Provided by: smartmontools_5.41+svn3365-1_amd64 bug

NAME

       smartctl - Control and Monitor Utility for SMART Disks

SYNOPSIS

       smartctl [options] device

FULL PATH

       /usr/sbin/smartctl

PACKAGE VERSION

       smartmontools-5.41 2011-06-09 r3365

DESCRIPTION

       smartctl  controls  the  Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology (SMART) system
       built into many ATA-3 and later ATA, IDE and SCSI-3 hard drives. The purpose of  SMART  is
       to  monitor the reliability of the hard drive and predict drive failures, and to carry out
       different types of  drive  self-tests.   This  version  of  smartctl  is  compatible  with
       ATA/ATAPI-7 and earlier standards (see REFERENCES below)

       smartctl  is  a  command line utility designed to perform SMART tasks such as printing the
       SMART self-test and error logs,  enabling  and  disabling  SMART  automatic  testing,  and
       initiating  device  self-tests.  Note:  if  the  user  issues  a  SMART  command  that  is
       (apparently) not implemented by the device, smartctl will  print  a  warning  message  but
       issue  the  command  anyway (see the -T, --tolerance option below).  This should not cause
       problems: on most devices, unimplemented SMART commands issued  to  a  drive  are  ignored
       and/or return an error.

       smartctl  also  provides  support for polling TapeAlert messages from SCSI tape drives and
       changers.

       The user must specify the device to be controlled or interrogated as the final argument to
       smartctl. The command set used by the device is often derived from the device path but may
       need help with the ´-d´ option (for more information see the section on "ATA, SCSI command
       sets and SAT" below). Device paths are as follows:

       LINUX:   Use  the  forms  "/dev/hd[a-t]"  for IDE/ATA devices, and "/dev/sd[a-z]" for SCSI
                devices. For SCSI Tape Drives and Changers with TapeAlert support use the devices
                "/dev/nst*"   and   "/dev/sg*".    For  SATA  disks  accessed  with  libata,  use
                "/dev/sd[a-z]" and append "-d ata". For disks behind 3ware  controllers  you  may
                need  "/dev/sd[a-z]"  or "/dev/twe[0-9]", "/dev/twa[0-9]" or "/dev/twl[0-9]": see
                details below. For disks behind HighPoint RocketRAID  controllers  you  may  need
                "/dev/sd[a-z]".    For  disks  behind  Areca  SATA  RAID  controllers,  you  need
                "/dev/sg[2-9]" (note that smartmontools interacts with the Areca controllers  via
                a  SCSI  generic  device which is different than the SCSI device used for reading
                and writing data)!

       DARWIN:  Use  the  forms  /dev/disk[0-9]  or  equivalently   disk[0-9]   or   equivalently
                /dev/rdisk[0-9].   Long  forms  are  also  available: please use ´-h´ to see some
                examples. Note that there is currently no Darwin SCSI support.

       FREEBSD: Use  the  forms  "/dev/ad[0-9]+"  for  IDE/ATA  devices  and  "/dev/da[0-9]+"  or
                "/dev/pass[0-9]+"   for   SCSI  devices.   For  SATA  devices  on  AHCI  bus  use
                "/dev/ada[0-9]+" format.

       NETBSD/OPENBSD:
                Use the form "/dev/wd[0-9]+c" for  IDE/ATA  devices.   For  SCSI  disk  and  tape
                devices, use the device names "/dev/sd[0-9]+c" and "/dev/st[0-9]+c" respectively.
                Be  sure  to  specify  the  correct  "whole  disk"  partition  letter  for   your
                architecture.

       SOLARIS: Use  the  forms  "/dev/rdsk/c?t?d?s?"  for  IDE/ATA  and  SCSI  disk devices, and
                "/dev/rmt/*" for SCSI tape devices.

       WINDOWS 9x/ME:
                Use  the  forms  "/dev/hd[a-d]"  for  standard  IDE/ATA  devices   accessed   via
                SMARTVSD.VXD,  and  "/dev/hd[e-h]"  for additional devices accessed via a patched
                SMARTVSE.VXD (see INSTALL file for details).  Use the form  "/dev/scsi[0-9][0-f]"
                for SCSI devices via an aspi dll on ASPI adapter 0-9, ID 0-15. The prefix "/dev/"
                is optional.

       WINDOWS NT4/2000/XP/2003/Vista/Win7/2008:
                Use   the    forms    "/dev/sd[a-z]"    for    IDE/(S)ATA    and    SCSI    disks
                "\\.\PhysicalDrive[0-25]"  (where  "a"  maps  to  "0").   These disks can also be
                referred to as "/dev/pd[0-255]" for "\\.\PhysicalDrive[0-255]".   ATA  disks  can
                also be referred to as "/dev/hd[a-z]" for "\\.\PhysicalDrive[0-25]".  Use one the
                forms "/dev/tape[0-255]", "/dev/st[0-255]", or "/dev/nst[0-255]"  for  SCSI  tape
                drives "\\.\Tape[0-255]".

                Alternatively,  drive  letters "X:" or "X:\" may be used to specify the (´basic´)
                disk behind a mounted partition.  This does not work with ´dynamic´ disks.

                For disks behind 3ware 9000 controllers use "/dev/sd[a-z],N"  where  N  specifies
                the  disk number (3ware ´port´) behind the controller providing the logical drive
                (´unit´) specified by "/dev/sd[a-z]".  Alternatively, use "/dev/tw_cli/cx/py" for
                controller x, port y to run the ´tw_cli´ tool and parse the output. This provides
                limited monitoring (´-i´, ´-c´, ´-A´ below) if SMART support is  missing  in  the
                driver.  Use "/dev/tw_cli/stdin" or "/dev/tw_cli/clip" to parse CLI or 3DM output
                from standard input or clipboard.  The option ´-d 3ware,N´ is  not  necessary  on
                Windows.

                [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] For disks behind Intel Matrix RAID driver use
                "/dev/csmi[0-9],N" where N specifies the port behind the logical scsi  controller
                "\\.\Scsi[0-9]:".  The prefix "/dev/" is optional.

       CYGWIN:  See "WINDOWS NT4/2000/XP/2003/Vista/Win7/2008" above.

       OS/2,eComStation:
                Use the form "/dev/hd[a-z]" for IDE/ATA devices.

       if  ´-´  is  specified  as  the  device path, smartctl reads and interprets it's own debug
       output from standard input.  See ´-r ataioctl´ below for details.

       Based on the device path,  smartctl  will  guess  the  device  type  (ATA  or  SCSI).   If
       necessary, the ´-d´ option can be used to over-ride this guess

       Note  that  the  printed  output  of  smartctl  displays  most numerical values in base 10
       (decimal), but some values are displayed in base 16 (hexadecimal).  To  distinguish  them,
       the base 16 values are always displayed with a leading "0x", for example: "0xff". This man
       page follows the same convention.

OPTIONS

       The options are  grouped  below  into  several  categories.   smartctl  will  execute  the
       corresponding  commands in the order: INFORMATION, ENABLE/DISABLE, DISPLAY DATA, RUN/ABORT
       TESTS.

       SHOW INFORMATION OPTIONS:

       -h, --help, --usage
              Prints a usage message to STDOUT and exits.

       -V, --version, --copyright, --license
              Prints version, copyright, license, home page and SVN revision information for your
              copy  of smartctl to STDOUT and then exits.  Please include this information if you
              are reporting bugs or problems.

       -i, --info
              Prints the device model number, serial number, firmware version, and  ATA  Standard
              version/revision  information.   Says  if  the  device  supports  SMART, and if so,
              whether SMART support is currently enabled or disabled.   If  the  device  supports
              Logical  Block  Address mode (LBA mode) print current user drive capacity in bytes.
              (If drive is has a user protected area reserved,  or  is  "clipped",  this  may  be
              smaller  than  the potential maximum drive capacity.)  Indicates if the drive is in
              the smartmontools database (see ´-v´ options below).  If so, the drive model family
              may  also be printed. If ´-n´ (see below) is specified, the power mode of the drive
              is printed.

       -a, --all
              Prints all SMART information about the disk, or  TapeAlert  information  about  the
              tape drive or changer.  For ATA devices this is equivalent to
              ´-H -i -c -A -l error -l selftest -l selective´
              and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
              ´-H -i -A -l error -l selftest´.
              Note  that  for  ATA disks this does not enable the non-SMART options and the SMART
              options which require support for 48-bit ATA commands.

       -x, --xall
              Prints all SMART and non-SMART information about the device. For ATA  devices  this
              is equivalent to
              ´-H -i -c -A -f brief -l xerror,error -l xselftest,selftest
              -l selective -l directory -l scttemp -l scterc -l sataphy´.
              and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
              ´-H -i -A -l error -l selftest -l background -l sasphy´.

       --scan Scans  for  devices and prints each device name, device type and protocol ([ATA] or
              [SCSI]) info.  May be used in conjunction with ´-d TYPE´ to restrict the scan to  a
              specific  TYPE.   See  also  info  about  platform  specific  device  scan  and the
              DEVICESCAN directive on smartd(8) man page.

       --scan-open
              Same as --scan, but also tries to open each device  before  printing  device  info.
              The  device  open  may  change  the  device type due to autodetection (see also ´-d
              test´).

              This option can be used to create a draft smartd.conf file.  All options after ´--´
              are appended to each output line.  For example:
              smartctl --scan-open -- -a -W 4,45,50 -m admin@work > smartd.conf

       RUN-TIME BEHAVIOR OPTIONS:

       -q TYPE, --quietmode=TYPE
              Specifies  that  smartctl  should run in one of the two quiet modes described here.
              The valid arguments to this option are:

              errorsonly - only print: For the ´-l error´  option,  if  nonzero,  the  number  of
              errors  recorded  in  the SMART error log and the power-on time when they occurred;
              For the ´-l selftest´ option, errors recorded in the device self-test log; For  the
              ´-H´  option,  SMART  "disk  failing"  status  or device Attributes (pre-failure or
              usage) which failed either now  or  in  the  past;  For  the  ´-A´  option,  device
              Attributes (pre-failure or usage) which failed either now or in the past.

              silent - print no output.  The only way to learn about what was found is to use the
              exit status of smartctl (see RETURN VALUES below).

              noserial - Do not print the serial number of the device.

