Provided by: ppp_2.4.5-5ubuntu1_i386 bug

NAME

       pppd - Point-to-Point Protocol Daemon

SYNOPSIS

       pppd [ options ]

DESCRIPTION

       PPP  is  the protocol used for establishing internet links over dial-up
       modems, DSL connections, and many other types of point-to-point  links.
       The  pppd daemon works together with the kernel PPP driver to establish
       and maintain a PPP link with another system (called the  peer)  and  to
       negotiate  Internet  Protocol  (IP) addresses for each end of the link.
       Pppd can  also  authenticate  the  peer  and/or  supply  authentication
       information  to the peer.  PPP can be used with other network protocols
       besides IP, but such use is becoming increasingly rare.

FREQUENTLY USED OPTIONS

       ttyname
              Use the serial port called ttyname to communicate with the peer.
              If  ttyname  does not begin with a slash (/), the string "/dev/"
              is prepended to ttyname to form the name of the device to  open.
              If  no  device  name  is  given,  or if the name of the terminal
              connected to the standard input is given,  pppd  will  use  that
              terminal,  and will not fork to put itself in the background.  A
              value for  this  option  from  a  privileged  source  cannot  be
              overridden by a non-privileged user.

       speed  An  option that is a decimal number is taken as the desired baud
              rate for the serial device.   On  systems  such  as  4.4BSD  and
              NetBSD,  any speed can be specified.  Other systems (e.g. Linux,
              SunOS) only support the commonly-used baud rates.

       asyncmap map
              This option sets the Async-Control-Character-Map (ACCM) for this
              end  of the link.  The ACCM is a set of 32 bits, one for each of
              the ASCII control characters with values from 0 to 31, where a 1
              bit  indicates  that  the corresponding control character should
              not be used in PPP packets sent to  this  system.   The  map  is
              encoded as a hexadecimal number (without a leading 0x) where the
              least significant bit (00000001) represents character 0 and  the
              most  significant  bit (80000000) represents character 31.  Pppd
              will ask the peer to send these characters as  a  2-byte  escape
              sequence.   If  multiple  asyncmap options are given, the values
              are ORed together.  If no asyncmap option is given, the  default
              is  zero,  so  pppd  will ask the peer not to escape any control
              characters.  To escape transmitted characters,  use  the  escape
              option.

       auth   Require  the peer to authenticate itself before allowing network
              packets to be sent or received.  This option is the  default  if
              the  system has a default route.  If neither this option nor the
              noauth option is specified, pppd will only allow the peer to use
              IP addresses to which the system does not already have a route.

       call name
              Read additional options from the file /etc/ppp/peers/name.  This
              file may contain privileged options, such  as  noauth,  even  if
              pppd  is  not  being run by root.  The name string may not begin
              with / or include .. as a pathname component.  The format of the
              options file is described below.

       connect script
              Usually there is something which needs to be done to prepare the
              link before the PPP protocol can be started; for instance,  with
              a  dial-up  modem, commands need to be sent to the modem to dial
              the appropriate phone number.  This option specifies an  command
              for pppd to execute (by passing it to a shell) before attempting
              to start PPP negotiation.  The chat (8) program is often  useful
              here,  as it provides a way to send arbitrary strings to a modem
              and respond to received characters.  A  value  for  this  option
              from  a  privileged  source  cannot  be  overridden  by  a  non-
              privileged user.

       crtscts
              Specifies that pppd should set the serial port to  use  hardware
              flow  control  using  the  RTS  and  CTS  signals  in the RS-232
              interface.  If neither the crtscts, the nocrtscts,  the  cdtrcts
              nor  the  nocdtrcts  option  is given, the hardware flow control
              setting for the serial port  is  left  unchanged.   Some  serial
              ports  (such  as Macintosh serial ports) lack a true RTS output.
              Such serial ports use this mode to implement unidirectional flow
              control.   The   serial  port  will  suspend  transmission  when
              requested by the modem (via CTS) but will be unable  to  request
              the modem to stop sending to the computer. This mode retains the
              ability to use DTR as a modem control line.

       defaultroute
              Add a default route to the system routing tables, using the peer
              as the gateway, when IPCP negotiation is successfully completed.
              This entry is removed when the PPP connection is  broken.   This
              option  is  privileged  if  the  nodefaultroute  option has been
              specified.

       replacedefaultroute
              This  option  is  a  flag  to  the   defaultroute   option.   If
              defaultroute  is set and this flag is also set, pppd replaces an
              existing default route with the new default route.

       disconnect script
              Execute the command specified by script,  by  passing  it  to  a
              shell,  after pppd has terminated the link.  This command could,
              for example, issue commands to the modem to cause it to hang  up
              if  hardware  modem  control  signals  were  not available.  The
              disconnect script is not run if the modem has already  hung  up.
              A  value  for  this  option  from  a privileged source cannot be
              overridden by a non-privileged user.

       escape xx,yy,...
              Specifies  that  certain  characters  should   be   escaped   on
              transmission (regardless of whether the peer requests them to be
              escaped with its async control character map).   The  characters
              to  be  escaped are specified as a list of hex numbers separated
              by commas.  Note that almost any character can be specified  for
              the  escape option, unlike the asyncmap option which only allows
              control characters to be specified.  The  characters  which  may
              not be escaped are those with hex values 0x20 - 0x3f or 0x5e.

       file name
              Read  options  from  file  name (the format is described below).
              The file must be readable by the user who has invoked pppd.

       init script
              Execute the command specified by script,  by  passing  it  to  a
              shell,  to  initialize  the  serial  line.   This  script  would
              typically use the chat(8) program  to  configure  the  modem  to
              enable  auto  answer.  A value for this option from a privileged
              source cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

       lock   Specifies that pppd should create a UUCP-style lock file for the
              serial  device  to  ensure  exclusive  access to the device.  By
              default, pppd will not create a lock file.

       mru n  Set the MRU [Maximum Receive Unit] value to n. Pppd will ask the
              peer  to  send  packets of no more than n bytes.  The value of n
              must be between 128 and 16384; the default is 1500.  A value  of
              296  works well on very slow links (40 bytes for TCP/IP header +
              256 bytes of data).  Note that for the IPv6  protocol,  the  MRU
              must be at least 1280.

       mtu n  Set the MTU [Maximum Transmit Unit] value to n.  Unless the peer
              requests a smaller value via MRU negotiation, pppd will  request
              that  the  kernel  networking  code send data packets of no more
              than n bytes through the PPP network interface.  Note  that  for
              the IPv6 protocol, the MTU must be at least 1280.

       passive
              Enables the "passive" option in the LCP.  With this option, pppd
              will attempt to initiate a connection; if no reply  is  received
              from  the  peer,  pppd will then just wait passively for a valid
              LCP packet from the  peer,  instead  of  exiting,  as  it  would
              without this option.

OPTIONS

       <local_IP_address>:<remote_IP_address>
              Set  the local and/or remote interface IP addresses.  Either one
              may be omitted.  The IP addresses can be specified with  a  host
              name  or  in  decimal  dot  notation  (e.g. 150.234.56.78).  The
              default local address is the (first) IP address  of  the  system
              (unless  the  noipdefault  option is given).  The remote address
              will be obtained from the peer if not specified in  any  option.
              Thus,  in simple cases, this option is not required.  If a local
              and/or remote IP address is specified  with  this  option,  pppd
              will  not  accept  a  different  value from the peer in the IPCP
              negotiation,     unless     the     ipcp-accept-local     and/or
              ipcp-accept-remote options are given, respectively.

       +ipv6  Enable the IPv6CP and IPv6 protocols.

       ipv6 <local_interface_identifier>,<remote_interface_identifier>
              Set  the local and/or remote 64-bit interface identifier. Either
              one may be omitted. The identifier must be specified in standard
              ascii  notation  of  IPv6  addresses  (e.g. ::dead:beef). If the
              ipv6cp-use-ipaddr option is given, the local identifier  is  the
              local  IPv4  address  (see  above).  On systems which supports a
              unique persistent id, such as EUI-48 derived from  the  Ethernet
              MAC address, ipv6cp-use-persistent option can be used to replace
              the ipv6 <local>,<remote> option. Otherwise  the  identifier  is
              randomized.

       active-filter filter-expression
              Specifies  a  packet  filter  to  be  applied to data packets to
              determine which packets are to be regarded as link activity, and
              therefore  reset the idle timer, or cause the link to be brought
              up  in  demand-dialling  mode.   This  option   is   useful   in
              conjunction with the idle option if there are packets being sent
              or received  regularly  over  the  link  (for  example,  routing
              information packets) which would otherwise prevent the link from
              ever appearing to be idle.  The filter-expression syntax  is  as
              described  for  tcpdump(1),  except  that  qualifiers  which are
              inappropriate for a PPP link, such as ether  and  arp,  are  not
              permitted.   Generally  the filter expression should be enclosed
              in single-quotes to prevent whitespace in  the  expression  from
              being  interpreted  by  the shell. This option is currently only
              available  under  Linux,  and  requires  that  the  kernel   was
              configured to include PPP filtering support (CONFIG_PPP_FILTER).
              Note that it is  possible  to  apply  different  constraints  to
              incoming  and  outgoing  packets  using the inbound and outbound
              qualifiers.

       allow-ip address(es)
              Allow peers to use  the  given  IP  address  or  subnet  without
              authenticating  themselves.  The parameter is parsed as for each
              element of the list of allowed IP addresses in the secrets files
              (see the AUTHENTICATION section below).

