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NAME

       modprobe — program to add and remove modules from the Linux Kernel

SYNOPSIS

       modprobe  [-v]   [-V]   [-C  config-file]   [-n]   [-i]  [-q]  [-b]  [modulename]  [module
       parameters ...]

       modprobe [-r]  [-v]  [-n]  [-i]  [modulename ...]

       modprobe [-l]  [-t dirname]  [wildcard]

       modprobe [-c]

       modprobe [--dump-modversions]  [filename]

Description

       modprobe intelligently adds or removes a module from  the  Linux  kernel:  note  that  for
       convenience,  there is no difference between _ and - in module names (automatic underscore
       conversion is performed).  modprobe looks in the module directory /lib/modules/`uname  -r`
       for  all  the  modules  and  other  files,  except  for  the  optional  /etc/modprobe.conf
       configuration file and /etc/modprobe.d directory  (see  modprobe.conf(5)).  modprobe  will
       also   use   module  options  specified  on  the  kernel  command  line  in  the  form  of
       <module>.<option>.

       Note that unlike in 2.4 series Linux kernels (which are not supported by this  tool)  this
       version  of  modprobe  does  not  do  anything to the module itself: the work of resolving
       symbols and understanding parameters is done inside the  kernel.   So  module  failure  is
       sometimes accompanied by a kernel message: see dmesg(8).

       modprobe   expects   an  up-to-date  modules.dep.bin  file  (or  fallback  human  readable
       modules.dep file), as generated by the corresponding depmod  utility  shipped  along  with
       modprobe  (see depmod(8)).  This file lists what other modules each module needs (if any),
       and modprobe uses this to add or remove these dependencies automatically.

       If any arguments are given after the  modulename,  they  are  passed  to  the  kernel  (in
       addition to any options listed in the configuration file).

OPTIONS

       -a --all  Insert all module names on the command line.

       -b --use-blacklist
                 This option causes modprobe to apply the blacklist commands in the configuration
                 files (if any) to module names as well.  It is usually used by udev(7).

       -C --config
                 This option overrides the default configuration directory/file  (/etc/modprobe.d
                 or /etc/modprobe.conf).

                 This option is passed through install       or remove commands to other modprobe
                 commands in the MODPROBE_OPTIONS environment variable.

       -c --showconfig
                 Dump out the effective configuration from the config directory and exit.

       --dump-modversions
                 Print out a list of module versioning information required  by  a  module.  This
                 option  is  commonly used by distributions in order to package up a Linux kernel
                 module using module versioning deps.

       -d --dirname
                 Directory  where  modules  can  be  found,  /lib/modules/RELEASE              by
                 default.

       --first-time
                 Normally,  modprobe  will  succeed  (and  do nothing) if told to insert a module
                 which is already present or to remove a module which  isn't  present.   This  is
                 ideal  for  simple scripts; however, more complicated scripts often want to know
                 whether modprobe really did something: this option makes modprobe  fail  in  the
                 case that it actually didn't do anything.

       --force-vermagic
                 Every  module  contains a small string containing important information, such as
                 the kernel and compiler versions.  If a module fails  to  load  and  the  kernel
                 complains  that  the  "version  magic" doesn't match, you can use this option to
                 remove it.  Naturally, this check is there for your protection,  so  this  using
                 option is dangerous unless you know what you're doing.

                 This  applies to any modules inserted: both the module (or alias) on the command
                 line and any modules on which it depends.

       --force-modversion
                 When modules are compiled with CONFIG_MODVERSIONS set, a section  detailing  the
                 versions of every interfaced used by (or supplied by) the module is created.  If
                 a module fails to load and the kernel complains that the module disagrees  about
                 a  version  of  some  interface,  you can use "--force-modversion" to remove the
                 version information  altogether.   Naturally,  this  check  is  there  for  your
                 protection, so using this option is dangerous unless you know what you're doing.

                 This  applies  any  modules  inserted: both the module (or alias) on the command
                 line and any modules on which it depends.