       -d TYPE, --device=TYPE
              Specifies the type of the device.  The valid arguments to this option are:

              auto - attempt to guess the device type from the device  name  or  from  controller
              type  info  provided by the operating system or from a matching USB ID entry in the
              drive database.  This is the default.

              test - prints the guessed type, then opens the  device  and  prints  the  (possibly
              changed) TYPE name and then exists without performing any further commands.

              ata - the device type is ATA.  This prevents smartctl from issuing SCSI commands to
              an ATA device.

              scsi - the device type is SCSI.  This prevents smartctl from issuing  ATA  commands
              to a SCSI device.

              sat - the device type is SCSI to ATA Translation (SAT).  This is for ATA disks that
              have a SCSI to ATA  Translation  (SAT)  Layer  (SATL)  between  the  disk  and  the
              operating  system.   SAT  defines  two ATA PASS THROUGH SCSI commands, one 12 bytes
              long and the other 16 bytes long.  The default is the 16 byte variant which can  be
              overridden with either ´-d sat,12´ or ´-d sat,16´.

              usbcypress  -  this  device  type is for ATA disks that are behind a Cypress USB to
              PATA bridge.  This will use the ATACB proprietary scsi pass through  command.   The
              default  SCSI  operation  code  is 0x24, but although it can be overridden with ´-d
              usbcypress,0xN´, where N is the scsi operation code, you're  running  the  risk  of
              damage to the device or filesystems on it.

              usbjmicron  -  this  device type is for SATA disks that are behind a JMicron USB to
              PATA/SATA bridge.  The 48-bit ATA commands (required  e.g.  for  ´-l  xerror´,  see
              below) do not work with all of these bridges and are therefore disabled by default.
              These commands can be enabled by ´-d usbjmicron,x´.  If two disks are connected  to
              a  bridge with two ports, an error message is printed if no PORT is specified.  The
              port can be specified by ´-d usbjmicron[,x],PORT´ where PORT is  0  (master)  or  1
              (slave).   This  is  not  necessary if the device uses a port multiplier to connect
              multiple disks to one port.  The disks appear under separate /dev/ice  names  then.
              CAUTION:  Specifying  ´,x´  for  a  device which does not support it results in I/O
              errors and may disconnect the drive.  The same applies if the specified  PORT  does
              not exist or is not connected to a disk.

              usbsunplus  - this device type is for SATA disks that are behind a SunplusIT USB to
              SATA bridge.

              marvell - [Linux only] interact with SATA disks behind Marvell chip-set controllers
              (using the Marvell rather than libata driver).

              megaraid,N  -  [Linux  only]  the  device  consists  of  one or more SCSI/SAS disks
              connected to a MegaRAID controller.  The non-negative integer N (in the range of  0
              to  127  inclusive)  denotes which disk on the controller is monitored.  Use syntax
              such as:
              smartctl -a -d megaraid,2 /dev/sda
              smartctl -a -d megaraid,0 /dev/sdb
              This interface will also work for Dell PERC controllers.   The  following  /dev/XXX
              entry must exist:
              For PERC2/3/4 controllers: /dev/megadev0
              For PERC5/6 controllers: /dev/megaraid_sas_ioctl_node

              3ware,N  -  [FreeBSD  and  Linux only] the device consists of one or more ATA disks
              connected to a 3ware RAID controller.  The non-negative integer  N  (in  the  range
              from  0  to  127 inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored.  Use
              syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,2 /dev/sda
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twa0
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twl0
              The first two forms, which refer to devices /dev/sda-z  and  /dev/twe0-15,  may  be
              used with 3ware series 6000, 7000, and 8000 series controllers that use the 3x-xxxx
              driver.  Note that the /dev/sda-z form is deprecated starting with  the  Linux  2.6
              kernel series and may not be supported by the Linux kernel in the near future.  The
              final form, which refers to devices /dev/twa0-15, must  be  used  with  3ware  9000
              series controllers, which use the 3w-9xxx driver.

              The  devices  /dev/twl0-15  must be used with the 3ware/LSI 9750 series controllers
              which use the 3w-sas driver.

              Note that if the special character device nodes /dev/twl?, /dev/twa?  and /dev/twe?
              do  not  exist,  or  exist with the incorrect major or minor numbers, smartctl will
              recreate them on the fly.  Typically /dev/twa0  refers  to  the  first  9000-series
              controller,  /dev/twa1 refers to the second 9000 series controller, and so on.  The
              /dev/twl0 devices refers to the first 9750 series controller, /dev/twl1 resfers  to
              the  second  9750  series  controller, and so on.  Likewise /dev/twe0 refers to the
              first 6/7/8000-series controller, /dev/twe1 refers to the  second  6/7/8000  series
              controller, and so on.

              Note that for the 6/7/8000 controllers, any of the physical disks can be queried or
              examined using any of the 3ware's SCSI logical device /dev/sd?  entries.  Thus,  if
              logical device /dev/sda is made up of two physical disks (3ware ports zero and one)
              and logical device /dev/sdb is made up of two other physical disks (3ware ports two
              and  three)  then  you can examine the SMART data on any of the four physical disks
              using either SCSI device /dev/sda or /dev/sdb.  If you need to know  which  logical
              SCSI  device  a  particular  physical disk (3ware port) is associated with, use the
              dmesg or SYSLOG output to show which SCSI ID  corresponds  to  a  particular  3ware
              unit,  and  then  use  the 3ware CLI or 3dm tool to determine which ports (physical
              disks) correspond to particular 3ware units.

              If the value of N  corresponds  to  a  port  that  does  not  exist  on  the  3ware
              controller,  or  to a port that does not physically have a disk attached to it, the
              behavior of smartctl depends upon the specific controller  model,  firmware,  Linux
              kernel  and platform.  In some cases you will get a warning message that the device
              does not exist.  In other cases you will  be  presented  with  ´void´  data  for  a
              non-existent device.

              Note  that  if  the /dev/sd? addressing form is used, then older 3w-xxxx drivers do
              not pass the "Enable Autosave" (´-S on´) and "Enable Automatic Offline"  (´-o  on´)
              commands  to  the  disk,  and produce these types of harmless syslog error messages
              instead: "3w-xxxx: tw_ioctl(): Passthru size (123392) too big".  This can be  fixed
              by  upgrading to version 1.02.00.037 or later of the 3w-xxxx driver, or by applying
              a patch to older versions.  Alternatively, use the  character  device  /dev/twe0-15
              interface.

              The  selective  self-test  functions (´-t select,A-B´) are only supported using the
              character  device  interface  /dev/twl0-15,  /dev/twa0-15  and  /dev/twe0-15.   The
              necessary WRITE LOG commands can not be passed through the SCSI interface.

              areca,N  -  [Linux only] the device consists of one or more SATA disks connected to
              an Areca SATA RAID controller.  The positive integer N (in the range from 1  to  24
              inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored.  Use syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d areca,2 /dev/sg2
              smartctl -a -d areca,3 /dev/sg3
              The  first line above addresses the second disk on the first Areca RAID controller.
              The second line addresses the third disk on the second Areca RAID  controller.   To
              help identify the correct device, use the command:
              cat /proc/scsi/sg/device_hdr /proc/scsi/sg/devices
              to  show  the  SCSI  generic  devices  (one per line, starting with /dev/sg0).  The
              correct SCSI generic devices to address for smartmontools are  the  ones  with  the
              type  field  equal  to  3.   If  the incorrect device is addressed, please read the
              warning/error messages carefully.  They should provide hints about what devices  to
              use.

              Important:  the  Areca controller must have firmware version 1.46 or later.  Lower-
              numbered firmware versions will give (harmless) SCSI error messages  and  no  SMART
              information.

              cciss,N  -  [FreeBSD  and  Linux  only] the device consists of one or more SCSI/SAS
              disks connected to a cciss RAID controller.  The non-negative  integer  N  (in  the
              range from 0 to 15 inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored.

              If  the  controller  firmware  or driver provides a SAT Layer it may be possible to
              monitor also SATA disks by specifiying ´-d sat+cciss,N´.

              hpt,L/M/N - [FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of one or more  ATA  disks
              connected  to  a  HighPoint RocketRAID controller.  The integer L is the controller
              id, the integer M is the channel number, and the integer N is the PMPort number  if
              it  is  available.  The allowed values of L are from 1 to 4 inclusive, M are from 1
              to 8 inclusive and N from 1 to 4 if PMPort available.  And also  these  values  are
              limited by the model of the HighPoint RocketRAID controller.  Use syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda    (under Linux)
              smartctl -a -d hpt,1/2/3 /dev/sda    (under Linux)
              smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/hptrr    (under FreeBSD)
              smartctl -a -d hpt,1/2/3 /dev/hptrr    (under FreeBSD)
              Note  that the /dev/sda-z form should be the device node which stands for the disks
              derived from the HighPoint RocketRAID controllers under Linux and under FreeBSD, it
              is the character device which the driver registered (eg, /dev/hptrr, /dev/hptmv6).

       -T TYPE, --tolerance=TYPE
              [ATA  only]  Specifies  how  tolerant  smartctl  should be of ATA and SMART command
              failures.