       allow-number number
              Allow  peers  to  connect  from  the  given telephone number.  A
              trailing `*' character will match all numbers beginning with the
              leading part.

       bsdcomp nr,nt
              Request  that the peer compress packets that it sends, using the
              BSD-Compress scheme, with a maximum code size of  nr  bits,  and
              agree  to  compress packets sent to the peer with a maximum code
              size of nt bits.  If nt is not specified,  it  defaults  to  the
              value given for nr.  Values in the range 9 to 15 may be used for
              nr and nt; larger values give  better  compression  but  consume
              more kernel memory for compression dictionaries.  Alternatively,
              a  value  of  0  for  nr  or  nt  disables  compression  in  the
              corresponding  direction.  Use nobsdcomp or bsdcomp 0 to disable
              BSD-Compress compression entirely.

       cdtrcts
              Use a non-standard  hardware  flow  control  (i.e.  DTR/CTS)  to
              control  the  flow  of  data on the serial port.  If neither the
              crtscts, the nocrtscts, the cdtrcts nor the nocdtrcts option  is
              given,  the hardware flow control setting for the serial port is
              left unchanged.  Some serial ports  (such  as  Macintosh  serial
              ports)  lack  a true RTS output. Such serial ports use this mode
              to implement true bi-directional flow control. The sacrifice  is
              that this flow control mode does not permit using DTR as a modem
              control line.

       chap-interval n
              If this option is given, pppd will rechallenge the peer every  n
              seconds.

       chap-max-challenge n
              Set  the  maximum  number  of  CHAP challenge transmissions to n
              (default 10).

       chap-restart n
              Set  the  CHAP  restart  interval  (retransmission  timeout  for
              challenges) to n seconds (default 3).

       child-timeout n
              When  exiting,  wait for up to n seconds for any child processes
              (such as the command specified with the  pty  command)  to  exit
              before  exiting.   At  the  end of the timeout, pppd will send a
              SIGTERM signal to any remaining child  processes  and  exit.   A
              value  of  0 means no timeout, that is, pppd will wait until all
              child processes have exited.

       connect-delay n
              Wait for up to n milliseconds after the connect script  finishes
              for  a valid PPP packet from the peer.  At the end of this time,
              or when a valid PPP packet is received from the peer, pppd  will
              commence  negotiation  by  sending  its  first  LCP packet.  The
              default value is 1000 (1 second).  This wait period only applies
              if the connect or pty option is used.

       debug  Enables  connection  debugging  facilities.   If  this option is
              given, pppd will log the contents of all control packets sent or
              received  in  a  readable  form.  The packets are logged through
              syslog with facility daemon and level debug.   This  information
              can  be  directed  to  a  file  by  setting  up /etc/syslog.conf
              appropriately (see syslog.conf(5)).

       default-asyncmap
              Disable asyncmap negotiation, forcing all control characters  to
              be escaped for both the transmit and the receive direction.

       default-mru
              Disable  MRU  [Maximum  Receive  Unit]  negotiation.   With this
              option, pppd will use the default MRU value of  1500  bytes  for
              both the transmit and receive direction.

       deflate nr,nt
              Request  that the peer compress packets that it sends, using the
              Deflate scheme, with a maximum window size of 2**nr  bytes,  and
              agree to compress packets sent to the peer with a maximum window
              size of 2**nt bytes.  If nt is not specified, it defaults to the
              value given for nr.  Values in the range 9 to 15 may be used for
              nr and nt; larger values give  better  compression  but  consume
              more kernel memory for compression dictionaries.  Alternatively,
              a  value  of  0  for  nr  or  nt  disables  compression  in  the
              corresponding  direction.  Use nodeflate or deflate 0 to disable
              Deflate compression  entirely.   (Note:  pppd  requests  Deflate
              compression  in  preference  to  BSD-Compress if the peer can do
              either.)

       demand Initiate the link only on demand,  i.e.  when  data  traffic  is
              present.   With  this  option,  the  remote  IP  address must be
              specified by the user on the command line or in an options file.
              Pppd will initially configure the interface and enable it for IP
              traffic  without  connecting  to  the  peer.   When  traffic  is
              available,   pppd   will   connect   to  the  peer  and  perform
              negotiation, authentication, etc.  When this is completed,  pppd
              will commence passing data packets (i.e., IP packets) across the
              link.

              The demand option implies the persist option.  If this behaviour
              is  not  desired,  use  the  nopersist  option  after the demand
              option.  The  idle  and  holdoff  options  are  also  useful  in
              conjunction with the demand option.

       domain d
              Append   the   domain   name  d  to  the  local  host  name  for
              authentication purposes.  For example, if gethostname()  returns
              the  name  porsche,  but  the  fully  qualified  domain  name is
              porsche.Quotron.COM, you could specify domain Quotron.COM.  Pppd
              would  then  use  the  name  porsche.Quotron.COM  for looking up
              secrets in the secrets file, and as the default name to send  to
              the peer when authenticating itself to the peer.  This option is
              privileged.

       dryrun With the dryrun option, pppd  will  print  out  all  the  option
              values  which  have  been  set  and then exit, after parsing the
              command line and options files and checking the  option  values,
              but before initiating the link.  The option values are logged at
              level info, and also  printed  to  standard  output  unless  the
              device on standard output is the device that pppd would be using
              to communicate with the peer.

       dump   With the dump option, pppd will print out all the option  values
              which  have  been  set.   This  option is like the dryrun option
              except that pppd proceeds as normal rather than exiting.

       enable-session
              Enables  session  accounting   via   PAM   or   wtwp/wtmpx,   as
              appropriate.   When  PAM  is  enabled,  the  PAM  "account"  and
              "session" module stacks determine behavior, and are enabled  for
              all   PPP  authentication  protocols.   When  PAM  is  disabled,
              wtmp/wtmpx entries are recorded regardless of whether  the  peer
              name  identifies  a valid user on the local system, making peers
              visible in the  last(1)  log.   This  feature  is  automatically
              enabled  when the pppd login option is used.  Session accounting
              is disabled by default.

       endpoint <epdisc>
              Sets the endpoint discriminator sent by the local machine to the
              peer  during  multilink negotiation to <epdisc>.  The default is
              to use the MAC address of the first ethernet  interface  on  the
              system,  if any, otherwise the IPv4 address corresponding to the
              hostname, if any,  provided  it  is  not  in  the  multicast  or
              locally-assigned  IP  address  ranges, or the localhost address.
              The endpoint discriminator can be the string null or of the form
              type:value, where type is a decimal number or one of the strings
              local, IP, MAC, magic, or phone.  The value is an IP address  in
              dotted-decimal notation for the IP type, or a string of bytes in
              hexadecimal, separated by periods or colons for the other types.
              For  the MAC type, the value may also be the name of an ethernet
              or similar network interface.  This  option  is  currently  only
              available under Linux.

       eap-interval n
              If this option is given and pppd authenticates the peer with EAP
              (i.e., is the server),  pppd  will  restart  EAP  authentication
              every  n  seconds.   For EAP SRP-SHA1, see also the srp-interval
              option, which enables lightweight rechallenge.

       eap-max-rreq n
              Set the maximum number  of  EAP  Requests  to  which  pppd  will
              respond  (as  a  client) without hearing EAP Success or Failure.
              (Default is 20.)

       eap-max-sreq n
              Set the maximum number of EAP Requests that pppd will issue  (as
              a server) while attempting authentication.  (Default is 10.)

       eap-restart n
              Set  the  retransmit  timeout  for EAP Requests when acting as a
              server (authenticator).  (Default is 3 seconds.)

       eap-timeout n
              Set the maximum time to wait for the peer to send an EAP Request
              when  acting  as  a  client  (authenticatee).   (Default  is  20
              seconds.)

       hide-password
              When logging the contents of PAP  packets,  this  option  causes
              pppd  to  exclude the password string from the log.  This is the
              default.

       holdoff n
              Specifies how many seconds to wait before re-initiating the link
              after  it  terminates.   This  option only has any effect if the
              persist or demand option is used.  The  holdoff  period  is  not
              applied if the link was terminated because it was idle.

       idle n Specifies  that pppd should disconnect if the link is idle for n
              seconds.  The link  is  idle  when  no  data  packets  (i.e.  IP
              packets)  are being sent or received.  Note: it is not advisable
              to use this option with the persist option  without  the  demand
              option.   If  the  active-filter  option  is given, data packets
              which are rejected by the specified activity filter  also  count
              as the link being idle.

       ipcp-accept-local
              With  this option, pppd will accept the peer's idea of our local
              IP address, even if the local IP address  was  specified  in  an
              option.

       ipcp-accept-remote
              With  this  option,  pppd  will  accept  the  peer's idea of its
              (remote) IP address, even if the remote IP address was specified
              in an option.

       ipcp-max-configure n
              Set  the  maximum number of IPCP configure-request transmissions
              to n (default 10).

       ipcp-max-failure n
              Set the maximum number of IPCP  configure-NAKs  returned  before
              starting to send configure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       ipcp-max-terminate n
              Set  the  maximum number of IPCP terminate-request transmissions
              to n (default 3).

       ipcp-restart n
              Set the IPCP restart  interval  (retransmission  timeout)  to  n
              seconds (default 3).

       ipparam string
              Provides  an extra parameter to the ip-up, ip-pre-up and ip-down
              scripts.  If this option is given, the string supplied is  given
              as the 6th parameter to those scripts.

       ipv6cp-accept-local
              With  this option, pppd will accept the peer's idea of our local
              IPv6 interface identifier, even  if  the  local  IPv6  interface
              identifier was specified in an option.

