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NAME

       modprobe -- program to add and remove modules from the Linux Kernel

SYNOPSIS

       modprobe   [-v]    [-V]   [-C  config-file]   [-n]   [-i]   [-q]   [-b]
       [modulename]  [module parameters ...]

       modprobe [-r]  [-v]  [-n]  [-i]  [modulename ...]

       modprobe [-l]  [-t dirname]  [wildcard]

       modprobe [-c]

       modprobe [--dump-modversions]  [filename]

Description

       modprobe intelligently adds or removes a module from the Linux  kernel:
       note  that  for  convenience, there is no difference between _ and - in
       module names (automatic underscore conversion is performed).   modprobe
       looks  in  the  module  directory  /lib/modules/`uname  -r` for all the
       modules and other files, except  for  the  optional  /etc/modprobe.conf
       configuration     file     and     /etc/modprobe.d    directory    (see
       modprobe.conf(5)). modprobe will also use module options  specified  on
       the kernel command line in the form of <module>.<option>.

       Note  that  unlike in 2.4 series Linux kernels (which are not supported
       by this tool) this version of modprobe does  not  do  anything  to  the
       module   itself:  the  work  of  resolving  symbols  and  understanding
       parameters is done inside the kernel.  So module failure  is  sometimes
       accompanied by a kernel message: see dmesg(8).

       modprobe  expects an up-to-date modules.dep.bin file (or fallback human
       readable modules.dep file), as generated by  the  corresponding  depmod
       utility  shipped  along with modprobe (see depmod(8)).  This file lists
       what other modules each module needs (if any), and modprobe  uses  this
       to add or remove these dependencies automatically.

       If any arguments are given after the modulename, they are passed to the
       kernel (in addition to any options listed in the configuration file).

OPTIONS

       -a --all  Insert all module names on the command line.

       -b --use-blacklist
                 This option causes modprobe to apply the  blacklist  commands
                 in  the configuration files (if any) to module names as well.
                 It is usually used by udev(7).

       -C --config
                 This   option    overrides    the    default    configuration
                 directory/file (/etc/modprobe.d or /etc/modprobe.conf).

                 This  option  is  passed  through  install         or  remove
                 commands to other modprobe commands in  the  MODPROBE_OPTIONS
                 environment variable.

       -c --showconfig
                 Dump   out   the  effective  configuration  from  the  config
                 directory and exit.

       --dump-modversions
                 Print out a list of module versioning information required by
                 a  module.  This  option is commonly used by distributions in
                 order to package  up  a  Linux  kernel  module  using  module
                 versioning deps.

       -d --dirname
                 Directory  where  modules  can be found, /lib/modules/RELEASE
                 by default.

       --first-time
                 Normally, modprobe will succeed (and do nothing) if  told  to
                 insert  a  module  which  is  already  present or to remove a
                 module  which  isn't  present.   This  is  ideal  for  simple
                 scripts; however, more complicated scripts often want to know
                 whether modprobe really  did  something:  this  option  makes
                 modprobe  fail  in  the  case  that  it  actually  didn't  do
                 anything.

       --force-vermagic
                 Every module contains a  small  string  containing  important
                 information,  such as the kernel and compiler versions.  If a
                 module fails to  load  and  the  kernel  complains  that  the
                 "version  magic"  doesn't  match,  you can use this option to
                 remove  it.   Naturally,  this  check  is  there   for   your
                 protection, so this using option is dangerous unless you know
                 what you're doing.

                 This applies to any modules inserted:  both  the  module  (or
                 alias)  on  the  command  line  and  any  modules on which it
                 depends.

       --force-modversion
                 When modules are  compiled  with  CONFIG_MODVERSIONS  set,  a
                 section  detailing  the  versions of every interfaced used by
                 (or supplied by) the module is created.  If a module fails to
                 load and the kernel complains that the module disagrees about
                 a version of some interface, you can use "--force-modversion"
                 to  remove  the  version  information altogether.  Naturally,
                 this check is there for your protection, so using this option
                 is dangerous unless you know what you're doing.

                 This applies any modules inserted: both the module (or alias)
                 on the command line and any modules on which it depends.

       -f --force
                 Try to strip any versioning information from the module which
                 might  otherwise  stop  it  from loading: this is the same as
                 using   both   --force-vermagic    and    --force-modversion.
                 Naturally,  these  checks  are  there for your protection, so
                 using this option is dangerous unless you know what  you  are
                 doing.