              The behavior of  smartctl  depends  upon  whether  the  command  is  "optional"  or
              "mandatory".  Here  "mandatory" means "required by the ATA/ATAPI-5 Specification if
              the device implements the SMART command set" and "optional" means "not required  by
              the ATA/ATAPI-5 Specification even if the device implements the SMART command set."
              The "mandatory" ATA and SMART commands are: (1)  ATA  IDENTIFY  DEVICE,  (2)  SMART
              ENABLE/DISABLE  ATTRIBUTE  AUTOSAVE, (3) SMART ENABLE/DISABLE, and (4) SMART RETURN
              STATUS.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              normal - exit on failure of any mandatory SMART command, and ignore all failures of
              optional  SMART commands.  This is the default.  Note that on some devices, issuing
              unimplemented optional SMART commands doesn´t cause an error.  This can  result  in
              misleading  smartctl messages such as "Feature X not implemented", followed shortly
              by "Feature X: enabled".  In most  such  cases,  contrary  to  the  final  message,
              Feature X is not enabled.

              conservative - exit on failure of any optional SMART command.

              permissive  -  ignore  failure(s)  of mandatory SMART commands.  This option may be
              given more than once.  Each additional use of  this  option  will  cause  one  more
              additional  failure  to  be  ignored.  Note that the use of this option can lead to
              messages like "Feature X not implemented", followed shortly by  "Error:  unable  to
              enable  Feature  X".  In a few such cases, contrary to the final message, Feature X
              is enabled.

              verypermissive - equivalent to giving a large number of  ´-T  permissive´  options:
              ignore  failures  of  any  number of mandatory SMART commands.  Please see the note
              above.

       -b TYPE, --badsum=TYPE
              [ATA only] Specifies the action  smartctl  should  take  if  a  checksum  error  is
              detected  in the: (1) Device Identity Structure, (2) SMART Self-Test Log Structure,
              (3) SMART Attribute Value Structure, (4) SMART Attribute  Threshold  Structure,  or
              (5) ATA Error Log Structure.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              warn  -  report  the  incorrect  checksum but carry on in spite of it.  This is the
              default.

              exit - exit smartctl.

              ignore - continue silently without issuing a warning.

       -r TYPE, --report=TYPE
              Intended primarily to help smartmontools  developers  understand  the  behavior  of
              smartmontools on non-conforming or poorly conforming hardware.  This option reports
              details of smartctl transactions with the device.  The option can be used  multiple
              times.  When used just once, it shows a record of the ioctl() transactions with the
              device.  When used more than once, the detail of  these  ioctl()  transactions  are
              reported in greater detail.  The valid arguments to this option are:

              ioctl - report all ioctl() transactions.

              ataioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with ATA devices.

              scsiioctl  - report only ioctl() transactions with SCSI devices. Invoking this once
              shows the SCSI commands in hex and the corresponding status. Invoking it  a  second
              time adds a hex listing of the first 64 bytes of data send to, or received from the
              device.

              Any argument may include a positive integer to specify the  level  of  detail  that
              should  be  reported.   The argument should be followed by a comma then the integer
              with no spaces.  For example, ataioctl,2 The default level is 1, so ´-r ataioctl,1´
              and ´-r ataioctl´ are equivalent.

              For testing purposes, the output of ´-r ataioctl,2´ can later be parsed by smartctl
              itself if ´-´ is used as device path argument.  The ATA command  input  parameters,
              sector  data  and  return  values are reconstructed from the debug report read from
              stdin.  Then smartctl internally simulates an ATA device with the  same  behaviour.
              This is does not work for SCSI devices yet.

       -n POWERMODE, --nocheck=POWERMODE
              [ATA  only] Specifies if smartctl should exit before performing any checks when the
              device is in a low-power mode. It may be used to prevent a disk from being  spun-up
              by  smartctl.  The  power  mode  is  ignored  by default.  A nonzero exit status is
              returned if the device is in one of  the  specified  low-power  modes  (see  RETURN
              VALUES below).

              Note:  If  this  option is used it may also be necessary to specify the device type
              with the ´-d´ option.  Otherwise the device may spin  up  due  to  commands  issued
              during device type autodetection.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              never - check the device always, but print the power mode if ´-i´ is specified.

              sleep - check the device unless it is in SLEEP mode.

              standby  -  check the device unless it is in SLEEP or STANDBY mode.  In these modes
              most disks are not spinning, so if you want to prevent a  disk  from  spinning  up,
              this is probably what you want.

              idle  -  check the device unless it is in SLEEP, STANDBY or IDLE mode.  In the IDLE
              state, most disks are still spinning, so this is probably not what you want.

       SMART FEATURE ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS:

              Note: if multiple options are used to both enable and disable a feature, then  both
              the  enable and disable commands will be issued.  The enable command will always be
              issued before the corresponding disable command.

       -s VALUE, --smart=VALUE
              Enables or disables SMART on device.  The valid arguments to this option are on and
              off.  Note that the command ´-s on´ (perhaps used with with the ´-o on´ and ´-S on´
              options) should be placed in a start-up script for your  machine,  for  example  in
              rc.local  or rc.sysinit. In principle the SMART feature settings are preserved over
              power-cycling, but it doesn´t hurt to be sure. It is not necessary (or  useful)  to
              enable SMART to see the TapeAlert messages.

       -o VALUE, --offlineauto=VALUE
              [ATA  only] Enables or disables SMART automatic offline test, which scans the drive
              every four hours for disk defects. This command can be given during  normal  system
              operation.  The valid arguments to this option are on and off.

              Note that the SMART automatic offline test command is listed as "Obsolete" in every
              version of the ATA and ATA/ATAPI Specifications.  It was  originally  part  of  the
              SFF-8035i  Revision 2.0 specification, but was never part of any ATA specification.
              However it is implemented and used by many  vendors.  [Good  documentation  can  be
              found  in  IBM´s  Official  Published  Disk  Specifications.   For  example the IBM
              Travelstar 40GNX Hard Disk Drive  Specifications  (Revision  1.1,  22  April  2002,
              Publication  #  1541,  Document  S07N-7715-02)  page  164.  You  can  also read the
              SFF-8035i Specification -- see  REFERENCES  below.]   You  can  tell  if  automatic
              offline  testing is supported by seeing if this command enables and disables it, as
              indicated by the ´Auto Offline Data Collection´  part  of  the  SMART  capabilities
              report (displayed with ´-c´).

              SMART  provides  three  basic  categories  of  testing.  The first category, called
              "online" testing, has no effect on the performance of the device.  It is turned  on
              by the ´-s on´ option.

              The  second category of testing is called "offline" testing. This type of test can,
              in principle, degrade the device performance.   The  ´-o  on´  option  causes  this
              offline  testing  to  be  carried out, automatically, on a regular scheduled basis.
              Normally, the disk will suspend offline testing  while  disk  accesses  are  taking
              place,  and  then automatically resume it when the disk would otherwise be idle, so
              in practice it has little effect.  Note that a one-time offline test  can  also  be
              carried  out  immediately  upon  receipt  of  a user command.  See the ´-t offline´
              option below, which causes a one-time offline test to be carried out immediately.

              The choice (made by the SFF-8035i  and  ATA  specification  authors)  of  the  word
              testing  for  these  first  two  categories  is  unfortunate,  and  often  leads to
              confusion.  In fact these first two categories of online and offline testing  could
              have been more accurately described as online and offline data collection.

              The  results  of  this automatic or immediate offline testing (data collection) are
              reflected in the values of the SMART Attributes.  Thus, if problems or  errors  are
              detected,  the  values  of these Attributes will go below their failure thresholds;
              some types of errors may also appear in the SMART error log. These are visible with
              the ´-A´ and ´-l error´ options respectively.

              Some  SMART  attribute  values  are  updated  only  during off-line data collection
              activities; the rest are updated during normal operation of the  device  or  during
              both  normal operation and off-line testing.  The Attribute value table produced by
              the ´-A´ option indicates this in the UPDATED column.  Attributes of the first type
              are labeled "Offline" and Attributes of the second type are labeled "Always".

              The  third  category of testing (and the only category for which the word ´testing´
              is really an appropriate choice) is "self" testing.  This third  type  of  test  is
              only performed (immediately) when a command to run it is issued.  The ´-t´ and ´-X´
              options can be used to carry out and abort such self-tests; please  see  below  for
              further details.

              Any  errors  detected in the self testing will be shown in the SMART self-test log,
              which can be examined using the ´-l selftest´ option.

              Note: in this manual page, the word "Test" is used in connection  with  the  second
              category just described, e.g. for the "offline" testing.  The words "Self-test" are
              used in connection with the third category.

       -S VALUE, --saveauto=VALUE
              [ATA] Enables or disables SMART autosave of device vendor-specific Attributes.  The
              valid arguments to this option are on and off.  Note that this feature is preserved
              across disk power cycles, so you should only need to issue it once.

              The ATA standard does not specify a method  to  check  whether  SMART  autosave  is
              enabled.  Unlike SCSI (below), smartctl is unable to print a warning if autosave is
              disabled.

              [SCSI] For SCSI devices this toggles the value of the Global  Logging  Target  Save
              Disabled (GLTSD) bit in the Control Mode Page. Some disk manufacturers set this bit
              by default. This prevents error counters, power-up hours and other useful data from
              being placed in non-volatile storage, so these values may be reset to zero the next
              time the device is power-cycled.  If the GLTSD bit is set then ´smartctl  -a´  will
              issue  a  warning. Use on to clear the GLTSD bit and thus enable saving counters to
              non-volatile storage. For  extreme  streaming-video  type  applications  you  might
              consider using off to set the GLTSD bit.

       SMART READ AND DISPLAY DATA OPTIONS:

       -H, --health
              Check:  Ask  the  device  to  report  its  SMART health status or pending TapeAlert
              messages.  SMART status is based on information that it has  gathered  from  online
              and  offline  tests,  which were used to determine/update its SMART vendor-specific
              Attribute values. TapeAlert status is obtained by reading the TapeAlert log page.

              If the device reports failing health status, this means either that the device  has
              already  failed, or that it is predicting its own failure within the next 24 hours.
              If this happens, use the ´-a´ option to get more information, and get your data off
              the disk and to someplace safe as soon as you can.