       ipv6cp-max-configure n
              Set the maximum number of IPv6CP configure-request transmissions
              to n (default 10).

       ipv6cp-max-failure n
              Set the maximum number of IPv6CP configure-NAKs returned  before
              starting to send configure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       ipv6cp-max-terminate n
              Set the maximum number of IPv6CP terminate-request transmissions
              to n (default 3).

       ipv6cp-restart n
              Set the IPv6CP restart interval (retransmission  timeout)  to  n
              seconds (default 3).

       ipx    Enable  the  IPXCP  and IPX protocols.  This option is presently
              only supported under Linux, and only if  your  kernel  has  been
              configured to include IPX support.

       ipx-network n
              Set  the IPX network number in the IPXCP configure request frame
              to n, a hexadecimal number (without a leading 0x).  There is  no
              valid  default.   If  this  option is not specified, the network
              number is obtained from the peer.  If the peer does not have the
              network number, the IPX protocol will not be started.

       ipx-node n:m
              Set  the  IPX  node  numbers. The two node numbers are separated
              from each other with a colon character. The first  number  n  is
              the  local  node  number. The second number m is the peer's node
              number. Each node number is a hexadecimal  number,  at  most  10
              digits long. The node numbers on the ipx-network must be unique.
              There is no valid default. If this option is not specified  then
              the node numbers are obtained from the peer.

       ipx-router-name <string>
              Set  the name of the router. This is a string and is sent to the
              peer as information data.

       ipx-routing n
              Set the routing protocol to be received  by  this  option.  More
              than  one  instance  of ipx-routing may be specified. The 'none'
              option (0) may be specified as the only instance of ipx-routing.
              The values may be 0 for NONE, 2 for RIP/SAP, and 4 for NLSP.

       ipxcp-accept-local
              Accept  the  peer's  NAK  for  the  node number specified in the
              ipx-node option. If a node number was specified,  and  non-zero,
              the  default is to insist that the value be used. If you include
              this option then you will permit the peer to override the  entry
              of the node number.

       ipxcp-accept-network
              Accept  the  peer's  NAK for the network number specified in the
              ipx-network option. If a network number was specified, and  non-
              zero,  the  default  is to insist that the value be used. If you
              include this option then you will permit the  peer  to  override
              the entry of the node number.

       ipxcp-accept-remote
              Use the peer's network number specified in the configure request
              frame. If a node number was specified  for  the  peer  and  this
              option  was  not  specified,  the peer will be forced to use the
              value which you have specified.

       ipxcp-max-configure n
              Set the maximum number of IPXCP configure request  frames  which
              the system will send to n. The default is 10.

       ipxcp-max-failure n
              Set  the  maximum  number  of  IPXCP  NAK frames which the local
              system will send before it  rejects  the  options.  The  default
              value is 3.

       ipxcp-max-terminate n
              Set  the  maximum nuber of IPXCP terminate request frames before
              the local system considers that the peer  is  not  listening  to
              them. The default value is 3.

       kdebug n
              Enable  debugging  code  in  the  kernel-level  PPP driver.  The
              argument values depend on the specific  kernel  driver,  but  in
              general  a value of 1 will enable general kernel debug messages.
              (Note that these messages are usually only useful for  debugging
              the  kernel  driver itself.)  For the Linux 2.2.x kernel driver,
              the value is a sum of bits: 1 to enable general debug  messages,
              2  to  request that the contents of received packets be printed,
              and 4 to request that the contents  of  transmitted  packets  be
              printed.   On  most  systems, messages printed by the kernel are
              logged  by  syslog(1)   to   a   file   as   directed   in   the
              /etc/syslog.conf configuration file.

       ktune  Enables  pppd  to  alter  kernel settings as appropriate.  Under
              Linux,   pppd   will   enable   IP    forwarding    (i.e.    set
              /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward  to  1)  if the proxyarp option is
              used, and will enable the dynamic IP address  option  (i.e.  set
              /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_dynaddr  to 1) in demand mode if the local
              address changes.

       lcp-echo-adaptive
              If this option is used with  the  lcp-echo-failure  option  then
              pppd  will  send  LCP echo-request frames only if no traffic was
              received from the peer since the last echo-request was sent.

       lcp-echo-failure n
              If this option is given, pppd will presume the peer to  be  dead
              if  n  LCP  echo-requests are sent without receiving a valid LCP
              echo-reply.   If  this  happens,   pppd   will   terminate   the
              connection.   Use  of  this option requires a non-zero value for
              the lcp-echo-interval parameter.  This option  can  be  used  to
              enable  pppd to terminate after the physical connection has been
              broken (e.g., the modem has hung  up)  in  situations  where  no
              hardware modem control lines are available.

       lcp-echo-interval n
              If  this  option  is  given,  pppd will send an LCP echo-request
              frame to the peer every n seconds.   Normally  the  peer  should
              respond  to  the  echo-request  by  sending an echo-reply.  This
              option can be used with the lcp-echo-failure  option  to  detect
              that the peer is no longer connected.

       lcp-max-configure n
              Set the maximum number of LCP configure-request transmissions to
              n (default 10).

       lcp-max-failure n
              Set the maximum number of  LCP  configure-NAKs  returned  before
              starting to send configure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       lcp-max-terminate n
              Set the maximum number of LCP terminate-request transmissions to
              n (default 3).

       lcp-restart n
              Set the LCP  restart  interval  (retransmission  timeout)  to  n
              seconds (default 3).

       linkname name
              Sets  the  logical name of the link to name.  Pppd will create a
              file  named  ppp-name.pid  in  /var/run  (or  /etc/ppp  on  some
              systems)  containing  its  process  ID.   This  can be useful in
              determining which instance of pppd is responsible for  the  link
              to a given peer system.  This is a privileged option.

       local  Don't  use the modem control lines.  With this option, pppd will
              ignore the state of the CD  (Carrier  Detect)  signal  from  the
              modem  and  will  not change the state of the DTR (Data Terminal
              Ready) signal.  This is the opposite of the modem option.

       logfd n
              Send log messages to file descriptor  n.   Pppd  will  send  log
              messages  to  at  most  one  file or file descriptor (as well as
              sending the log messages to syslog),  so  this  option  and  the
              logfile  option are mutually exclusive.  The default is for pppd
              to send log messages to stdout (file descriptor 1),  unless  the
              serial port is already open on stdout.

       logfile filename
              Append log messages to the file filename (as well as sending the
              log messages to syslog).  The file is opened with the privileges
              of the user who invoked pppd, in append mode.

       login  Use  the  system  password  database for authenticating the peer
              using PAP, and record the user in the system  wtmp  file.   Note
              that  the  peer  must  have an entry in the /etc/ppp/pap-secrets
              file as well as the  system  password  database  to  be  allowed
              access.  See also the enable-session option.

       maxconnect n
              Terminate  the connection when it has been available for network
              traffic for n seconds (i.e. n seconds after  the  first  network
              control protocol comes up).

       maxfail n
              Terminate  after  n  consecutive  failed connection attempts.  A
              value of 0 means no limit.  The default value is 10.

       modem  Use the modem control lines.  This option is the default.   With
              this  option,  pppd will wait for the CD (Carrier Detect) signal
              from the modem to be asserted when  opening  the  serial  device
              (unless a connect script is specified), and it will drop the DTR
              (Data Terminal Ready) signal  briefly  when  the  connection  is
              terminated  and before executing the connect script.  On Ultrix,
              this option implies hardware flow control, as  for  the  crtscts
              option.  This is the opposite of the local option.

       mp     Enables  the  use  of  PPP  multilink;  this is an alias for the
              `multilink' option.  This option  is  currently  only  available
              under Linux.

       mppe-stateful
              Allow  MPPE  to  use  stateful  mode.   Stateless  mode is still
              attempted first.  The default is to disallow stateful mode.

       mpshortseq
              Enables the use of short (12-bit) sequence numbers in  multilink
              headers,  as opposed to 24-bit sequence numbers.  This option is
              only available under Linux, and only has any effect if multilink
              is enabled (see the multilink option).

       mrru n Sets  the  Maximum Reconstructed Receive Unit to n.  The MRRU is
              the maximum size for a received packet on  a  multilink  bundle,
              and  is  analogous  to  the  MRU for the individual links.  This
              option is currently only available under Linux, and only has any
              effect if multilink is enabled (see the multilink option).

       ms-dns <addr>
              If  pppd  is  acting  as a server for Microsoft Windows clients,
              this option allows pppd to supply one or two  DNS  (Domain  Name
              Server)  addresses  to  the clients.  The first instance of this
              option specifies the primary DNS address;  the  second  instance
              (if  given)  specifies  the secondary DNS address.  (This option
              was present in some  older  versions  of  pppd  under  the  name
              dns-addr.)

       ms-wins <addr>
              If  pppd  is acting as a server for Microsoft Windows or "Samba"
              clients, this option allows pppd  to  supply  one  or  two  WINS
              (Windows   Internet  Name  Services)  server  addresses  to  the
              clients.  The  first  instance  of  this  option  specifies  the
              primary  WINS  address; the second instance (if given) specifies
              the secondary WINS address.

       multilink
              Enables the use of the PPP multilink protocol.  If the peer also
              supports  multilink,  then this link can become part of a bundle
              between the local system and the peer.  If there is an  existing
              bundle  to  the  peer,  pppd will join this link to that bundle,
              otherwise pppd will create a  new  bundle.   See  the  MULTILINK
              section  below.   This  option is currently only available under
              Linux.

