Provided by: passwd_4.1.4.2+svn3283-3ubuntu5_amd64 bug

NAME

       newusers - update and create new users in batch

SYNOPSIS

       newusers [options new_users]

DESCRIPTION

       The newusers command reads a file of user name and clear-text password pairs and uses this
       information to update a group of existing users or to create new users. Each line is in
       the same format as the standard password file (see passwd(5)) with the exceptions
       explained below:

       pw_name:pw_passwd:pw_uid:pw_gid:pw_gecos:pw_dir:pw_shell

       pw_name
           This is the name of the user.

           It can be the name of a new user or the name of an existing user (or an user created
           before by newusers). In case of an existing user, the user's information will be
           changed, otherwise a new user will be created.

       pw_passwd
           This field will be encrypted and used as the new value of the encrypted password.

       pw_uid
           This field is used to define the UID of the user.

           If the field is empty, an new (unused) UID will be defined automatically by newusers.

           If this field contains a number, this number will be used as the UID.

           If this field contains the name of an existing user (or the name of an user created
           before by newusers), the UID of the specified user will be used.

           If the UID of an existing user is changed, the files ownership of the user's file
           should be fixed manually.

       pw_gid
           This field is used to define the primary group ID for the user.

           If this field contains the name of an existing group (or a group created before by
           newusers), the GID of this group will be used as the primary group ID for the user.

           If this field is a number, this number will be used as the primary group ID of the
           user. If no groups exist with this GID, a new group will be created with this GID, and
           the name of the user.

           If this field is empty, a new group will be created with the name of the user and a
           GID will be automatically defined by newusers to be used as the primary group ID for
           the user and as the GID for the new group.

           If this field contains the name of a group which does not exist (and was not created
           earlier wbefore by newusers), a new group will be created with the specified name and
           a GID will be automatically defined by newusers to be used as the primary group ID for
           the user and Gs the ID for the new group.

       pw_gecos
           This field is copied in the GECOS field of the user.

       pw_dir
           This field is used to define the home directory of the user.

           If this field does not specify an existing directory, the specified directory is
           created, with ownership set to the user being created or updated and its primary
           group.

           If the home directory of an existing user is changed, newusers does not move or copy
           the content of the old directory to the new location. This should be done manually.

       pw_shell
           This field defines the shell of the user. No checks are performed on this field.

       newusers first tries to create or change all the specified users, and then write these
       changes to the user or group databases. If an error occurs (except in the final writes to
       the databases), no changes are committed to the databases.

       During this first pass, users are created with a locked password (and passwords are not
       changed for the users which are not created). A second pass is used to update the
       passwords using PAM. Failures to update a password are reported, but will not stop the
       other password updates.

       This command is intended to be used in a large system environment where many accounts are
       updated at a single time.

OPTIONS

       The options which apply to the newusers command are:

       -h, --help
           Display help message and exit.

       -r, --system
           Create a system account.

           System users will be created with no aging information in /etc/shadow, and their
           numeric identifiers are chosen in the SYS_UID_MIN-SYS_UID_MAX range, defined in
           login.defs, instead of UID_MIN-UID_MAX (and their GID counterparts for the creation of
           groups).

CAVEATS

       The input file must be protected since it contains unencrypted passwords.

CONFIGURATION

       The following configuration variables in /etc/login.defs change the behavior of this tool:

       GID_MAX (number), GID_MIN (number)
           Range of group IDs used for the creation of regular groups by useradd, groupadd, or
           newusers.

       MAX_MEMBERS_PER_GROUP (number)
           Maximum members per group entry. When the maximum is reached, a new group entry (line)
           is started in /etc/group (with the same name, same password, and same GID).

           The default value is 0, meaning that there are no limits in the number of members in a
           group.

           This feature (split group) permits to limit the length of lines in the group file.
           This is useful to make sure that lines for NIS groups are not larger than 1024
           characters.

           If you need to enforce such limit, you can use 25.

           Note: split groups may not be supported by all tools (even in the Shadow toolsuite).
           You should not use this variable unless you really need it.

       PASS_MAX_DAYS (number)
           The maximum number of days a password may be used. If the password is older than this,
           a password change will be forced. If not specified, -1 will be assumed (which disables
           the restriction).

       PASS_MIN_DAYS (number)
           The minimum number of days allowed between password changes. Any password changes
           attempted sooner than this will be rejected. If not specified, -1 will be assumed
           (which disables the restriction).

       PASS_WARN_AGE (number)
           The number of days warning given before a password expires. A zero means warning is
           given only upon the day of expiration, a negative value means no warning is given. If
           not specified, no warning will be provided.

       SYS_GID_MAX (number), SYS_GID_MIN (number)
           Range of group IDs used for the creation of system groups by useradd, groupadd, or
           newusers.

       SYS_UID_MAX (number), SYS_UID_MIN (number)
           Range of user IDs used for the creation of system users by useradd or newusers.

       UID_MAX (number), UID_MIN (number)
           Range of user IDs used for the creation of regular users by useradd or newusers.

       UMASK (number)
           The file mode creation mask is initialized to this value. If not specified, the mask
           will be initialized to 022.

           useradd and newusers use this mask to set the mode of the home directory they create

           It is also used by pam_umask as the default umask value.

FILES

       /etc/passwd
           User account information.

       /etc/shadow
           Secure user account information.

       /etc/group
           Group account information.

       /etc/gshadow
           Secure group account information.

       /etc/login.defs
           Shadow password suite configuration.

       /etc/pam.d/newusers
           PAM configuration for newusers.

SEE ALSO

       login.defs(5), passwd(1), useradd(8).