       -c, --capabilities
              [ATA  only]  Prints  only  the  generic  SMART capabilities.  These show what SMART
              features are implemented and how the device will respond to some of  the  different
              SMART  commands.   For  example  it shows if the device logs errors, if it supports
              offline surface scanning, and so on.  If the device can carry out self-tests,  this
              option also shows the estimated time required to run those tests.

              Note  that  the  time required to run the Self-tests (listed in minutes) are fixed.
              However the time required to run the Immediate Offline Test (listed in seconds)  is
              variable.   This  means that if you issue a command to perform an Immediate Offline
              test with the ´-t offline´ option, then the time may jump to  a  larger  value  and
              then  count  down  as  the  Immediate  Offline  Test  is  carried  out.  Please see
              REFERENCES below for further information  about  the  the  flags  and  capabilities
              described by this option.

       -A, --attributes
              [ATA]  Prints  only  the  vendor  specific  SMART  Attributes.   The Attributes are
              numbered from 1 to 253  and  have  specific  names  and  ID  numbers.  For  example
              Attribute 12 is "power cycle count": how many times has the disk been powered up.

              Each  Attribute  has  a  "Raw"  value, printed under the heading "RAW_VALUE", and a
              "Normalized" value printed under the heading "VALUE".  [Note: smartctl prints these
              values  in  base-10.]   In the example just given, the "Raw Value" for Attribute 12
              would be the actual number of times  that  the  disk  has  been  power-cycled,  for
              example 365 if the disk has been turned on once per day for exactly one year.  Each
              vendor uses their own algorithm to convert this "Raw" value to a "Normalized" value
              in  the  range  from  1 to 254.  Please keep in mind that smartctl only reports the
              different Attribute types, values, and thresholds as read from the device.  It does
              not carry out the conversion between "Raw" and "Normalized" values: this is done by
              the disk´s firmware.

              The conversion from Raw value to a quantity with physical units is not specified by
              the  SMART  standard.  In  most cases, the values printed by smartctl are sensible.
              For example the temperature Attribute generally has its  raw  value  equal  to  the
              temperature  in  Celsius.   However  in some cases vendors use unusual conventions.
              For example the Hitachi disk on my laptop reports its power-on  hours  in  minutes,
              not  hours.  Some  IBM disks track three temperatures rather than one, in their raw
              values.  And so on.

              Each Attribute also has a Threshold value (whose  range  is  0  to  255)  which  is
              printed  under the heading "THRESH".  If the Normalized value is less than or equal
              to the Threshold value, then  the  Attribute  is  said  to  have  failed.   If  the
              Attribute is a pre-failure Attribute, then disk failure is imminent.

              Each  Attribute  also has a "Worst" value shown under the heading "WORST".  This is
              the smallest (closest to failure) value that the disk  has  recorded  at  any  time
              during  its  lifetime  when  SMART  was  enabled.   [Note however that some vendors
              firmware may actually increase the "Worst" value for some "rate-type" Attributes.]

              The Attribute table printed out by smartctl also shows the "TYPE" of the Attribute.
              Attributes  are  one  of  two  possible types: Pre-failure or Old age.  Pre-failure
              Attributes are ones which, if  less  than  or  equal  to  their  threshold  values,
              indicate  pending  disk  failure.   Old  age,  or  usage Attributes, are ones which
              indicate end-of-product life from old-age or  normal  aging  and  wearout,  if  the
              Attribute value is less than or equal to the threshold.  Please note: the fact that
              an Attribute is of type 'Pre-fail' does not mean that your disk is about  to  fail!
              It  only  has this meaning if the Attribute´s current Normalized value is less than
              or equal to the threshold value.

              If the Attribute´s current Normalized value is less than or equal to the  threshold
              value,  then  the  "WHEN_FAILED" column will display "FAILING_NOW". If not, but the
              worst recorded value is less than or equal to the threshold value, then this column
              will display "In_the_past".  If the "WHEN_FAILED" column has no entry (indicated by
              a dash: ´-´) then this Attribute is OK now (not failing) and has also never  failed
              in the past.

              The  table column labeled "UPDATED" shows if the SMART Attribute values are updated
              during both normal operation and off-line testing, or only during offline  testing.
              The former are labeled "Always" and the latter are labeled "Offline".

              So  to  summarize:  the  Raw  Attribute  values are the ones that might have a real
              physical interpretation, such as "Temperature  Celsius",  "Hours",  or  "Start-Stop
              Cycles".   Each  manufacturer converts these, using their detailed knowledge of the
              disk´s operations and failure modes, to Normalized Attribute values  in  the  range
              1-254.   The  current  and  worst  (lowest  measured) of these Normalized Attribute
              values are stored on the disk, along with a Threshold value that  the  manufacturer
              has  determined  will  indicate  that  the  disk  is  going to fail, or that it has
              exceeded its design age or aging limit.  smartctl does not  calculate  any  of  the
              Attribute  values, thresholds, or types, it merely reports them from the SMART data
              on the device.

              Note that starting with ATA/ATAPI-4, revision 4, the  meaning  of  these  Attribute
              fields has been made entirely vendor-specific.  However most ATA/ATAPI-5 disks seem
              to respect their meaning, so we have retained the option of printing the  Attribute
              values.

              [SCSI]  For  SCSI  devices  the  "attributes" are obtained from the temperature and
              start-stop cycle counter log pages. Certain vendor specific attributes  are  listed
              if recognised. The attributes are output in a relatively free format (compared with
              ATA disk attributes).

       -f FORMAT, --format=FORMAT
              [ATA only] Selects the output format of the attributes to one of:

              old - Old smartctl format. This is the default unless the ´-x´ option is specified.

              brief - New format which fits into 80 colums (except in  some  rare  cases).   This
              format  also  decodes  four additional attribute flags.  This is the default if the
              '-x´ option is specified.

       -l TYPE, --log=TYPE
              Prints either the SMART Error Log, the SMART Self-Test  Log,  the  SMART  Selective
              Self-Test  Log  [ATA  only],  the  Log Directory [ATA only], or the Background Scan
              Results Log [SCSI only].  The valid arguments to this option are:

              error - [ATA] prints the Summary SMART error log.  SMART disks maintain  a  log  of
              the  most  recent  five  non-trivial  errors.  For  each  of these errors, the disk
              power-on lifetime at which the error occurred is recorded, as is the device  status
              (idle,  standby,  etc)  at the time of the error.  For some common types of errors,
              the Error Register (ER) and Status Register (SR) values are decoded and printed  as
              text. The meanings of these are:
                 ABRT:  Command ABoRTed
                 AMNF:  Address Mark Not Found
                 CCTO:  Command Completion Timed Out
                 EOM:   End Of Media
                 ICRC:  Interface Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) error
                 IDNF:  IDentity Not Found
                 ILI:   (packet command-set specific)
                 MC:    Media Changed
                 MCR:   Media Change Request
                 NM:    No Media
                 obs:   obsolete
                 TK0NF: TracK 0 Not Found
                 UNC:   UNCorrectable Error in Data
                 WP:    Media is Write Protected
              In addition, up to the last five commands that preceded the error are listed, along
              with a timestamp measured from the start of the corresponding power cycle. This  is
              displayed  in the form Dd+HH:MM:SS.msec where D is the number of days, HH is hours,
              MM is minutes, SS is seconds and msec is  milliseconds.   [Note:  this  time  stamp
              wraps  after  2^32 milliseconds, or 49 days 17 hours 2 minutes and 47.296 seconds.]
              The key ATA disk registers are also recorded in the log.  The final column  of  the
              error  log  is  a text-string description of the ATA command defined by the Command
              Register (CR) and Feature Register (FR) values.  Commands that are obsolete in  the
              most  current  (ATA-7)  spec  are  listed  like this: READ LONG (w/ retry) [OBS-4],
              indicating that the command became obsolete with or  in  the  ATA-4  specification.
              Similarly,  the  notation [RET-N] is used to indicate that a command was retired in
              the ATA-N specification.  Some commands are not defined in any version of  the  ATA
              specification  but  are  in  common use nonetheless; these are marked [NS], meaning
              non-standard.

              The ATA Specification (ATA-5 Revision 1c,  Section  8.41.6.8.2)  says:  "Error  log
              structures  shall  include  UNC errors, IDNF errors for which the address requested
              was valid, servo errors, write fault errors, etc.  Error log data structures  shall
              not  include  errors  attributed  to the receipt of faulty commands such as command
              codes not implemented by the device or requests with invalid parameters or  invalid
              addresses." The definitions of these terms are:
              UNC  (UNCorrectable):  data  is  uncorrectable.  This refers to data which has been
              read from the disk, but for which the Error Checking and Correction (ECC) codes are
              inconsistent.  In effect, this means that the data can not be read.
              IDNF  (ID Not Found): user-accessible address could not be found. For READ LOG type
              commands, IDNF can also indicate that a device  data  log  structure  checksum  was
              incorrect.

              If  the command that caused the error was a READ or WRITE command, then the Logical
              Block Address (LBA) at which the error occurred will be printed in base 10 and base
              16.   The  LBA  is  a  linear  address,  which counts 512-byte sectors on the disk,
              starting from zero.  (Because of the limitations of the SMART error log, if the LBA
              is  greater  than  0xfffffff,  then  either no error log entry will be made, or the
              error log entry will have an incorrect LBA. This  may  happen  for  drives  with  a
              capacity  greater  than  128 GiB or 137 GB.) On Linux systems the smartmontools web
              page has instructions about how to convert the LBA address to the name of the  disk
              file containing the erroneous disk sector.

              Please note that some manufacturers ignore the ATA specifications, and make entries
              in the error log if the device receives a command which is not  implemented  or  is
              not valid.

              error  -  [SCSI]  prints the error counter log pages for reads, write and verifies.
              The verify row is only output if it has an element other than zero.

              xerror[,NUM][,error] - [ATA only] prints the Extended Comprehensive SMART error log
              (General  Purpose  Log  address 0x03).  Unlike the Summary SMART error log (see ´-l
              error´ above), it provides sufficient space to log the contents of the  48-bit  LBA
              register  set  introduced  with  ATA-6.   It  also supports logs with more than one
              sector.  Each sector holds up to 4 log entries. The actual number of log sectors is
              vendor  specific,  typical  values  for HDD are 2 (Samsung), 5 (Seagate) or 6 (WD).
              Some recent SSD devices have much larger error logs.