       name name
              Set the name of the local system for authentication purposes  to
              name.  This is a privileged option.  With this option, pppd will
              use lines in the secrets files which have  name  as  the  second
              field  when  looking  for  a secret to use in authenticating the
              peer.  In addition, unless overridden with the user option, name
              will be used as the name to send to the peer when authenticating
              the local system to the peer.  (Note that pppd does  not  append
              the domain name to name.)

       noaccomp
              Disable Address/Control compression in both directions (send and
              receive).

       noauth Do not require the peer to authenticate itself.  This option  is
              privileged.

       nobsdcomp
              Disables  BSD-Compress  compression;  pppd  will  not request or
              agree to compress packets using the BSD-Compress scheme.

       noccp  Disable CCP (Compression Control  Protocol)  negotiation.   This
              option  should  only  be  required if the peer is buggy and gets
              confused by requests from pppd for CCP negotiation.

       nocrtscts
              Disable hardware flow control (i.e. RTS/CTS) on the serial port.
              If neither the crtscts nor the nocrtscts nor the cdtrcts nor the
              nocdtrcts option is given, the hardware flow control setting for
              the serial port is left unchanged.

       nocdtrcts
              This  option is a synonym for nocrtscts. Either of these options
              will disable both forms of hardware flow control.

       nodefaultroute
              Disable the defaultroute option.  The system  administrator  who
              wishes  to  prevent  users from adding a default route with pppd
              can do so by placing this option in the /etc/ppp/options file.

       noreplacedefaultroute
              Disable the replacedefaultroute option. The system administrator
              who  wishes to prevent users from replacing a default route with
              pppd can do so by placing this option  in  the  /etc/ppp/options
              file.

       nodeflate
              Disables  Deflate compression; pppd will not request or agree to
              compress packets using the Deflate scheme.

       nodetach
              Don't  detach  from  the  controlling  terminal.   Without  this
              option,  if  a  serial  device  other  than  the terminal on the
              standard  input  is  specified,  pppd  will  fork  to  become  a
              background process.

       noendpoint
              Disables pppd from sending an endpoint discriminator to the peer
              or accepting one  from  the  peer  (see  the  MULTILINK  section
              below).   This  option  should  only  be required if the peer is
              buggy.

       noip   Disable IPCP negotiation  and  IP  communication.   This  option
              should  only  be required if the peer is buggy and gets confused
              by requests from pppd for IPCP negotiation.

       noipv6 Disable IPv6CP negotiation and IPv6 communication.  This  option
              should  only  be required if the peer is buggy and gets confused
              by requests from pppd for IPv6CP negotiation.

       noipdefault
              Disables the default behaviour  when  no  local  IP  address  is
              specified,  which  is  to  determine  (if possible) the local IP
              address from the hostname.  With this option, the peer will have
              to  supply  the local IP address during IPCP negotiation (unless
              it specified explicitly on the command line  or  in  an  options
              file).

       noipx  Disable the IPXCP and IPX protocols.  This option should only be
              required if the peer is buggy and gets confused by requests from
              pppd for IPXCP negotiation.

       noktune
              Opposite of the ktune option; disables pppd from changing system
              settings.

       nolock Opposite of the lock option;  specifies  that  pppd  should  not
              create  a  UUCP-style  lock  file  for  the serial device.  This
              option is privileged.

       nolog  Do not send log messages to a file  or  file  descriptor.   This
              option cancels the logfd and logfile options.

       nomagic
              Disable magic number negotiation.  With this option, pppd cannot
              detect a looped-back line.  This option should only be needed if
              the peer is buggy.

       nomp   Disables  the  use  of  PPP multilink.  This option is currently
              only available under Linux.

       nomppe Disables MPPE (Microsoft Point to Point  Encryption).   This  is
              the default.

       nomppe-40
              Disable 40-bit encryption with MPPE.

       nomppe-128
              Disable 128-bit encryption with MPPE.

       nomppe-stateful
              Disable MPPE stateful mode.  This is the default.

       nompshortseq
              Disables  the  use of short (12-bit) sequence numbers in the PPP
              multilink protocol, forcing the use of 24-bit sequence  numbers.
              This  option  is  currently only available under Linux, and only
              has any effect if multilink is enabled.

       nomultilink
              Disables the use of PPP multilink.   This  option  is  currently
              only available under Linux.

       nopcomp
              Disable  protocol  field  compression  negotiation  in  both the
              receive and the transmit direction.

       nopersist
              Exit once a connection has been made and  terminated.   This  is
              the  default  unless  the  persist  or  demand  option  has been
              specified.

       nopredictor1
              Do not accept or agree to Predictor-1 compression.

       noproxyarp
              Disable the  proxyarp  option.   The  system  administrator  who
              wishes  to  prevent  users  from creating proxy ARP entries with
              pppd can do so by placing this option  in  the  /etc/ppp/options
              file.

       noremoteip
              Allow pppd to operate without having an IP address for the peer.
              This option is only available under Linux.  Normally, pppd  will
              request  the  peer's IP address, and if the peer does not supply
              it, pppd will not bring up the link for IP traffic.   With  this
              option,  if  the  peer does not supply its IP address, pppd will
              not ask the peer for  it,  and  will  not  set  the  destination
              address  of  the  ppp  interface.   In  this  situation, the ppp
              interface can be used for routing by creating device routes, but
              the peer itself cannot be addressed directly for IP traffic.

       notty  Normally,  pppd  requires  a terminal device.  With this option,
              pppd will allocate itself a pseudo-tty master/slave pair and use
              the  slave  as  its  terminal  device.  Pppd will create a child
              process to act as a `character  shunt'  to  transfer  characters
              between the pseudo-tty master and its standard input and output.
              Thus pppd will transmit characters on its  standard  output  and
              receive  characters  on  its standard input even if they are not
              terminal devices.  This option increases  the  latency  and  CPU
              overhead  of  transferring data over the ppp interface as all of
              the characters sent and received must flow through the character
              shunt process.  An explicit device name may not be given if this
              option is used.

       novj   Disable Van Jacobson style TCP/IP header compression in both the
              transmit and the receive direction.

       novjccomp
              Disable  the  connection-ID  compression  option in Van Jacobson
              style TCP/IP header compression.  With this  option,  pppd  will
              not  omit  the  connection-ID  byte from Van Jacobson compressed
              TCP/IP headers, nor ask the peer to do so.

       papcrypt
              Indicates that all  secrets  in  the  /etc/ppp/pap-secrets  file
              which  are  used  for  checking  the  identity  of  the peer are
              encrypted, and thus pppd should not  accept  a  password  which,
              before   encryption,   is  identical  to  the  secret  from  the
              /etc/ppp/pap-secrets file.

       pap-max-authreq n
              Set the maximum number of PAP authenticate-request transmissions
              to n (default 10).

       pap-restart n
              Set  the  PAP  restart  interval  (retransmission  timeout) to n
              seconds (default 3).

       pap-timeout n
              Set the maximum time  that  pppd  will  wait  for  the  peer  to
              authenticate itself with PAP to n seconds (0 means no limit).

       pass-filter filter-expression
              Specifies  a packet filter to applied to data packets being sent
              or received to determine which  packets  should  be  allowed  to
              pass.   Packets  which  are  rejected by the filter are silently
              discarded.  This option can be used to prevent specific  network
              daemons  (such as routed) using up link bandwidth, or to provide
              a very basic firewall capability.  The filter-expression  syntax
              is as described for tcpdump(1), except that qualifiers which are
              inappropriate for a PPP link, such as ether  and  arp,  are  not
              permitted.   Generally  the filter expression should be enclosed
              in single-quotes to prevent whitespace in  the  expression  from
              being  interpreted  by  the  shell.  Note that it is possible to
              apply different constraints to  incoming  and  outgoing  packets
              using  the  inbound  and  outbound  qualifiers.  This  option is
              currently only available under  Linux,  and  requires  that  the
              kernel   was   configured   to  include  PPP  filtering  support
              (CONFIG_PPP_FILTER).

       password password-string
              Specifies the password to use for authenticating  to  the  peer.
              Use  of this option is discouraged, as the password is likely to
              be visible to other users on the system (for example,  by  using
              ps(1)).

       persist
              Do  not  exit  after  a connection is terminated; instead try to
              reopen the connection. The maxfail option still has an effect on
              persistent connections.

       plugin filename
              Load  the shared library object file filename as a plugin.  This
              is a privileged option.  If filename does not  contain  a  slash
              (/),  pppd  will look in the /usr/lib/pppd/version directory for
              the plugin, where version is the version  number  of  pppd  (for
              example, 2.4.2).

       predictor1
              Request  that  the  peer  compress  frames  that  it sends using
              Predictor-1  compression,  and  agree  to  compress  transmitted
              frames with Predictor-1 if requested.  This option has no effect
              unless the kernel driver supports Predictor-1 compression.

       privgroup group-name
              Allows members of group group-name to  use  privileged  options.
              This  is  a privileged option.  Use of this option requires care
              as there is no guarantee that members of group-name  cannot  use
              pppd  to  become  root  themselves.   Consider  it equivalent to
              putting the members of group-name in the kmem or disk group.

       proxyarp
              Add an entry to this system's ARP [Address Resolution  Protocol]
              table  with  the IP address of the peer and the Ethernet address
              of this system.  This will have the effect of  making  the  peer
              appear to other systems to be on the local ethernet.

       pty script
              Specifies  that  the command script is to be used to communicate
              rather than a specific  terminal  device.   Pppd  will  allocate
              itself  a  pseudo-tty master/slave pair and use the slave as its
              terminal device.  The script will be run in a child process with
              the  pseudo-tty  master  as  its  standard input and output.  An
              explicit device name may not be given if this  option  is  used.
              (Note:  if the record option is used in conjunction with the pty
              option, the child process will have pipes on its standard  input
              and output.)

