorter than min_ttl seconds (min_ttl_cname
       seconds when the record is a CNAME record) as if the TTL in question was min_ttl (or
       min_ttl_cname) seconds long when determining when to expire a record from MaraDNS' cache.

       TTLs which are shorter than 20 seconds long are given a TTL of 20 seconds; TTLs which are
       more than 63072000 (2 years) long are given a TTL of 2 years.

       MaraDNS' recursive resolver's method of deleting not recently accessed records from the
       cache when the cache starts to fill up can deleted records from the cache before they
       expire. Some people consider this undesirable behavior; I feel it is necessary behavior if
       one wishes to place a limit on the memory resources a DNS server may use.

       MaraDNS' recursive resolver stops resolving when it finds an answer in the AR section.
       This is a problem in the case where a given host name and IP is registered with the root
       name servers, and the registered IP is out of date. When this happens, a server "closer"
       to the root server will give an out-of-date IP, even though the authoritative DNS servers
       for the host in question have the correct IP. Note that resolving this will result in
       increased DNS traffic.

       MaraDNS, like every other known DNS implementation, only supports a QDCOUNT of 0 or 1.

       MaraDNS spawns a new thread for every single recursive DNS request when the data in
       question is not in MaraDNS' cache; this makes MaraDNS an excellent stress tester for
       pthread implementations.  Many pthread implementations can not handle this kind of load;
       symptoms include high memory usage and termination of the MaraDNS process.

       MaraDNS does not handle the case of a glueless in-bailiwick NS referral very gracefully;
       this usually causes the zone pointed to by the offending NS record to be unreachable by
       MaraDNS, even if other DNS servers for the domain have correct NS referrals.

UNIMPLEMENTED FEATURES

       These are features which I do not plan to implement in MaraDNS. If you wish to see these
       features, consider sponsoring MaraDNS development:

       MaraDNS does not have a disk-based caching scheme for authoritative zones.

       MaraDNS' UDP server only loads zone files while MaraDNS is first started.  UDP Zone
       information can only be updated by stopping MaraDNS, and restarting MaraDNS again. Note
       that TCP zone files are loaded from the filesystem at the time the client requests a zone.

       MaraDNS does not have support for allowing given host names to only resolve for a limited
       range of IPs querying the DNS server, or for host names to resolve differently, depending
       on the IP querying the host name.

       MaraDNS 1.4 only has authoritative-only support for IPv6. Deadwood, however, has full IPv6
       support.

       MaraDNS only allows wildcards at the beginning or end of a host name. E.g. names with
       wildcards like "foo.*.example.com". "www.*" will work, however, if a default zonefile is
       set up.

       MaraDNS does not have support for MRTG or any other SNMP-based logging mechanism.

LEGAL DISCLAIMER

       THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHORS ''AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES,
       INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
       PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
       FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
       (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
       DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY,
       WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
       IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
       DAMAGE.

AUTHORS

       Sam Trenholme (http://www.samiam.org) is responsible for this man page.

       MaraDNS is written by me, Sam Trenholme, with a little help from my friends. Naturally,
       all errors in MaraDNS are my own (but read the disclaimer above).

       Here is a partial list of people who have provided assistance:

       Floh has generously set up a FreeBSD 4, FreeBSD 6, and Mac OS X system so that I can port
       MaraDNS to more platforms.

       Albert Lee has provided countless bug reports, and, nicely enough, patches to fix said
       bugs. He has also made improvements to the code in the tcp "zoneserver".

       Franky Van Liedekerke has provided much invaluable assistance. As just one example, he
       provided invaluable assistance in getting MaraDNS to compile on Solaris. In addition, he
       has provided much valuable SQA help.

       Christian Kurz, who has provided invaluable bug reports, especially when I had to re-
       implement the core hashing algorithm.

       Remmy, who is providing both the web space and a mailing list for maradns.org.

       Phil Homewood, who provided invaluable assistance with finding and fixing bugs in the
       authoritative portion of the MaraDNS server. He helped me plug memory leaks, find
       uninitialized variables being used, and found a number of bugs I was unable to find.

       Albert Prats kindly provided Spanish translations for various text files.

       Shin Zukeran provided a patch to recursive.c which properly makes a normal null-terminated
       string from a js_string object, to send as an argument to open() so we can get the
       rijndael key for the PRNG.

       D Richard Felker III has provided invaluable bug reports. By looking at his bug reports, I
       have been able to hunt down and fix many problems that the recursive nameserver had, in
       addition to at least one problem with the authoritative nameserver.

       Ole Tange has also given me many valuable MaraDNS bug reports.

       Florin Iucha provided a tip in the FAQ for how to compile MaraDNS on OpenBSD.

       Roy Arends (one of the BIND developers, as it turns out) found a serious security problem
       with MaraDNS, where MaraDNS would answer answers, and pointed it out to me.

       Code used as the basis for the psudo-random-number generator was written by Vincent
       Rijmen, Antoon Bosselaers, and Paulo Barreto. I appreciate these programmers making the
       code public domain, which is the only license under which I can add code to MaraDNS under.

       Ross Johnson and others have made a Win32 port of the Pthreads library; this has made a
       native win32 port of MaraDNS possible.

       I also appreciate the work of Dr. Brian Gladman and Fritz Schneider, who have both written
       independent implementations of AES from which I obtained test vectors. With the help of
       their hard work, I was able to discover a subtle security problem that previous releases
       of MaraDNS had.