              Only the 8 most recent error log entries are printed by default.  This  number  can
              be changed by the optional parameter NUM.

              If  ',error'  is  appended  and  the  Extended Comprehensive SMART error log is not
              supported, the Summary SMART self-test log is printed.

              Please note that some recent (e.g.  Samsung)  drives  report  errors  only  in  the
              Extended Comprehensive SMART error log. The Summary SMART error log can be read but
              is always empty.

              selftest - [ATA] prints the SMART self-test log.  The disk  maintains  a  self-test
              log  showing  the results of the self tests, which can be run using the ´-t´ option
              described below.  For each of the most recent twenty-one self-tests, the log  shows
              the  type  of test (short or extended, off-line or captive) and the final status of
              the test.  If the test did not complete successfully, then the  percentage  of  the
              test  remaining is shown.  The time at which the test took place, measured in hours
              of disk lifetime, is also printed. [Note: this time stamp wraps after  2^16  hours,
              or  2730  days  and 16 hours, or about 7.5 years.] If any errors were detected, the
              Logical Block Address (LBA) of the first error is printed in decimal notation.   On
              Linux systems the smartmontools web page has instructions about how to convert this
              LBA address to the name of the disk file containing the erroneous block.

              selftest - [SCSI] the self-test log for a SCSI  device  has  a  slightly  different
              format  than  for an ATA device.  For each of the most recent twenty self-tests, it
              shows the type of test and the status (final or in  progress)  of  the  test.  SCSI
              standards   use   the  terms  "foreground"  and  "background"  (rather  than  ATA´s
              corresponding "captive" and "off-line") and "short" and "long" (rather  than  ATA´s
              corresponding  "short"  and  "extended")  to  describe  the  type of the test.  The
              printed segment number is only relevant when a test fails in  the  third  or  later
              test segment.  It identifies the test that failed and consists of either the number
              of the segment that failed during the test, or the number of the test  that  failed
              and  the  number  of the segment in which the test was run, using a vendor-specific
              method of putting both numbers into a single byte.  The Logical Block Address (LBA)
              of  the  first  error  is  printed  in  hexadecimal notation.  On Linux systems the
              smartmontools web page has instructions about how to convert this  LBA  address  to
              the  name  of  the disk file containing the erroneous block.  If provided, the SCSI
              Sense Key (SK), Additional Sense Code (ASC) and  Additional  Sense  Code  Qualifier
              (ASQ)  are  also printed. The self tests can be run using the ´-t´ option described
              below (using the ATA test terminology).

              xselftest[,NUM][,selftest] - [ATA only] prints the  Extended  SMART  self-test  log
              (General  Purpose  Log  address  0x07).  Unlike  the  SMART  self-test log (see ´-l
              selftest´ above), it supports 48-bit LBA and logs with more than one sector.   Each
              sector  holds  up  to  19  log  entries. The actual number of log sectors is vendor
              specific, typical values are 1 (Seagate) or 2 (Samsung).

              Only the 25 most recent log entries are printed by  default.  This  number  can  be
              changed by the optional parameter NUM.

              If  ',selftest'  is appended and the Extended SMART self-test log is not supported,
              the old SMART self-test log is printed.

              selective - [ATA only] Please see the ´-t select´ option below for a description of
              selective  self-tests.   The  selective  self-test  log shows the start/end Logical
              Block Addresses (LBA) of each of the  five  test  spans,  and  their  current  test
              status.   If  the  span  is  being  tested  or  the  remainder of the disk is being
              read-scanned,  the  current  65536-sector  block  of  LBAs  being  tested  is  also
              displayed.   The selective self-test log also shows if a read-scan of the remainder
              of the disk will be carried out after the selective self-test  has  completed  (see
              ´-t  afterselect´ option) and the time delay before restarting this read-scan if it
              is interrupted (see ´-t pending´ option). This  is  a  new  smartmontools  feature;
              please  report  unusual  or incorrect behavior to the smartmontools-support mailing
              list.

              directory[,gs] - [ATA only] if the device  supports  the  General  Purpose  Logging
              feature  set  (ATA-6  and  above)  then  this  prints the Log Directory (the log at
              address 0).  The Log Directory shows what logs are available and  their  length  in
              sectors  (512  bytes).   The contents of the logs at address 1 [Summary SMART error
              log]  and  at  address  6  [SMART  self-test  log]  may  be   printed   using   the
              previously-described  error and selftest arguments to this option.  If your version
              of smartctl supports 48-bit ATA commands, both the General Purpose  Log  (GPL)  and
              SMART  Log  (SL)  directories  are printed in one combined table. The output can be
              restricted to the GPL  directory  or  SL  directory  by  ´-l  directory,q´  or  ´-l
              directory,s´ respectively.

              background  -  [SCSI  only]  the  background  scan  results log outputs information
              derived from Background Media Scans (BMS) done after power up  and/or  periodocally
              (e.g.  every 24 hours) on recent SCSI disks. If supported, the BMS status is output
              first, indicating whether a background scan is currently  underway  (and  if  so  a
              progress  percentage),  the  amount  of  time  the disk has been powered up and the
              number of scans already completed. Then there is a  header  and  a  line  for  each
              background  scan "event". These will typically be either recovered or unrecoverable
              errors. That latter group may need some attention. There is a  description  of  the
              background scan mechansim in section 4.18 of SBC-3 revision 6 (see www.t10.org ).

              scttemp,   scttempsts,  scttemphist  -  [ATA  only]  prints  the  disk  temperature
              information provided by the SMART Command Transport  (SCT)  commands.   The  option
              ´scttempsts´  prints current temperature and temperature ranges returned by the SCT
              Status command, ´scttemphist´ prints temperature limits and the temperature history
              table  returned  by  the  SCT  Data  Table command, and ´scttemp´ prints both.  The
              temperature values are preserved across  power  cycles.   The  default  temperature
              logging  interval  is 1 minute and can be configured with the ´-t scttempint,N[,p]´
              option, see below.  The SCT commands are specified in the  proposed  ATA-8  Command
              Set (ACS), and are already implemented in some recent ATA-7 disks.

              scterc[,READTIME,WRITETIME] - [ATA only] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] prints
              values and descriptions of the SCT  Error  Recovery  Control  settings.  These  are
              equivalent  to  TLER  (as  used  by  Western Digital), CCTL (as used by Samsung and
              Hitachi)  and  ERC  (as  used  by  Seagate).  READTIME  and   WRITETIME   arguments
              (deciseconds)  set  the  specified  values.  Values of 0 disable the feature, other
              values less than 65 are probably not supported. For RAID  configurations,  this  is
              typically set to 70,70 deciseconds.

              sataphy[,reset]  - [SATA only] prints values and descriptions of the SATA Phy Event
              Counters (General Purpose Log address 0x11).  If ´-l sataphy,reset´  is  specified,
              all counters are reset after reading the values.

              sasphy[,reset]  - [SAS (SCSI) only] prints values and descriptions of the SAS (SSP)
              Protocol Specific log page (log page 0x18).  If ´-l sasphy,reset´ is specified, all
              counters are reset after reading the values.

              gplog,ADDR[,FIRST[-LAST|+SIZE]]  -  [ATA  only]  prints  a  hex  dump  of  any  log
              accessible via General Purpose Logging (GPL) feature.  The log address ADDR is  the
              hex  address  listed in the log directory (see ´-l directory´ above).  The range of
              log sectors (pages) can be specified by decimal values  FIRST-LAST  or  FIRST+SIZE.
              FIRST  defaults  to 0, SIZE defaults to 1.  LAST can be set to ´max´ to specify the
              last page of the log.

              smartlog,ADDR[,FIRST[-LAST|+SIZE]] - [ATA only]  prints  a  hex  dump  of  any  log
              accessible  via  SMART  Read  Log  command.  See ´-l gplog,...´ above for parameter
              syntax.

              For example, all these commands:
                smartctl -l gplog,0x80,10-15 /dev/sda
                smartctl -l gplog,0x80,10+6 /dev/sda
                smartctl -l smartlog,0x80,10-15 /dev/sda
              print pages 10-15 of log 0x80 (first host vendor specific log).

              The hex dump format is compatible with the ´xxd -r´ command.  This command:
                smartctl -l gplog,0x11 /dev/sda | grep ^0 | xxd -r >log.bin
              writes a binary representation of the one sector log 0x11 (SATA Phy Event Counters)
              to file log.bin.

       -v ID,FORMAT[:BYTEORDER][,NAME], --vendorattribute=ID,FORMAT[:BYTEORDER][,NAME]
              [ATA only] Sets a vendor-specific raw value print FORMAT, an optional BYTEORDER and
              an optional NAME for Attribute ID.  This option may be used multiple times.

              The Attribute ID can be in the range 1 to 255. If  ´N´  is  specified  as  ID,  the
              settings for all Attributes are changed.

              The optional BYTEORDER consists of 1 to 8 characters from the set ´012345rvwz´. The
              characters ´0´ to ´5´ select the byte 0 to 5 from the 48-bit raw value, ´r´ selects
              the  reserved  byte  of the attribute data block, ´v´ selects the normalized value,
              ´w´ selects the worst value and ´z´ inserts a zero byte.  The default BYTEORDER  is
              ´543210´  for  all 48-bit formats, ´r543210´ for the 54-bit formats, and ´543210wv´
              for the 64-bit formats.  For example, ´-v 5,raw48:012345´ prints the raw  value  of
              attribute 5 with big endian instead of little endian byte ordering.

              The NAME is a string of letters, digits and underscore.

              -v  help  -  Prints  (to STDOUT) a list of all valid arguments to this option, then
              exits.