       receive-all
              With  this  option, pppd will accept all control characters from
              the peer,  including  those  marked  in  the  receive  asyncmap.
              Without  this  option,  pppd  will  discard  those characters as
              specified in RFC1662.  This option should only be needed if  the
              peer is buggy.

       record filename
              Specifies  that  pppd  should  record  all  characters  sent and
              received to a file named  filename.   This  file  is  opened  in
              append  mode,  using  the  user's user-ID and permissions.  This
              option is implemented  using  a  pseudo-tty  and  a  process  to
              transfer  characters  between the pseudo-tty and the real serial
              device, so it will increase the  latency  and  CPU  overhead  of
              transferring  data  over  the ppp interface.  The characters are
              stored  in  a  tagged  format  with  timestamps,  which  can  be
              displayed in readable form using the pppdump(8) program.

       remotename name
              Set  the  assumed  name  of the remote system for authentication
              purposes to name.

       remotenumber number
              Set the assumed  telephone  number  of  the  remote  system  for
              authentication purposes to number.

       refuse-chap
              With  this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to
              the peer using CHAP.

       refuse-mschap
              With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself  to
              the peer using MS-CHAP.

       refuse-mschap-v2
              With  this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to
              the peer using MS-CHAPv2.

       refuse-eap
              With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself  to
              the peer using EAP.

       refuse-pap
              With  this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to
              the peer using PAP.

       require-chap
              Require the peer to authenticate itself  using  CHAP  [Challenge
              Handshake Authentication Protocol] authentication.

       require-mppe
              Require  the  use of MPPE (Microsoft Point to Point Encryption).
              This option disables all other compression types.   This  option
              enables  both  40-bit and 128-bit encryption.  In order for MPPE
              to successfully come up, you must have authenticated with either
              MS-CHAP  or  MS-CHAPv2.  This option is presently only supported
              under Linux, and only if your  kernel  has  been  configured  to
              include MPPE support.

       require-mppe-40
              Require the use of MPPE, with 40-bit encryption.

       require-mppe-128
              Require the use of MPPE, with 128-bit encryption.

       require-mschap
              Require the peer to authenticate itself using MS-CHAP [Microsoft
              Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol] authentication.

       require-mschap-v2
              Require  the  peer  to  authenticate  itself   using   MS-CHAPv2
              [Microsoft  Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, Version
              2] authentication.

       require-eap
              Require the peer to authenticate itself  using  EAP  [Extensible
              Authentication Protocol] authentication.

       require-pap
              Require  the  peer  to  authenticate  itself using PAP [Password
              Authentication Protocol] authentication.

       show-password
              When logging the contents of PAP  packets,  this  option  causes
              pppd to show the password string in the log message.

       silent With this option, pppd will not transmit LCP packets to initiate
              a connection until a valid LCP packet is received from the  peer
              (as for the `passive' option with ancient versions of pppd).

       srp-interval n
              If  this  parameter  is  given  and  pppd  uses  EAP SRP-SHA1 to
              authenticate the peer (i.e., is the server), then pppd will  use
              the  optional lightweight SRP rechallenge mechanism at intervals
              of  n  seconds.   This  option  is  faster   than   eap-interval
              reauthentication because it uses a hash-based mechanism and does
              not derive a new session key.

       srp-pn-secret string
              Set the long-term pseudonym-generating secret  for  the  server.
              This  value  is  optional  and  if set, needs to be known at the
              server (authenticator) side only, and should  be  different  for
              each  server  (or  poll of identical servers).  It is used along
              with the current date to generate a key to encrypt  and  decrypt
              the client's identity contained in the pseudonym.

       srp-use-pseudonym
              When  operating  as  an  EAP SRP-SHA1 client, attempt to use the
              pseudonym stored in ~/.ppp_pseudonym first as the identity,  and
              save  in  this  file  any  pseudonym  offered by the peer during
              authentication.

       sync   Use synchronous HDLC serial encoding  instead  of  asynchronous.
              The device used by pppd with this option must have sync support.
              Currently supports Microgate SyncLink adapters under  Linux  and
              FreeBSD 2.2.8 and later.

       unit num
              Sets the ppp unit number (for a ppp0 or ppp1 etc interface name)
              for outbound connections.

       updetach
              With this option, pppd will detach from its controlling terminal
              once  it has successfully established the ppp connection (to the
              point where the first network control protocol, usually  the  IP
              control protocol, has come up).

       usehostname
              Enforce  the  use of the hostname (with domain name appended, if
              given) as the  name  of  the  local  system  for  authentication
              purposes  (overrides  the  name  option).   This  option  is not
              normally needed since the name option is privileged.

       usepeerdns
              Ask the peer for up to 2 DNS server  addresses.   The  addresses
              supplied  by  the peer (if any) are passed to the /etc/ppp/ip-up
              script in the environment  variables  DNS1  and  DNS2,  and  the
              environment  variable USEPEERDNS will be set to 1.  In addition,
              pppd will create an /etc/ppp/resolv.conf file containing one  or
              two nameserver lines with the address(es) supplied by the peer.

       user name
              Sets  the  name  used for authenticating the local system to the
              peer to name.

       vj-max-slots n
              Sets the number of connection  slots  to  be  used  by  the  Van
              Jacobson  TCP/IP header compression and decompression code to n,
              which must be between 2 and 16 (inclusive).

       welcome script
              Run the executable or shell command specified by  script  before
              initiating  PPP  negotiation,  after the connect script (if any)
              has completed.  A value for this option from a privileged source
              cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

       xonxoff
              Use software flow control (i.e. XON/XOFF) to control the flow of
              data on the serial port.

OPTIONS FILES

       Options can be taken from files as well  as  the  command  line.   Pppd
       reads   options   from   the   files   /etc/ppp/options,  ~/.ppprc  and
       /etc/ppp/options.ttyname (in that order) before processing the  options
       on the command line.  (In fact, the command-line options are scanned to
       find the terminal name before the options.ttyname file  is  read.)   In
       forming  the  name  of  the  options.ttyname file, the initial /dev/ is
       removed from the terminal name, and  any  remaining  /  characters  are
       replaced with dots.

       An  options  file  is  parsed  into  a  series  of  words, delimited by
       whitespace.  Whitespace can be included in a word by enclosing the word
       in  double-quotes (").  A backslash (\) quotes the following character.
       A hash (#) starts a comment, which continues until the end of the line.
       There  is  no  restriction  on using the file or call options within an
       options file.

SECURITY

       pppd provides system administrators with sufficient access control that
       PPP  access  to  a  server  machine can be provided to legitimate users
       without fear of compromising the security of the server or the  network
       it's  on.   This  control  is provided through restrictions on which IP
       addresses the peer may use, based on  its  authenticated  identity  (if
       any),  and  through restrictions on which options a non-privileged user
       may use.  Several of pppd's options are privileged, in particular those
       which  permit  potentially  insecure  configurations; these options are
       only accepted in files which  are  under  the  control  of  the  system
       administrator, or if pppd is being run by root.

       The  default  behaviour  of pppd is to allow an unauthenticated peer to
       use a given IP address only if the system does not already have a route
       to  that IP address.  For example, a system with a permanent connection
       to the wider internet will normally have a default route, and thus  all
       peers  will  have  to  authenticate  themselves  in  order  to set up a
       connection.  On such a system, the auth option is the default.  On  the
       other  hand,  a system where the PPP link is the only connection to the
       internet will not normally have a default route, so the  peer  will  be
       able to use almost any IP address without authenticating itself.

       As  indicated  above,  some  security-sensitive options are privileged,
       which means that they may not be used  by  an  ordinary  non-privileged
       user  running  a  setuid-root  pppd, either on the command line, in the
       user's ~/.ppprc file, or in an options file read using the file option.
       Privileged  options  may  be  used  in  /etc/ppp/options  file or in an
       options file read using the call option.  If pppd is being run  by  the
       root user, privileged options can be used without restriction.

       When  opening  the device, pppd uses either the invoking user's user ID
       or the root UID (that is, 0), depending on whether the device name  was
       specified  by the user or the system administrator.  If the device name
       comes from a privileged source, that is, /etc/ppp/options or an options
       file  read  using  the call option, pppd uses full root privileges when
       opening the device.   Thus,  by  creating  an  appropriate  file  under
       /etc/ppp/peers, the system administrator can allow users to establish a
       ppp connection  via  a  device  which  they  would  not  normally  have
       permission to access.  Otherwise pppd uses the invoking user's real UID
       when opening the device.

AUTHENTICATION

       Authentication is the process whereby one peer convinces the  other  of
       its  identity.   This  involves  the first peer sending its name to the
       other, together with some kind of secret information which  could  only
       come  from  the  genuine  authorized  user  of  that  name.  In such an
       exchange, we will call the first peer the "client" and  the  other  the
       "server".   The  client has a name by which it identifies itself to the
       server, and the server also has a name by which it identifies itself to
       the  client.   Generally  the  genuine  client  shares  some secret (or
       password) with the server, and authenticates itself by proving that  it
       knows  that  secret.   Very  often,  the  names used for authentication
       correspond to the internet hostnames of the  peers,  but  this  is  not
       essential.