                 This  applies  to  any  modules inserted: both the module (or
                 alias) on the command line and any modules  it  on  which  it
                 depends.

       -i --ignore-install --ignore-remove
                 This  option  causes  modprobe  to  ignore install and remove
                 commands in the configuration file (if any)  for  the  module
                 specified  on  the  command  line  (any dependent modules are
                 still subject to commands set for them in  the  configuration
                 file).  Both install and remove       commands will currently
                 be ignored when this option is used regardless of whether the
                 request  was  more  specifically  made with only one or other
                 (and not both) of --ignore-install or  --ignore-remove.   See
                 modprobe.conf(5).

       -l --list List  all  modules  matching the given wildcard (or "*" if no
                 wildcard is given).  This option is  provided  for  backwards
                 compatibility  and  may  go  away  in future: see find(1) and
                 basename(1) for a more flexible alternative.

       -n --dry-run         --show
                 This option does everything but actually insert or delete the
                 modules  (or  run  the install or remove commands).  Combined
                 with -v, it is useful for debugging problems. For  historical
                 reasons  both --dry-run and --show          actually mean the
                 same thing and are interchangeable.

       -q --quiet
                 With this flag, modprobe won't print an error message if  you
                 try  to remove or insert a module it can't find (and isn't an
                 alias or install/remove command).   However,  it  will  still
                 return  with  a non-zero exit status. The kernel uses this to
                 opportunistically probe for modules which might  exist  using
                 request_module.

       -R --resolve-alias
                 Print  all module names matching an alias. This can be useful
                 for debugging module alias problems.

       -r --remove
                 This option causes modprobe to remove rather  than  insert  a
                 module.   If  the  modules  it  depends  on  are also unused,
                 modprobe will try to remove them too.  Unlike insertion, more
                 than one module can be specified on the command line (it does
                 not make sense to specify  module  parameters  when  removing
                 modules).

                 There  is usually no reason to remove modules, but some buggy
                 modules require it.  Your distribution kernel  may  not  have
                 been built to support removal of modules at all.

       -S --set-version
                 Set  the kernel version, rather than using uname(2) to decide
                 on the kernel version  (which  dictates  where  to  find  the
                 modules).

       --show-depends
                 List  the  dependencies of a module (or alias), including the
                 module itself.  This  produces  a  (possibly  empty)  set  of
                 module  filenames,  one per line, each starting with "insmod"
                 and is typically used by  distributions  to  determine  which
                 modules  to  include when generating initrd/initramfs images.
                 Install commands which apply are shown prefixed by "install".
                 It  does  not  run  any  of  the install commands.  Note that
                 modinfo(8)         can be used to extract dependencies  of  a
                 module  from  the module itself, but knows nothing of aliases
                 or install commands.

       -s --syslog
                 This option causes any  error  messages  to  go  through  the
                 syslog mechanism (as LOG_DAEMON with level LOG_NOTICE) rather
                 than to standard error.  This is also  automatically  enabled
                 when stderr is unavailable.

                 This  option  is  passed  through  install         or  remove
                 commands to other modprobe commands in  the  MODPROBE_OPTIONS
                 environment variable.

       -t --type Restrict  -l  to  modules in directories matching the dirname
                 given.  This option is provided for  backwards  compatibility
                 and  may go away in future: see find(1)       and basename(1)
                 for a more flexible alternative.

       -V --version
                 Show version of program and exit.

       -v --verbose
                 Print messages about what  the  program  is  doing.   Usually
                 modprobe only prints messages if something goes wrong.

                 This  option  is  passed  through  install         or  remove
                 commands to other modprobe commands in  the  MODPROBE_OPTIONS
                 environment variable.

ENVIRONMENT

       The  MODPROBE_OPTIONS  environment  variable  can  also be used to pass
       arguments to modprobe.

COPYRIGHT

       This  manual  page  originally  Copyright  2002,  Rusty  Russell,   IBM
       Corporation. Maintained by Jon Masters and others.

SEE ALSO

       modprobe.conf(5),   modprobe.d(5),   insmod(8),   rmmod(8),   lsmod(8),
       modinfo(8)

                                                                   modprobe(8)