              Valid arguments for FORMAT are:

              raw8 - Print the Raw value as six 8-bit unsigned base-10  integers.   This  may  be
              useful for decoding the meaning of the Raw value.

              raw16 - Print the Raw value as three 16-bit unsigned base-10 integers.  This may be
              useful for decoding the meaning of the Raw value.

              raw48 - Print the Raw value as a 48-bit unsigned  base-10  integer.   This  is  the
              default for most attributes.

              hex48  -  Print the Raw value as a 12 digit hexadecimal number.  This may be useful
              for decoding the meaning of the Raw value.

              raw64 - Print the Raw value as a 64-bit unsigned base-10  integer.   This  includes
              two  bytes  from  the normalized and worst attribute value.  This new raw format is
              used by some recent SSD devices.

              hex64 - Print the Raw value as a 16 digit hexadecimal number.   This  includes  two
              bytes  from  the normalized and worst attribute value.  This new raw format is used
              by some recent SSD devices.

              min2hour - Raw Attribute is power-on time  in  minutes.   Its  raw  value  will  be
              displayed in the form "Xh+Ym".  Here X is hours, and Y is minutes in the range 0-59
              inclusive.  Y is always printed with two digits, for example "06" or "31" or "00".

              sec2hour - Raw Attribute is power-on time  in  seconds.   Its  raw  value  will  be
              displayed  in the form "Xh+Ym+Zs".  Here X is hours, Y is minutes in the range 0-59
              inclusive, and Z is seconds in the range  0-59  inclusive.   Y  and  Z  are  always
              printed with two digits, for example "06" or "31" or "00".

              halfmin2hour  -  Raw  Attribute  is power-on time, measured in units of 30 seconds.
              This format is used by some Samsung disks.  Its raw value will be displayed in  the
              form "Xh+Ym".  Here X is hours, and Y is minutes in the range 0-59 inclusive.  Y is
              always printed with two digits, for example "06" or "31" or "00".

              msec24hour32 - Raw Attribute is power-on time measured in 32-bit hours  and  24-bit
              milliseconds   since   last  hour  update.   It  will  be  displayed  in  the  form
              "Xh+Ym+Z.Ms".  Here X is hours, Y is minutes, Z is seconds and M is milliseconds.

              tempminmax - Raw Attribute is the disk temperature in Celsius.  Info about  Min/Max
              temperature  is  printed  if available.  This is the default for Attributes 190 and
              194.  The recording interval (lifetime, last power cycle, last soft reset)  of  the
              min/max values is device specific.

              temp10x - Raw Attribute is ten times the disk temperature in Celsius.

              raw16(raw16)  -  Print  the raw attribute as a 16-bit value and two optional 16-bit
              values if these words are nonzero.  This is the default for Attributes 5 and 196.

              raw16(avg16) - Raw attribute is spin-up time.  It is printed as a 16-bit value  and
              an optional "Average" 16-bit value if the word is nonzero.  This is the default for
              Attribute 3.

              raw24/raw24 - Raw Attribute contains two 24-bit values. The first is the number  of
              load  cycles.   The  second is the number of unload cycles.  The difference between
              these two values is the number of times that the drive was unexpectedly powered off
              (also  called  an  emergency  unload).  As  a  rule of thumb, the mechanical stress
              created by one emergency unload is equivalent to that created by one hundred normal
              unloads.

              raw24/raw32 - Raw attribute is an error rate which consists of a 24-bit error count
              and a 32-bit total count.

              The following old arguments to ´-v´ are also still valid:

              9,minutes - same as: 9,min2hour,Power_On_Minutes.

              9,seconds - same as: 9,sec2hour,Power_On_Seconds.

              9,halfminutes - same as: 9,halfmin2hour,Power_On_Half_Minutes.

              9,temp - same as: 9,tempminmax,Temperature_Celsius.

              192,emergencyretractcyclect - same as: 192,raw48,Emerg_Retract_Cycle_Ct

              193,loadunload - same as: 193,raw24/raw24.

              194,10xCelsius - same as: 194,temp10x,Temperature_Celsius_x10.

              194,unknown - same as: 194,raw48,Unknown_Attribute.

              197,increasing  -  same  as:  197,raw48,Total_Pending_Sectors.   Also  means   that
              Attribute  number  197 (Current Pending Sector Count) is not reset if uncorrectable
              sectors are reallocated (see smartd.conf(5) man page).

              198,increasing -  same  as:  198,raw48,Total_Offl_Uncorrectabl.   Also  means  that
              Attribute  number  198  (Offline  Uncorrectable  Sector  Count)  is  not  reset  if
              uncorrectable sectors are reallocated (see smartd.conf(5) man page).

              198,offlinescanuncsectorct - same as: 198,raw48,Offline_Scan_UNC_SectCt.

              200,writeerrorcount - same as: 200,raw48,Write_Error_Count.

              201,detectedtacount - same as: 201,raw48,Detected_TA_Count.

              220,temp - same as: 220,raw48,Temperature_Celsius.

              Note: a table  of  hard  drive  models,  listing  which  Attribute  corresponds  to
              temperature, can be found at: http://www.guzu.net/linux/hddtemp.db

       -F TYPE, --firmwarebug=TYPE
              [ATA  only]  Modifies  the  behavior  of  smartctl to compensate for some known and
              understood device firmware or driver bug.  Except ´swapid´, the arguments  to  this
              option  are  exclusive,  so  that  only  the final option given is used.  The valid
              values are:

              none - Assume that the device firmware obeys the ATA specifications.  This  is  the
              default,  unless  the  device has presets for ´-F´ in the device database (see note
              below).

              samsung - In some Samsung disks (example: model SV4012H Firmware Version: RM100-08)
              some  of  the  two-  and  four-byte  quantities  in  the  SMART data structures are
              byte-swapped (relative to the  ATA  specification).   Enabling  this  option  tells
              smartctl to evaluate these quantities in byte-reversed order.  Some signs that your
              disk needs this option are (1) no self-test log printed, even though you  have  run
              self-tests; (2) very large numbers of ATA errors reported in the ATA error log; (3)
              strange and impossible values for the ATA error log timestamps.

              samsung2 - In some Samsung disks the number of ATA errors reported is byte swapped.
              Enabling  this  option  tells  smartctl  to evaluate this quantity in byte-reversed
              order. An indication that your Samsung disk needs this option is that the self-test
              log  is printed correctly, but there are a very large number of errors in the SMART
              error log.  This is because the error count is byte swapped.  Thus a disk with five
              errors (0x0005) will appear to have 20480 errors (0x5000).

              samsung3  -  Some  Samsung disks (at least SP2514N with Firmware VF100-37) report a
              self-test still in progress with 0% remaining when the test was already  completed.
              Enabling  this  option  modifies  the output of the self-test execution status (see
              options ´-c´ or ´-a´ above) accordingly.

              Note that an explicit ´-F´ option on the command line  will  over-ride  any  preset
              values for ´-F´ (see the ´-P´ option below).

              swapid  -  Fixes  byte  swapped  ATA  identify strings (device name, serial number,
              firmware version) returned by some buggy device drivers.

       -P TYPE, --presets=TYPE
              [ATA only] Specifies whether smartctl  should  use  any  preset  options  that  are
              available  for  this  drive.  By  default,  if  the  drive  is  recognized  in  the
              smartmontools database, then the presets are used.

              smartctl can automatically set appropriate options for known drives.  For  example,
              the Maxtor 4D080H4 uses Attribute 9 to stores power-on time in minutes whereas most
              drives use that Attribute to store the power-on time in  hours.   The  command-line
              option  ´-v  9,minutes´  ensures  that smartctl correctly interprets Attribute 9 in
              this case, but that option is preset for the Maxtor 4D080H4  and  so  need  not  be
              specified by the user on the smartctl command line.

              The  argument  show  will  show  any preset options for your drive and the argument
              showall will show all known drives in the smartmontools database, along with  their
              preset  options.  If there are no presets for your drive and you think there should
              be (for example, a -v or -F option is needed to get  smartctl  to  display  correct
              values)  then  please contact the smartmontools developers so that this information
              can be added to the smartmontools database.  Contact information is at the  end  of
              this man page.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              use  -  if  a drive is recognized, then use the stored presets for it.  This is the
              default. Note that presets will NOT over-ride additional  Attribute  interpretation
              (´-v N,something´) command-line options or explicit ´-F´ command-line options..

              ignore - do not use presets.

              show  -  show  if  the drive is recognized in the database, and if so, its presets,
              then exit.

              showall - list all recognized drives, and the presets that are set for  them,  then
              exit.

              The  ´-P  showall´  option  takes  up to two optional arguments to match a specific
              drive type and firmware version. The command:
                smartctl -P showall
              lists all entries, the command:
                smartctl -P showall ´MODEL´
              lists all entries matching MODEL, and the command:
                smartctl -P showall ´MODEL´ ´FIRMWARE´
              lists all entries for this MODEL and a specific FIRMWARE version.

       -B [+]FILE, --drivedb=[+]FILE
              [ATA only] Read the drive database from FILE.  The new database replaces the  built
              in  database  by  default.   If  ´+´ is specified, then the new entries prepend the
              built in entries.

              If this  option  is  not  specified,  optional  entries  are  read  from  the  file
              /etc/smart_drivedb.h          (Windows:          EXEDIR/drivedb-add.h).          If
              /usr/share/smartmontools/drivedb.h  (Windows:  EXEDIR/drivedb.h)  is  present,  the
              contents of this file is used instead of the built in table.

              Run  the  script  /usr/sbin/update-smart-drivedb  to  update  this  file  from  the
              smartmontools SVN repository.