       At  present, pppd supports three authentication protocols: the Password
       Authentication  Protocol  (PAP),  Challenge  Handshake   Authentication
       Protocol  (CHAP),  and  Extensible  Authentication Protocol (EAP).  PAP
       involves the client sending its name and a cleartext  password  to  the
       server  to  authenticate itself.  In contrast, the server initiates the
       CHAP authentication exchange by sending a challenge to the client  (the
       challenge  packet includes the server's name).  The client must respond
       with a response which includes its name plus a hash value derived  from
       the  shared  secret  and the challenge, in order to prove that it knows
       the secret.  EAP supports CHAP-style authentication, and also  includes
       the  SRP-SHA1 mechanism, which is resistant to dictionary-based attacks
       and does not require a cleartext password on the server side.

       The PPP protocol, being symmetrical, allows both peers to  require  the
       other   to  authenticate  itself.   In  that  case,  two  separate  and
       independent authentication exchanges will  occur.   The  two  exchanges
       could   use  different  authentication  protocols,  and  in  principle,
       different names could be used in the two exchanges.

       The default behaviour of pppd is to agree to authenticate if requested,
       and  to  not  require authentication from the peer.  However, pppd will
       not agree to authenticate itself with a particular protocol if  it  has
       no secrets which could be used to do so.

       Pppd  stores  secrets  for  use  in  authentication  in  secrets  files
       (/etc/ppp/pap-secrets for PAP, /etc/ppp/chap-secrets for CHAP, MS-CHAP,
       MS-CHAPv2,  and  EAP  MD5-Challenge,  and  /etc/ppp/srp-secrets for EAP
       SRP-SHA1).  All secrets files have the same format.  The secrets  files
       can  contain  secrets for pppd to use in authenticating itself to other
       systems, as well as secrets for pppd to use when  authenticating  other
       systems to itself.

       Each  line  in  a  secrets file contains one secret.  A given secret is
       specific to a particular combination of client and server - it can only
       be  used  by  that  client to authenticate itself to that server.  Thus
       each line in a secrets file has at least 3  fields:  the  name  of  the
       client,  the  name  of the server, and the secret.  These fields may be
       followed by a list of the IP addresses that the  specified  client  may
       use when connecting to the specified server.

       A  secrets  file  is  parsed  into  words as for a options file, so the
       client name, server name and secrets fields must each be one word, with
       any  embedded  spaces  or  other  special characters quoted or escaped.
       Note that case is significant in the client and server names and in the
       secret.

       If  the  secret  starts  with an `@', what follows is assumed to be the
       name of a file from which to read the secret.  A "*" as the  client  or
       server  name matches any name.  When selecting a secret, pppd takes the
       best match, i.e.  the match with the fewest wildcards.

       Any following words on the  same  line  are  taken  to  be  a  list  of
       acceptable  IP addresses for that client.  If there are only 3 words on
       the line, or if the first word  is  "-",  then  all  IP  addresses  are
       disallowed.   To  allow any address, use "*".  A word starting with "!"
       indicates that the specified address is not acceptable.  An address may
       be followed by "/" and a number n, to indicate a whole subnet, i.e. all
       addresses which have the same value in the most significant n bits.  In
       this form, the address may be followed by a plus sign ("+") to indicate
       that one address from the  subnet  is  authorized,  based  on  the  ppp
       network  interface  unit number in use.  In this case, the host part of
       the address will be set to the unit number plus one.

       Thus a secrets file contains both secrets  for  use  in  authenticating
       other  hosts, plus secrets which we use for authenticating ourselves to
       others.  When pppd is authenticating  the  peer  (checking  the  peer's
       identity),  it chooses a secret with the peer's name in the first field
       and the name of the local system in the second field.  The name of  the
       local system defaults to the hostname, with the domain name appended if
       the domain option is used.  This default can  be  overridden  with  the
       name  option,  except  when  the  usehostname option is used.  (For EAP
       SRP-SHA1, see the srp-entry(8) utility for generating proper  validator
       entries to be used in the "secret" field.)

       When  pppd  is choosing a secret to use in authenticating itself to the
       peer, it first determines what name it is  going  to  use  to  identify
       itself  to  the  peer.  This name can be specified by the user with the
       user option.  If this option is not used, the name defaults to the name
       of the local system, determined as described in the previous paragraph.
       Then pppd looks for a secret with this name in the first field and  the
       peer's  name  in the second field.  Pppd will know the name of the peer
       if CHAP or EAP authentication is being used, because the peer will have
       sent  it  in the challenge packet.  However, if PAP is being used, pppd
       will have to determine the peer's name from the  options  specified  by
       the  user.   The  user  can  specify  the peer's name directly with the
       remotename option.  Otherwise, if the remote IP address  was  specified
       by  a name (rather than in numeric form), that name will be used as the
       peer's name.  Failing that, pppd will use the null string as the peer's
       name.

       When  authenticating  the peer with PAP, the supplied password is first
       compared with the secret  from  the  secrets  file.   If  the  password
       doesn't  match  the secret, the password is encrypted using crypt() and
       checked against the secret again.  Thus secrets for authenticating  the
       peer  can  be  stored  in  encrypted  form if desired.  If the papcrypt
       option is given, the first (unencrypted)  comparison  is  omitted,  for
       better security.

       Furthermore,  if  the  login  option  was  specified,  the username and
       password are also checked against the system password database.   Thus,
       the  system  administrator can set up the pap-secrets file to allow PPP
       access only to certain users, and to restrict the set of  IP  addresses
       that  each  user  can use.  Typically, when using the login option, the
       secret in /etc/ppp/pap-secrets  would  be  "",  which  will  match  any
       password  supplied  by the peer.  This avoids the need to have the same
       secret in two places.

       Authentication must be satisfactorily completed  before  IPCP  (or  any
       other  Network  Control  Protocol)  can  be  started.   If  the peer is
       required to  authenticate  itself,  and  fails  to  do  so,  pppd  will
       terminated   the   link  (by  closing  LCP).   If  IPCP  negotiates  an
       unacceptable IP address for the remote host, IPCP will be  closed.   IP
       packets can only be sent or received when IPCP is open.

       In  some  cases  it  is  desirable  to  allow  some  hosts  which can't
       authenticate themselves to connect and use one of a restricted  set  of
       IP   addresses,   even   when   the   local   host  generally  requires
       authentication.  If  the  peer  refuses  to  authenticate  itself  when
       requested,  pppd  takes  that  as equivalent to authenticating with PAP
       using the empty string for the username and password.  Thus, by  adding
       a line to the pap-secrets file which specifies the empty string for the
       client and password, it is possible to allow restricted access to hosts
       which refuse to authenticate themselves.

ROUTING

       When  IPCP  negotiation is completed successfully, pppd will inform the
       kernel of the local and remote IP  addresses  for  the  ppp  interface.
       This  is  sufficient  to  create  a host route to the remote end of the
       link,  which  will  enable  the   peers   to   exchange   IP   packets.
       Communication   with   other   machines   generally   requires  further
       modification to routing tables and/or ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
       tables.   In  most  cases  the defaultroute and/or proxyarp options are
       sufficient  for  this,  but  in  some  cases  further  intervention  is
       required.  The /etc/ppp/ip-up script can be used for this.

       Sometimes  it  is  desirable  to add a default route through the remote
       host, as in the case of a machine whose only connection to the Internet
       is  through  the ppp interface.  The defaultroute option causes pppd to
       create such a default route when IPCP comes up, and delete it when  the
       link is terminated.

       In some cases it is desirable to use proxy ARP, for example on a server
       machine  connected  to  a  LAN,  in  order  to  allow  other  hosts  to
       communicate  with  the remote host.  The proxyarp option causes pppd to
       look for a network interface on the same subnet as the remote host  (an
       interface supporting broadcast and ARP, which is up and not a point-to-
       point or loopback interface).  If  found,  pppd  creates  a  permanent,
       published  ARP  entry  with  the  IP address of the remote host and the
       hardware address of the network interface found.

       When the demand option is used, the interface IP addresses have already
       been set at the point when IPCP comes up.  If pppd has not been able to
       negotiate the same addresses that it used to  configure  the  interface
       (for  example  when  the  peer  is  an ISP that uses dynamic IP address
       assignment), pppd has to change  the  interface  IP  addresses  to  the
       negotiated  addresses.   This may disrupt existing connections, and the
       use of demand dialling with peers that do dynamic IP address assignment
       is not recommended.

MULTILINK

       Multilink  PPP provides the capability to combine two or more PPP links
       between a pair of machines into a single `bundle', which appears  as  a
       single  virtual  PPP  link  which  has  the  combined  bandwidth of the
       individual links.  Currently, multilink PPP  is  only  supported  under
       Linux.

       Pppd  detects  that the link it is controlling is connected to the same
       peer as another link using the peer's endpoint  discriminator  and  the
       authenticated  identity  of the peer (if it authenticates itself).  The
       endpoint discriminator is a block of data which is hopefully unique for
       each  peer.   Several  types  of  data  can be used, including locally-
       assigned strings  of  bytes,  IP  addresses,  MAC  addresses,  randomly
       strings  of  bytes, or E-164 phone numbers.  The endpoint discriminator
       sent to the peer by pppd can be set using the endpoint option.

       In some circumstances the peer may send no endpoint discriminator or  a
       non-unique  value.   The  bundle  option  adds an extra string which is
       added to the peer's endpoint discriminator and  authenticated  identity
       when  matching  up links to be joined together in a bundle.  The bundle
       option can also be used to allow the establishment of multiple  bundles
       between  the  local  system  and the peer.  Pppd uses a TDB database in
       /var/run/pppd2.tdb to match up links.