       -f --force
                 Try to strip any versioning information from the module  which  might  otherwise
                 stop  it  from  loading:  this  is  the  same as using both --force-vermagic and
                 --force-modversion.  Naturally, these checks are there for your  protection,  so
                 using this option is dangerous unless you know what you are doing.

                 This  applies to any modules inserted: both the module (or alias) on the command
                 line and any modules it on which it depends.

       -i --ignore-install --ignore-remove
                 This option causes modprobe  to  ignore  install  and  remove  commands  in  the
                 configuration  file  (if  any) for the module specified on the command line (any
                 dependent  modules  are  still  subject  to  commands  set  for  them   in   the
                 configuration  file).  Both  install and remove       commands will currently be
                 ignored when this option is used regardless of  whether  the  request  was  more
                 specifically  made  with only one or other (and not both) of --ignore-install or
                 --ignore-remove.  See modprobe.conf(5).

       -l --list List all modules matching the given wildcard (or "*" if no wildcard  is  given).
                 This  option  is provided for backwards compatibility and may go away in future:
                 see find(1) and basename(1) for a more flexible alternative.

       -n --dry-run         --show
                 This option does everything but actually insert or delete the  modules  (or  run
                 the  install  or remove commands).  Combined with -v, it is useful for debugging
                 problems. For historical reasons both  --dry-run  and  --show           actually
                 mean the same thing and are interchangeable.

       -q --quiet
                 With  this  flag,  modprobe won't print an error message if you try to remove or
                 insert a module it can't find (and isn't an alias  or  install/remove  command).
                 However,  it will still return with a non-zero exit status. The kernel uses this
                 to opportunistically probe for modules which might exist using request_module.

       -R --resolve-alias
                 Print all module names matching an alias.  This  can  be  useful  for  debugging
                 module alias problems.

       -r --remove
                 This  option  causes  modprobe  to  remove  rather than insert a module.  If the
                 modules it depends on are also unused, modprobe will try  to  remove  them  too.
                 Unlike  insertion, more than one module can be specified on the command line (it
                 does not make sense to specify module parameters when removing modules).

                 There is usually no reason to remove modules, but some buggy modules require it.
                 Your  distribution  kernel may not have been built to support removal of modules
                 at all.

       -S --set-version
                 Set the kernel version, rather than using  uname(2)  to  decide  on  the  kernel
                 version (which dictates where to find the modules).

       --show-depends
                 List the dependencies of a module (or alias), including the module itself.  This
                 produces a (possibly empty) set of module filenames, one per line, each starting
                 with  "insmod" and is typically used by distributions to determine which modules
                 to include when generating  initrd/initramfs  images.   Install  commands  which
                 apply  are  shown  prefixed  by  "install".   It does not run any of the install
                 commands.  Note that modinfo(8)         can be used to extract dependencies of a
                 module from the module itself, but knows nothing of aliases or install commands.

       -s --syslog
                 This  option  causes  any  error messages to go through the syslog mechanism (as
                 LOG_DAEMON with level LOG_NOTICE) rather than to standard error.  This  is  also
                 automatically enabled when stderr is unavailable.

                 This option is passed through install       or remove commands to other modprobe
                 commands in the MODPROBE_OPTIONS environment variable.

       -t --type Restrict -l to modules in directories matching the dirname given.   This  option
                 is  provided  for backwards compatibility and may go away in future: see find(1)
                       and basename(1) for a more flexible alternative.

       -V --version
                 Show version of program and exit.

       -v --verbose
                 Print messages about what the program is doing.  Usually  modprobe  only  prints
                 messages if something goes wrong.

                 This option is passed through install       or remove commands to other modprobe
                 commands in the MODPROBE_OPTIONS environment variable.

ENVIRONMENT

       The MODPROBE_OPTIONS environment variable can also be used to pass arguments to modprobe.

COPYRIGHT

       This manual page originally Copyright 2002, Rusty Russell, IBM Corporation. Maintained  by
       Jon Masters and others.

SEE ALSO

       modprobe.conf(5), modprobe.d(5), insmod(8), rmmod(8), lsmod(8), modinfo(8)

                                                                                      modprobe(8)