              The database files use the same C/C++ syntax that is used to initialize  the  built
              in database array. C/C++ style comments are allowed.  Example:

                /* Full entry: */
                {
                  "Model family",    // Info about model family/series.
                  "MODEL1.*REGEX",   // Regular expression to match model of device.
                  "VERSION.*REGEX",  // Regular expression to match firmware version(s).
                  "Some warning",    // Warning message.
                  "-v 9,minutes"     // String of preset -v and -F options.
                },
                /* Minimal entry: */
                {
                  "",                // No model family/series info.
                  "MODEL2.*REGEX",   // Regular expression to match model of device.
                  "",                // All firmware versions.
                  "",                // No warning.
                  ""                 // No options preset.
                },
                /* USB ID entry: */
                {
                  "USB: Device; Bridge", // Info about USB device and bridge name.
                  "0x1234:0xabcd",   // Regular expression to match vendor:product ID.
                  "0x0101",          // Regular expression to match bcdDevice.
                  "",                // Not used.
                  "-d sat"           // String with device type option.
                },
                /* ... */

       SMART RUN/ABORT OFFLINE TEST AND SELF-TEST OPTIONS:

       -t TEST, --test=TEST
              Executes  TEST  immediately.   The ´-C´ option can be used in conjunction with this
              option to run the short or long (and also for ATA devices, selective or conveyance)
              self-tests  in  captive  mode  (known as "foreground mode" for SCSI devices).  Note
              that only one test type can be run at a time, so  only  one  test  type  should  be
              specified  per  command  line.   Note  also that if a computer is shutdown or power
              cycled during a self-test, no harm should result.  The  self-test  will  either  be
              aborted or will resume automatically.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              offline  -  [ATA]  runs  SMART Immediate Offline Test.  This immediately starts the
              test described above.  This command can be given during  normal  system  operation.
              The  effects  of  this test are visible only in that it updates the SMART Attribute
              values, and if errors are found they will appear in the SMART  error  log,  visible
              with the ´-l error´ option.

              If  the  ´-c´  option  to  smartctl  shows that the device has the "Suspend Offline
              collection upon new command" capability then you can  track  the  progress  of  the
              Immediate  Offline test using the ´-c´ option to smartctl.  If the ´-c´ option show
              that the device has the "Abort Offline collection upon new command" capability then
              most commands will abort the Immediate Offline Test, so you should not try to track
              the progress of the test with ´-c´, as it will abort the test.

              offline - [SCSI] runs the default self test in foreground. No entry  is  placed  in
              the self test log.

              short - [ATA] runs SMART Short Self Test (usually under ten minutes).  This command
              can be given during normal system operation (unless run in captive mode -  see  the
              ´-C´  option  below).  This is a test in a different category than the immediate or
              automatic offline tests.  The "Self" tests  check  the  electrical  and  mechanical
              performance  as  well  as  the  read  performance  of  the disk.  Their results are
              reported in the Self Test Error Log, readable with the ´-l selftest´ option.   Note
              that  on some disks the progress of the self-test can be monitored by watching this
              log during the self-test; with other disks use the ´-c´ option to monitor progress.

              short - [SCSI] runs the "Background short" self-test.

              long - [ATA] runs SMART Extended Self Test (tens of minutes). This is a longer  and
              more  thorough  version  of  the  Short  Self Test described above.  Note that this
              command can be given during normal system operation (unless run in captive  mode  -
              see the ´-C´ option below).

              long - [SCSI] runs the "Background long" self-test.

              conveyance  -  [ATA  only]  runs  a  SMART  Conveyance  Self  Test (minutes).  This
              self-test routine is intended to identify damage incurred  during  transporting  of
              the device. This self-test routine should take on the order of minutes to complete.
              Note that this command can be given during normal system operation (unless  run  in
              captive mode - see the ´-C´ option below).

              select,N-M,  select,N+SIZE - [ATA only] runs a SMART Selective Self Test, to test a
              range of disk Logical Block Addresses (LBAs), rather than the  entire  disk.   Each
              range of LBAs that is checked is called a "span" and is specified by a starting LBA
              (N) and an ending LBA (M) with N less than or equal to M. The  range  can  also  be
              specified as N+SIZE. A span at the end of a disk can be specified by N-max.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,10+11 /dev/hda
              both runs a self test on one span consisting of LBAs ten to twenty (inclusive). The
              command:
                smartctl -t select,100000000-max /dev/hda
              run a self test from LBA 100000000 up to the end of the disk.  The ´-t´ option  can
              be given up to five times, to test up to five spans.  For example the command:
                smartctl -t select,0-100 -t select,1000-2000 /dev/hda
              runs  a self test on two spans.  The first span consists of 101 LBAs and the second
              span consists of  1001  LBAs.   Note  that  the  spans  can  overlap  partially  or
              completely, for example:
                smartctl -t select,0-10 -t select,5-15 -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
              The  results  of the selective self-test can be obtained (both during and after the
              test) by printing the SMART self-test  log,  using  the  ´-l  selftest´  option  to
              smartctl.

              Selective  self  tests  are  particularly  useful  as  disk capacities increase: an
              extended self test (smartctl -t long) can take several hours.  Selective self-tests
              are  helpful  if  (based  on  SYSLOG error messages, previous failed self-tests, or
              SMART error log entries) you suspect that a disk is having problems at a particular
              range of Logical Block Addresses (LBAs).

              Selective  self-tests  can  be  run  during normal system operation (unless done in
              captive mode - see the ´-C´ option below).

              The following variants of the selective self-test command use spans  based  on  the
              ranges from past tests already stored on the disk:

              select,redo[+SIZE]  -  [ATA only] redo the last SMART Selective Self Test using the
              same LBA range. The starting LBA is identical to the LBA used by  last  test,  same
              for ending LBA unless a new span size is specified by optional +SIZE argument.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,redo /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,redo+20 /dev/hda
              have the same effect as:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,10-29 /dev/hda

              select,next[+SIZE]  -  [ATA only] runs a SMART Selective Self Test on the LBA range
              which follows the range of the last test. The starting LBA is set  to  (ending  LBA
              +1)  of  the  last  test.  A  new  span size may be specified by the optional +SIZE
              argument.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,next /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,next+2000 /dev/hda
              have the same effect as:
                smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,1000-1999 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,2000-3999 /dev/hda

              If the last test ended at the last LBA of the disk, the new range starts at LBA  0.
              The  span size of the last span of a disk is adjusted such that the total number of
              spans to  check  the  full  disk  will  not  be  changed  by  future  uses  of  ´-t
              select,next´.

              select,cont[+SIZE]  -  [ATA only] performs a ´redo´ (above) if the self test status
              reports that the last test was aborted by the host. Otherwise  it  run  the  ´next´
              (above) test.

              afterselect,on  -  [ATA  only]  perform  an  offline  read  scan  after a Selective
              Self-test has completed. This option must be used together with one or more of  the
              select,N-M  options  above.  If  the LBAs that have been specified in the Selective
              self-test pass the test with no errors found, then read scan the remainder  of  the
              disk.   If  the  device  is powered-cycled while this read scan is in progress, the
              read scan will be automatically resumed after a time specified by the pending timer
              (see below).  The value of this option is preserved between selective self-tests.

              afterselect,off  -  [ATA  only]  do not read scan the remainder of the disk after a
              Selective self-test has completed.  This option must be use together  with  one  or
              more  of  the  select,N-M  options  above.   The  value of this option is preserved
              between selective self-tests.

              pending,N - [ATA only] set the pending offline read scan timer to N minutes.   Here
              N  is  an integer in the range from 0 to 65535 inclusive.  If the device is powered
              off during  a  read  scan  after  a  Selective  self-test,  then  resume  the  test
              automatically  N minutes after power-up.  This option must be use together with one
              or more of the select,N-M options above. The value  of  this  option  is  preserved
              between selective self-tests.

              scttempint,N[,p]  - [ATA only] set the time interval for SCT temperature logging to
              N minutes. If ´,p´ is specified, the setting  is  preserved  across  power  cycles.
              Otherwise,  the  setting is volatile and will be reverted to default (1 minute), or
              last non-volatile setting by the next hard reset.  This  command  also  clears  the
              temperature  history  table.  See ´-l scttemp´ above for more information about SCT
              temperature logging.

              vendor,N - [ATA only] issues the ATA command SMART EXECUTE OFF-LINE IMMEDIATE  with
              subcommand N in LBA LOW register. The subcommand is specified as a hex value in the
              range 0x00 to 0xff.  Subcommands 0x40-0x7e and 0x90-0xff are  reserved  for  vendor
              specific  use,  see  table  61 of T13/1699-D Revision 6a (ATA8-ACS).  Note that the
              subcommands 0x00-0x04,0x7f,0x81-0x84 are supported by other smartctl options  (e.g.
              0x01: ´-t short´, 0x7f: ´-X´, 0x82: ´-C -t long´).

              WARNING: Only run subcommands documented by the vendor of the device.

              Example  for  Intel  (X18-M/X25-M G2 and 320 Series) SSDs only: The subcommand 0x40
              (´-t vendor,0x40´) clears the timed workload related SMART  attributes  (226,  227,
              228).   Note  that  the  raw  values of these attributes are held at 65535 (0xffff)
              until the workload timer reaches 60 minutes.

       -C, --captive
              [ATA] Runs self-tests in captive mode.  This has no effect with ´-t offline´ or  if
              the ´-t´ option is not used.

              WARNING:  Tests  run  in  captive mode may busy out the drive for the length of the
              test.  Only run captive tests on drives without any mounted partitions!

              [SCSI] Runs the self-test in "Foreground" mode.

       -X, --abort
              Aborts non-captive SMART Self Tests.  Note that this command will abort the Offline
              Immediate Test routine only if your disk has the "Abort Offline collection upon new
              command" capability.

ATA, SCSI command sets and SAT

       In the past there has been a clear distinction between storage devices that used  the  ATA
       and  SCSI  command  sets.  This distinction was often reflected in their device naming and
       hardware. Now various SCSI transports (e.g. SAS, FC and iSCSI) can  interconnect  to  both
       SCSI  disks  (e.g.  FC and SAS) and ATA disks (especially SATA). USB and IEEE 1394 storage
       devices use the SCSI command set externally but almost always contain ATA  or  SATA  disks
       (or  flash).  The  storage subsystems in some operating systems have started to remove the
       distinction between ATA and SCSI in their device naming policies.