       Assuming that multilink is enabled and the peer is willing to negotiate
       multilink,  then when pppd is invoked to bring up the first link to the
       peer, it will detect that no other link is connected to  the  peer  and
       create a new bundle, that is, another ppp network interface unit.  When
       another pppd is invoked to bring up another link to the peer,  it  will
       detect the existing bundle and join its link to it.

       If  the  first  link  terminates (for example, because of a hangup or a
       received LCP terminate-request) the  bundle  is  not  destroyed  unless
       there are no other links remaining in the bundle.  Rather than exiting,
       the first pppd keeps running after its link terminates, until  all  the
       links  in  the  bundle  have  terminated.  If the first pppd receives a
       SIGTERM or SIGINT signal, it will destroy the bundle and send a  SIGHUP
       to  the  pppd  processes  for  each of the links in the bundle.  If the
       first pppd receives a SIGHUP signal, it will terminate its link but not
       the bundle.

       Note: demand mode is not currently supported with multilink.

EXAMPLES

       The  following  examples assume that the /etc/ppp/options file contains
       the auth option (as in the default /etc/ppp/options  file  in  the  ppp
       distribution).

       Probably  the  most  common use of pppd is to dial out to an ISP.  This
       can be done with a command such as

              pppd call isp

       where the /etc/ppp/peers/isp file is set up by the system administrator
       to contain something like this:

              ttyS0 19200 crtscts
              connect '/usr/sbin/chat -v -f /etc/ppp/chat-isp'
              noauth

       In  this  example,  we  are  using  chat to dial the ISP's modem and go
       through  any  logon  sequence  required.   The  /etc/ppp/chat-isp  file
       contains  the  script  used  by  chat;  it  could  for  example contain
       something like this:

              ABORT "NO CARRIER"
              ABORT "NO DIALTONE"
              ABORT "ERROR"
              ABORT "NO ANSWER"
              ABORT "BUSY"
              ABORT "Username/Password Incorrect"
              "" "at"
              OK "at&d0&c1"
              OK "atdt2468135"
              "name:" "^Umyuserid"
              "word:" "\qmypassword"
              "ispts" "\q^Uppp"
              "~-^Uppp-~"

       See the chat(8) man page for details of chat scripts.

       Pppd can also be used to provide a dial-in ppp service for  users.   If
       the  users  already have login accounts, the simplest way to set up the
       ppp service is to let the users log in to their accounts and  run  pppd
       (installed setuid-root) with a command such as

              pppd proxyarp

       To  allow  a user to use the PPP facilities, you need to allocate an IP
       address  for   that   user's   machine   and   create   an   entry   in
       /etc/ppp/pap-secrets,  /etc/ppp/chap-secrets,  or  /etc/ppp/srp-secrets
       (depending on which authentication method the PPP implementation on the
       user's  machine  supports), so that the user's machine can authenticate
       itself.  For example, if Joe has a machine called "joespc" that  is  to
       be  allowed  to  dial  in to the machine called "server" and use the IP
       address  joespc.my.net,  you  would  add  an   entry   like   this   to
       /etc/ppp/pap-secrets or /etc/ppp/chap-secrets:

              joespc    server    "joe's secret" joespc.my.net

       (See  srp-entry(8)  for  a  means  to  generate the server's entry when
       SRP-SHA1 is in use.)  Alternatively, you can create a  username  called
       (for example) "ppp", whose login shell is pppd and whose home directory
       is /etc/ppp.  Options to be used when pppd is run this way can  be  put
       in /etc/ppp/.ppprc.

       If your serial connection is any more complicated than a piece of wire,
       you may need to arrange for some control characters to be escaped.   In
       particular,  it is often useful to escape XON (^Q) and XOFF (^S), using
       asyncmap a0000.  If the path includes a  telnet,  you  probably  should
       escape ^] as well (asyncmap 200a0000).  If the path includes an rlogin,
       you will need to use the escape ff option on the end which  is  running
       the   rlogin   client,   since  many  rlogin  implementations  are  not
       transparent; they will remove the sequence  [0xff,  0xff,  0x73,  0x73,
       followed by any 8 bytes] from the stream.

DIAGNOSTICS

       Messages  are  sent  to  the  syslog  daemon using facility LOG_DAEMON.
       (This can be overridden by recompiling  pppd  with  the  macro  LOG_PPP
       defined  as the desired facility.)  See the syslog(8) documentation for
       details of where the syslog daemon will write the  messages.   On  most
       systems,  the  syslog  daemon uses the /etc/syslog.conf file to specify
       the destination(s) for syslog messages.  You may need to edit that file
       to suit.

       The  debug  option  causes  the contents of all control packets sent or
       received to be logged, that is,  all  LCP,  PAP,  CHAP,  EAP,  or  IPCP
       packets.  This can be useful if the PPP negotiation does not succeed or
       if authentication fails.  If debugging is enabled at compile time,  the
       debug option also causes other debugging messages to be logged.

       Debugging  can  also be enabled or disabled by sending a SIGUSR1 signal
       to the pppd process.  This signal acts as a toggle.

EXIT STATUS

       The exit status of pppd is  set  to  indicate  whether  any  error  was
       detected, or the reason for the link being terminated.  The values used
       are:

       0      Pppd has detached, or otherwise the connection was  successfully
              established and terminated at the peer's request.

       1      An  immediately  fatal  error  of some kind occurred, such as an
              essential system call failing, or running out of virtual memory.

       2      An error was detected in processing the options given,  such  as
              two mutually exclusive options being used.

       3      Pppd is not setuid-root and the invoking user is not root.

       4      The  kernel  does  not  support PPP, for example, the PPP kernel
              driver is not included or cannot be loaded.

       5      Pppd terminated because it was sent a SIGINT, SIGTERM or  SIGHUP
              signal.

       6      The serial port could not be locked.

       7      The serial port could not be opened.

       8      The connect script failed (returned a non-zero exit status).

       9      The  command  specified  as the argument to the pty option could
              not be run.

       10     The PPP negotiation failed, that is, it didn't reach  the  point
              where at least one network protocol (e.g. IP) was running.

       11     The peer system failed (or refused) to authenticate itself.

       12     The  link was established successfully and terminated because it
              was idle.

       13     The link was established successfully and terminated because the
              connect time limit was reached.

       14     Callback  was  negotiated  and  an  incoming  call should arrive
              shortly.

       15     The link was terminated because the peer is  not  responding  to
              echo requests.

       16     The link was terminated by the modem hanging up.

       17     The PPP negotiation failed because serial loopback was detected.

       18     The init script failed (returned a non-zero exit status).

       19     We failed to authenticate ourselves to the peer.

SCRIPTS

       Pppd  invokes  scripts at various stages in its processing which can be
       used to perform site-specific ancillary processing.  These scripts  are
       usually  shell  scripts,  but  could  be executable code files instead.
       Pppd does not wait for the scripts to finish (except for the  ip-pre-up
       script).  The scripts are executed as root (with the real and effective
       user-id set to 0), so that they can do things such  as  update  routing
       tables  or  run  privileged  daemons.   Be careful that the contents of
       these scripts do not compromise your system's security.  Pppd runs  the
       scripts  with standard input, output and error redirected to /dev/null,
       and with an environment that  is  empty  except  for  some  environment
       variables  that  give  information  about  the  link.   The environment
       variables that pppd sets are:

       DEVICE The name of the serial tty device being used.

       IFNAME The name of the network interface being used.

       IPLOCAL
              The IP address for the local end of the link.  This is only  set
              when IPCP has come up.

       IPREMOTE
              The IP address for the remote end of the link.  This is only set
              when IPCP has come up.

       PEERNAME
              The authenticated name of the peer.  This is  only  set  if  the
              peer authenticates itself.

       SPEED  The baud rate of the tty device.

       ORIG_UID
              The real user-id of the user who invoked pppd.

       PPPLOGNAME
              The  username  of  the  real  user-id that invoked pppd. This is
              always set.

       For the ip-down and auth-down scripts, pppd  also  sets  the  following
       variables giving statistics for the connection:

       CONNECT_TIME
              The  number  of  seconds  from  when the PPP negotiation started
              until the connection was terminated.

       BYTES_SENT
              The number of bytes sent (at  the  level  of  the  serial  port)
              during the connection.

       BYTES_RCVD
              The  number  of bytes received (at the level of the serial port)
              during the connection.

       LINKNAME
              The logical name of the link, set with the linkname option.

       CALL_FILE
              The value of the call option.

       DNS1   If the peer supplies DNS server addresses, this variable is  set
              to the first DNS server address supplied.

       DNS2   If  the peer supplies DNS server addresses, this variable is set
              to the second DNS server address supplied.

       Pppd invokes the following scripts, if they exist.  It is not an  error
       if they don't exist.

       /etc/ppp/auth-up
              A  program  or  script which is executed after the remote system
              successfully authenticates itself.   It  is  executed  with  the
              parameters

              interface-name peer-name user-name tty-device speed

              Note  that  this  script  is  not  executed  if the peer doesn't
              authenticate itself, for example when the noauth option is used.

       /etc/ppp/auth-down
              A program or script which is executed when the link  goes  down,
              if  /etc/ppp/auth-up was previously executed.  It is executed in
              the same manner with the same parameters as /etc/ppp/auth-up.

       /etc/ppp/ip-pre-up
              A program or script  which  is  executed  just  before  the  ppp
              network  interface  is brought up.  It is executed with the same
              parameters as the ip-up  script  (below).   At  this  point  the
              interface  exists  and  has  IP  addresses assigned but is still
              down.  This can be used to add  firewall  rules  before  any  IP
              traffic can pass through the interface.  Pppd will wait for this
              script to finish before  bringing  the  interface  up,  so  this
              script should run quickly.

