Provided by: iproute_20111117-1ubuntu2_amd64
sfq - Stochastic Fairness Queueing
tc qdisc ... divisor hashtablesize limit packets perturb seconds quantum bytes
Stochastic Fairness Queueing is a classless queueing discipline available for traffic control with the tc(8) command. SFQ does not shape traffic but only schedules the transmission of packets, based on 'flows'. The goal is to ensure fairness so that each flow is able to send data in turn, thus preventing any single flow from drowning out the rest. This may in fact have some effect in mitigating a Denial of Service attempt. SFQ is work-conserving and therefore always delivers a packet if it has one available.
On enqueueing, each packet is assigned to a hash bucket, based on the packets hash value. This hash value is either obtained from an external flow classifier (use tc filter to set them), or a default internal classifier if no external classifier has been configured. When the internal classifier is used, sfq uses (i) Source address (ii) Destination address (iii) Source port If these are available. SFQ knows about ipv4 and ipv6 and also UDP, TCP and ESP. Packets with other protocols are hashed based on the 32bits representation of their destination and the socket they belong to. A flow corresponds mostly to a TCP/IP connection. Each of these buckets should represent a unique flow. Because multiple flows may get hashed to the same bucket, sfqs internal hashing algorithm may be perturbed at configurable intervals so that the unfairness lasts only for a short while. Perturbation may however cause some inadvertent packet reordering to occur. When dequeuing, each hashbucket with data is queried in a round robin fashion. The compile time maximum length of the SFQ is 128 packets, which can be spread over at most 128 buckets of 1024 available. In case of overflow, tail-drop is performed on the fullest bucket, thus maintaining fairness.
divisor Can be used to set a different hash table size, available from kernel 2.6.39 onwards. The specified divisor must be a power of two and cannot be larger than 65536. Default value: 1024. limit Upper limit of the SFQ. Can be used to reduce the default length of 128 packets. perturb Interval in seconds for queue algorithm perturbation. Defaults to 0, which means that no perturbation occurs. Do not set too low for each perturbation may cause some packet reordering. Advised value: 10 This value has no effect when external flow classification is used. quantum Amount of bytes a flow is allowed to dequeue during a round of the round robin process. Defaults to the MTU of the interface which is also the advised value and the minimum value.
EXAMPLE & USAGE
To attach to device ppp0: # tc qdisc add dev ppp0 root sfq perturb 10 Please note that SFQ, like all non-shaping (work-conserving) qdiscs, is only useful if it owns the queue. This is the case when the link speed equals the actually available bandwidth. This holds for regular phone modems, ISDN connections and direct non-switched ethernet links. Most often, cable modems and DSL devices do not fall into this category. The same holds for when connected to a switch and trying to send data to a congested segment also connected to the switch. In this case, the effective queue does not reside within Linux and is therefore not available for scheduling. Embed SFQ in a classful qdisc to make sure it owns the queue. It is possible to use external classifiers with sfq, for example to hash traffic based only on source/destination ip addresses: # tc filter add ... flow hash keys src,dst perturb 30 divisor 1024 Note that the given divisor should match the one used by sfq. If you have changed the sfq default of 1024, use the same value for the flow hash filter, too.
o Paul E. McKenney "Stochastic Fairness Queuing", IEEE INFOCOMM'90 Proceedings, San Francisco, 1990. o Paul E. McKenney "Stochastic Fairness Queuing", "Interworking: Research and Experience", v.2, 1991, p.113-131. o See also: M. Shreedhar and George Varghese "Efficient Fair Queuing using Deficit Round Robin", Proc. SIGCOMM 95.
Alexey N. Kuznetsov, <firstname.lastname@example.org>. This manpage maintained by bert hubert <email@example.com>