       99% of operations that an OS performs on a disk involve the SCSI INQUIRY,  READ  CAPACITY,
       READ  and  WRITE  commands, or their ATA equivalents. Since the SCSI commands are slightly
       more general than their ATA equivalents, many OSes are generating  SCSI  commands  (mainly
       READ  and  WRITE) and letting a lower level translate them to their ATA equivalents as the
       need arises. An important note here is that "lower level" may be in external equipment and
       hence outside the control of an OS.

       SCSI to ATA Translation (SAT) is a standard (ANSI INCITS 431-2007) that specifies how this
       translation is done. For the other 1% of operations that an OS performs  on  a  disk,  SAT
       provides  two  options.  First is an optional ATA PASS-THROUGH SCSI command (there are two
       variants). The second is a  translation  from  the  closest  SCSI  command.  Most  current
       interest is in the "pass-through" option.

       The  relevance  to  smartmontools (and hence smartctl) is that its interactions with disks
       fall solidly into the "1%" category. So even if the OS can happily treat (and name) a disk
       as  "SCSI",  smartmontools needs to detect the native command set and act accordingly.  As
       more storage manufacturers (including external SATA drives) comply with SAT, smartmontools
       is  able  to automatically distinguish the native command set of the device. In some cases
       the '-d sat' option is needed on the command line.

       There are also virtual disks which typically have  no  useful  information  to  convey  to
       smartmontools,  but  could  conceivably in the future. An example of a virtual disk is the
       OS's view of a RAID 1 box. There are most likely two SATA  disks  inside  a  RAID  1  box.
       Addressing  those  SATA  disks from a distant OS is a challenge for smartmontools. Another
       approach is running a tool like smartmontools inside the  RAID  1  box  (e.g.   a  Network
       Attached Storage (NAS) box) and fetching the logs via a browser.

EXAMPLES

       smartctl -a /dev/hda
       Print  a  large  amount  of SMART information for drive /dev/hda which is typically an ATA
       (IDE) or SATA disk in Linux.

       smartctl -a /dev/sdb
       Print a large amount of SMART information for drive /dev/sdb . This may be a SCSI disk  or
       an ATA (SATA) disk.

       smartctl -s off /dev/hdd
       Disable SMART monitoring and data log collection on drive /dev/hdd .

       smartctl --smart=on --offlineauto=on --saveauto=on /dev/hda
       Enable  SMART  on  drive  /dev/hda, enable automatic offline testing every four hours, and
       enable autosaving of SMART Attributes.  This is a good start-up  line  for  your  system´s
       init files.  You can issue this command on a running system.

       smartctl -t long /dev/hdc
       Begin  an  extended  self-test of drive /dev/hdc.  You can issue this command on a running
       system.  The results can be seen in the self-test  log  visible  with  the  ´-l  selftest´
       option after it has completed.

       smartctl -s on -t offline /dev/hda
       Enable  SMART on the disk, and begin an immediate offline test of drive /dev/hda.  You can
       issue this command on a running system.  The results are only used  to  update  the  SMART
       Attributes,  visible with the ´-A´ option.  If any device errors occur, they are logged to
       the SMART error log, which can be seen with the ´-l error´ option.

       smartctl -A -v 9,minutes /dev/hda
       Shows the vendor Attributes, when the disk stores its power-on time internally in  minutes
       rather than hours.

       smartctl -q errorsonly -H -l selftest /dev/hda
       Produces  output only if the device returns failing SMART status, or if some of the logged
       self-tests ended with errors.

       smartctl -q silent -a /dev/hda
       Examine all SMART data for device /dev/hda, but produce no printed output.  You  must  use
       the  exit  status (the $?  shell variable) to learn if any Attributes are out of bound, if
       the SMART status is failing, if there are errors recorded in  the  self-test  log,  or  if
       there are errors recorded in the disk error log.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/sda
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID controller card.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
       Examine  all  SMART  data  for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID 6000/7000/8000
       controller card.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twa0
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware  RAID  9000  controller
       card.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twl0
       Examine  all  SMART  data for the first SATA (not SAS) disk connected to a 3ware RAID 9750
       controller card.

       smartctl -t short -d 3ware,3 /dev/sdb
       Start a short self-test on the fourth ATA disk connected to the 3ware RAID controller card
       which is the second SCSI device /dev/sdb.

       smartctl -t long -d areca,4 /dev/sg2
       Start  a  long  self-test  on  the  fourth SATA disk connected to an Areca RAID controller
       addressed by /dev/sg2.

       smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda (under Linux)
       smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/hptrr (under FreeBSD)
       Examine all SMART data for the (S)ATA disk directly connected to the third channel of  the
       first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl -t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/sda (under Linux)
       smartctl -t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/hptrr (under FreeBSD)
       Start a short self-test on the (S)ATA disk connected to second pmport on the first channel
       of the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl -t select,10-100 -t select,30-300 -t afterselect,on -t pending,45 /dev/hda
       Run a selective self-test on LBAs 10 to 100 and 30 to 300.  After the these LBAs have been
       tested,  read-scan  the  remainder  of  the  disk.  If the disk is power-cycled during the
       read-scan, resume the scan 45 minutes after power to the device is restored.

       smartctl -a -d cciss,0 /dev/cciss/c0d0
       Examine all SMART data for the first SCSI disk connected to a cciss RAID controller card.

RETURN VALUES

       The return values of smartctl are defined by a bitmask.  If all is well with the disk, the
       return  value  (exit status) of smartctl is 0 (all bits turned off).  If a problem occurs,
       or an error, potential error, or fault is detected, then a non-zero  status  is  returned.
       In this case, the eight different bits in the return value have the following meanings for
       ATA disks; some of these values may also be returned for SCSI disks.

       Bit 0: Command line did not parse.

       Bit 1: Device open failed, device did not return an IDENTIFY DEVICE structure,  or  device
              is in a low-power mode (see ´-n´ option above).

       Bit 2: Some  SMART  command  to  the disk failed, or there was a checksum error in a SMART
              data structure (see ´-b´ option above).

       Bit 3: SMART status check returned "DISK FAILING".

       Bit 4: We found prefail Attributes <= threshold.

       Bit 5: SMART status check returned "DISK OK" but we found that  some  (usage  or  prefail)
              Attributes have been <= threshold at some time in the past.

       Bit 6: The device error log contains records of errors.

       Bit 7: The  device self-test log contains records of errors.  [ATA only] Failed self-tests
              outdated by a newer successful extended self-test are ignored.

              To test within the shell for whether or not the different bits  are  turned  on  or
              off, you can use the following type of construction (this is bash syntax):
              smartstat=$(($? & 8))
              This  looks  at  only  at  bit  3  of the exit status $?  (since 8=2^3).  The shell
              variable $smartstat will be nonzero if SMART status check returned  "disk  failing"
              and zero otherwise.

NOTES

       The  TapeAlert  log  page  flags are cleared for the initiator when the page is read. This
       means that each alert condition is reported only once by smartctl for each  initiator  for
       each activation of the condition.

AUTHOR

       Bruce Allen smartmontools-support@lists.sourceforge.net
       University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Physics Department

CONTRIBUTORS

       The following have made large contributions to smartmontools:
       Casper Dik (Solaris SCSI interface)
       Christian Franke (Windows interface, C++ redesign, USB support, ...)
       Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem)
       Guido Guenther (Autoconf/Automake packaging)
       Geoffrey Keating (Darwin ATA interface)
       Eduard Martinescu (FreeBSD interface)
       Frederic L. W. Meunier (Web site and Mailing list)
       Gabriele Pohl (Web site and Wiki, conversion from CVS to SVN)
       Keiji Sawada (Solaris ATA interface)
       Manfred Schwarb (Drive database)
       Sergey Svishchev (NetBSD interface)
       David Snyder and Sergey Svishchev (OpenBSD interface)
       Phil Williams (User interface and drive database)
       Yuri Dario (OS/2, eComStation interface)
       Shengfeng Zhou (Linux/FreeBSD HighPoint RocketRAID interface)
       Many other individuals have made smaller contributions and corrections.

CREDITS

       This  code  was derived from the smartsuite package, written by Michael Cornwell, and from
       the previous UCSC smartsuite package.  It extends these to cover ATA-5 disks.   This  code
       was  originally developed as a Senior Thesis by Michael Cornwell at the Concurrent Systems
       Laboratory (now part of the Storage  Systems  Research  Center),  Jack  Baskin  School  of
       Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz. http://ssrc.soe.ucsc.edu/ .

HOME PAGE FOR SMARTMONTOOLS:

       Please  see  the  following  web  site for updates, further documentation, bug reports and
       patches: http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/

SEE ALSO:

       smartd(8), badblocks(8), ide-smart(8).

REFERENCES FOR SMART

       An introductory article about smartmontools is Monitoring Hard Disks with SMART, by  Bruce
       Allen,      Linux      Journal,     January     2004,     pages     74-77.     This     is
       http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/6983 online.

       If you would like to understand better how SMART works, and what it does, a good place  to
       start  is with Sections 4.8 and 6.54 of the first volume of the ´AT Attachment with Packet
       Interface-7´  (ATA/ATAPI-7)  specification  Revision  4b.   This   documents   the   SMART
       functionality  which  the  smartmontools  utilities  provide  access  to.   This and other
       versions of this Specification are available from the T13 web site http://www.t13.org/ .

       The functioning of SMART was originally defined  by  the  SFF-8035i  revision  2  and  the
       SFF-8055i  revision  1.4 specifications.  These are publications of the Small Form Factors
       (SFF) Committee.

       Links to these and other documents may be found on the Links  page  of  the  smartmontools
       Wiki at http://sourceforge.net/apps/trac/smartmontools/wiki/Links .

SVN ID OF THIS PAGE:

       $Id: smartctl.8.in 3320 2011-04-30 20:44:55Z chrfranke $