       /etc/ppp/ip-up
              A program or script which is executed when the link is available
              for sending and receiving IP packets (that  is,  IPCP  has  come
              up).  It is executed with the parameters

              interface-name       tty-device      speed      local-IP-address
              remote-IP-address ipparam

       /etc/ppp/ip-down
              A program or script which is executed when the link is no longer
              available for sending and receiving IP packets.  This script can
              be used for  undoing  the  effects  of  the  /etc/ppp/ip-up  and
              /etc/ppp/ip-pre-up  scripts.   It  is invoked in the same manner
              and with the same parameters as the ip-up script.

       /etc/ppp/ipv6-up
              Like /etc/ppp/ip-up, except that it is executed when the link is
              available for sending and receiving IPv6 packets. It is executed
              with the parameters

              interface-name   tty-device    speed    local-link-local-address
              remote-link-local-address ipparam

       /etc/ppp/ipv6-down
              Similar  to  /etc/ppp/ip-down,  but  it  is  executed  when IPv6
              packets can no longer be transmitted on the link. It is executed
              with the same parameters as the ipv6-up script.

       /etc/ppp/ipx-up
              A program or script which is executed when the link is available
              for sending and receiving IPX packets (that is, IPXCP  has  come
              up).  It is executed with the parameters

              interface-name       tty-device       speed       network-number
              local-IPX-node-address                   remote-IPX-node-address
              local-IPX-routing-protocol           remote-IPX-routing-protocol
              local-IPX-router-name remote-IPX-router-name ipparam pppd-pid

              The local-IPX-routing-protocol  and  remote-IPX-routing-protocol
              field may be one of the following:

              NONE      to indicate that there is no routing protocol
              RIP       to indicate that RIP/SAP should be used
              NLSP      to indicate that Novell NLSP should be used
              RIP NLSP  to indicate that both RIP/SAP and NLSP should be used

       /etc/ppp/ipx-down
              A program or script which is executed when the link is no longer
              available for sending and receiving IPX  packets.   This  script
              can  be  used  for  undoing  the  effects of the /etc/ppp/ipx-up
              script.  It is invoked in the same  manner  and  with  the  same
              parameters as the ipx-up script.

FILES

       /var/run/pppn.pid (BSD or Linux), /etc/ppp/pppn.pid (others)
              Process-ID for pppd process on ppp interface unit n.

       /var/run/ppp-name.pid (BSD or Linux),
              /etc/ppp/ppp-name.pid  (others)  Process-ID for pppd process for
              logical link name (see the linkname option).

       /var/run/pppd2.tdb
              Database containing information about pppd processes, interfaces
              and  links,  used  for  matching  links  to bundles in multilink
              operation.  May be  examined  by  external  programs  to  obtain
              information  about  running  pppd  instances, the interfaces and
              devices  they  are   using,   IP   address   assignments,   etc.
              /etc/ppp/pap-secrets  Usernames,  passwords and IP addresses for
              PAP authentication.  This file should be owned by root  and  not
              readable or writable by any other user.  Pppd will log a warning
              if this is not the case.

       /etc/ppp/chap-secrets
              Names,  secrets  and  IP  addresses  for  CHAP/MS-CHAP/MS-CHAPv2
              authentication.   As  for /etc/ppp/pap-secrets, this file should
              be owned by root and not readable or writable by any other user.
              Pppd will log a warning if this is not the case.

       /etc/ppp/srp-secrets
              Names, secrets, and IP addresses for EAP authentication.  As for
              /etc/ppp/pap-secrets, this file should be owned by root and  not
              readable or writable by any other user.  Pppd will log a warning
              if this is not the case.

       ~/.ppp_pseudonym
              Saved client-side SRP-SHA1 pseudonym.  See the srp-use-pseudonym
              option for details.

       /etc/ppp/options
              System  default  options  for  pppd,  read  before  user default
              options or command-line options.

       ~/.ppprc
              User default options, read before /etc/ppp/options.ttyname.

       /etc/ppp/options.ttyname
              System default options for the  serial  port  being  used,  read
              after  ~/.ppprc.   In forming the ttyname part of this filename,
              an initial /dev/ is stripped from the port  name  (if  present),
              and any slashes in the remaining part are converted to dots.

       /etc/ppp/peers
              A   directory   containing   options  files  which  may  contain
              privileged options, even if pppd was invoked  by  a  user  other
              than root.  The system administrator can create options files in
              this directory  to  permit  non-privileged  users  to  dial  out
              without  requiring the peer to authenticate, but only to certain
              trusted peers.

SEE ALSO

       chat(8), pppstats(8)

       RFC1144
              Jacobson, V.  Compressing TCP/IP headers  for  low-speed  serial
              links.  February 1990.

       RFC1321
              Rivest, R.  The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm.  April 1992.

       RFC1332
              McGregor,  G.   PPP  Internet  Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP).
              May 1992.

       RFC1334
              Lloyd, B.; Simpson, W.A.  PPP authentication protocols.  October
              1992.

       RFC1661
              Simpson, W.A.  The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP).  July 1994.

       RFC1662
              Simpson, W.A.  PPP in HDLC-like Framing.  July 1994.

       RFC2284
              Blunk,   L.;   Vollbrecht,  J.,  PPP  Extensible  Authentication
              Protocol (EAP).  March 1998.

       RFC2472
              Haskin, D.  IP Version 6 over PPP December 1998.

       RFC2945
              Wu, T., The SRP Authentication and Key Exchange System September
              2000.

       draft-ietf-pppext-eap-srp-03.txt
              Carlson, J.; et al., EAP SRP-SHA1 Authentication Protocol.  July
              2001.

NOTES

       Some limited degree of control can be exercised  over  a  running  pppd
       process by sending it a signal from the list below.

       SIGINT, SIGTERM
              These signals cause pppd to terminate the link (by closing LCP),
              restore the serial device settings, and exit.  If a connector or
              disconnector  process  is  currently running, pppd will send the
              same signal to  its  process  group,  so  as  to  terminate  the
              connector or disconnector process.

       SIGHUP This  signal  causes  pppd  to  terminate  the link, restore the
              serial device settings, and close the  serial  device.   If  the
              persist  or  demand  option has been specified, pppd will try to
              reopen the serial device and start another connection (after the
              holdoff  period).   Otherwise pppd will exit.  If this signal is
              received during the holdoff period, it causes pppd  to  end  the
              holdoff  period  immediately.   If  a  connector or disconnector
              process is running, pppd  will  send  the  same  signal  to  its
              process group.

       SIGUSR1
              This signal toggles the state of the debug option.

       SIGUSR2
              This signal causes pppd to renegotiate compression.  This can be
              useful to re-enable compression after it has been disabled as  a
              result  of  a  fatal  decompression error.  (Fatal decompression
              errors generally indicate a bug in one or other implementation.)

AUTHORS

       Paul Mackerras  (paulus@samba.org),  based  on  earlier  work  by  Drew
       Perkins, Brad Clements, Karl Fox, Greg Christy, and Brad Parker.

COPYRIGHT

       Pppd  is  copyrighted and made available under conditions which provide
       that it may be copied and used in source or binary forms provided  that
       the  conditions  listed below are met.  Portions of pppd are covered by
       the following copyright notices:

       Copyright  (c)  1984-2000  Carnegie  Mellon  University.   All   rights
       reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1993-2004 Paul Mackerras. All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1995 Pedro Roque Marques.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1995 Eric Rosenquist.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1999 Tommi Komulainen.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (C) Andrew Tridgell 1999
       Copyright (c) 2000 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 2001 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 2002 Google, Inc.  All rights reserved.

       The copyright notices contain the following statements.

       Redistribution  and  use  in  source  and binary forms, with or without
       modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions  are
       met:

       1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
          notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

       2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
          notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
          the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
          distribution.

       3. The name "Carnegie Mellon University" must not be used to
          endorse or promote products derived from this software without
          prior written permission. For permission or any legal
          details, please contact
            Office of Technology Transfer
            Carnegie Mellon University
            5000 Forbes Avenue
            Pittsburgh, PA  15213-3890
            (412) 268-4387, fax: (412) 268-7395
            tech-transfer@andrew.cmu.edu

       3b. The name(s) of the authors of this software must not be used to
          endorse or promote products derived from this software without
          prior written permission.

       4. Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following
          acknowledgments:
          "This product includes software developed by Computing Services
           at Carnegie Mellon University (http://www.cmu.edu/computing/)."
          "This product includes software developed by Paul Mackerras
           <paulus@samba.org>".
          "This product includes software developed by Pedro Roque Marques
           <pedro_m@yahoo.com>".
          "This product includes software developed by Tommi Komulainen
           <Tommi.Komulainen@iki.fi>".

       CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS
       SOFTWARE, INCLUDING  ALL  IMPLIED  WARRANTIES  OF  MERCHANTABILITY  AND
       FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY BE LIABLE FOR ANY
       SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR  ANY  DAMAGES  WHATSOEVER
       RESULTING  FROM  LOSS  OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF
       CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING  OUT  OF  OR  IN
       CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

       THE  AUTHORS  OF  THIS  SOFTWARE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO
       THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY  AND
       FITNESS,  IN  NO  EVENT  SHALL  THE  AUTHORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL,
       INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES  WHATSOEVER  RESULTING
       FROM  LOSS  OF  USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
       NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF  OR  IN  CONNECTION
       WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

                                                                       PPPD(8)