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SYSCTL_DECL, SYSCTL_INT, SYSCTL_LONG, SYSCTL_NODE, SYSCTL_OPAQUE,
SYSCTL_PROC, SYSCTL_STRING, SYSCTL_STRUCT, SYSCTL_UINT, SYSCTL_ULONG,
SYSCTL_XINT, SYSCTL_XLONG, SYSCTL_QUAD — Static sysctl declaration
SYSCTL_INT(parent, nbr, name, access, ptr, val, descr);
SYSCTL_LONG(parent, nbr, name, access, ptr, val, descr);
SYSCTL_NODE(parent, nbr, name, access, handler, descr);
SYSCTL_OPAQUE(parent, nbr, name, access, ptr, len, fmt, descr);
SYSCTL_PROC(parent, nbr, name, access, ptr, arg, handler, fmt, descr);
SYSCTL_STRING(parent, nbr, name, access, arg, len, descr);
SYSCTL_STRUCT(parent, nbr, name, access, ptr, type, descr);
SYSCTL_UINT(parent, nbr, name, access, ptr, val, descr);
SYSCTL_ULONG(parent, nbr, name, access, ptr, val, descr);
SYSCTL_XINT(parent, nbr, name, access, ptr, val, descr);
SYSCTL_XLONG(parent, nbr, name, access, ptr, val, descr);
SYSCTL_QUAD(parent, nbr, name, access, ptr, val, descr);
The SYSCTL kernel interfaces allow code to statically declare sysctl(8)
MIB entries, which will be initialized when the kernel module containing
the declaration is initialized. When the module is unloaded, the sysctl
will be automatically destroyed.
Sysctl nodes are created in a hierarchical tree, with all static nodes
being represented by named C data structures; in order to create a new
node under an existing node in the tree, the structure representing the
desired parent node must be declared in the current context using
New nodes are declared using one of SYSCTL_INT(), SYSCTL_LONG(),
SYSCTL_NODE(), SYSCTL_OPAQUE(), SYSCTL_PROC(), SYSCTL_STRING(),
SYSCTL_STRUCT(), SYSCTL_UINT(), SYSCTL_ULONG(), SYSCTL_XINT(),
SYSCTL_XLONG(), and SYSCTL_QUAD(). Each macro accepts a parent name, as
declared using SYSCTL_DECL(), an OID number, typically OID_AUTO, a node
name, a set of control and access flags, and a description. Depending on
the macro, a pointer to a variable supporting the MIB entry, a size, a
value, and a function pointer implementing the MIB entry may also be
For most of the above macros, declaring a type as part of the access
flags is not necessary — however, when declaring a sysctl implemented by
a function, including a type in the access mask is required:
CTLTYPE_NODE This is a node intended to be a parent for other nodes.
CTLTYPE_INT This is a signed integer.
CTLTYPE_STRING This is a nul-terminated string stored in a character
CTLTYPE_QUAD This is a 64-bit signed integer.
CTLTYPE_OPAQUE This is an opaque data structure.
CTLTYPE_STRUCT Alias for CTLTYPE_OPAQUE.
CTLTYPE_UINT This is an unsigned integer.
CTLTYPE_LONG This is a signed long.
CTLTYPE_ULONG This is an unsigned long.
All sysctl types except for new node declarations require one or more
flags to be set indicating the read and write disposition of the sysctl:
CTLFLAG_RD This is a read-only sysctl.
CTLFLAG_WR This is a writable sysctl.
CTLFLAG_RW This sysctl is readable and writable.
CTLFLAG_ANYBODY Any user or process can write to this sysctl.
CTLFLAG_SECURE This sysctl can be written to only if the effective
securelevel of the process is ≤ 0.
CTLFLAG_PRISON This sysctl can be written to by processes in jail(2).
CTLFLAG_SKIP When iterating the sysctl name space, do not list this
CTLFLAG_TUN Also declare a system tunable with the same name to
initialize this variable.
CTLFLAG_RDTUN Also declare a system tunable with the same name to
initialize this variable; however, the run-time variable
When creating new sysctls, careful attention should be paid to the
security implications of the monitoring or management interface being
created. Most sysctls present in the kernel are read-only or writable
only by the superuser. Sysctls exporting extensive information on system
data structures and operation, especially those implemented using
procedures, will wish to implement access control to limit the undesired
exposure of information about other processes, network connections, etc.
The following top level sysctl name spaces are commonly used:
compat Compatibility layer information.
debug Debugging information. Various name spaces exist under
hw Hardware and device driver information.
kern Kernel behavior tuning; generally deprecated in favor of more
specific name spaces.
machdep Machine-dependent configuration parameters.
net Network subsystem. Various protocols have name spaces under
regression Regression test configuration and information.
security Security and security-policy configuration and information.
sysctl Reserved name space for the implementation of sysctl.
user Configuration settings relating to user application behavior.
Generally, configuring applications using kernel sysctls is
vfs Virtual file system configuration and information.
vm Virtual memory subsystem configuration and information.
Sample use of SYSCTL_DECL() to declare the security sysctl tree for use
by new nodes:
Examples of integer, opaque, string, and procedure sysctls follow:
* Example of a constant integer value. Notice that the control
* flags are CTLFLAG_RD, the variable pointer is NULL, and the
* value is declared.
* If sysctl(8) should print this value in hex, use 'SYSCTL_XINT'.
SYSCTL_INT(_debug_sizeof, OID_AUTO, bio, CTLFLAG_RD, NULL,
sizeof(struct bio), "sizeof(struct bio)");
* Example of a variable integer value. Notice that the control
* flags are CTLFLAG_RW, the variable pointer is set, and the
* value is 0.
static int doingcache = 1; /* 1 => enable the cache */
SYSCTL_INT(_debug, OID_AUTO, vfscache, CTLFLAG_RW, &doingcache, 0,
"Enable name cache");
* Example of a variable string value. Notice that the control
* flags are CTLFLAG_RW, that the variable pointer and string
* size are set. Unlike newer sysctls, this older sysctl uses a
* static oid number.
char kernelname[MAXPATHLEN] = "/kernel"; /* XXX bloat */
SYSCTL_STRING(_kern, KERN_BOOTFILE, bootfile, CTLFLAG_RW,
kernelname, sizeof(kernelname), "Name of kernel file booted");
* Example of an opaque data type exported by sysctl. Notice that
* the variable pointer and size are provided, as well as a format
* string for sysctl(8).
static l_fp pps_freq; /* scaled frequence offset (ns/s) */
SYSCTL_OPAQUE(_kern_ntp_pll, OID_AUTO, pps_freq, CTLFLAG_RD,
&pps_freq, sizeof(pps_freq), "I", "");
* Example of a procedure based sysctl exporting string
* information. Notice that the data type is declared, the NULL
* variable pointer and 0 size, the function pointer, and the
* format string for sysctl(8).
SYSCTL_PROC(_kern_timecounter, OID_AUTO, hardware, CTLTYPE_STRING |
CTLFLAG_RW, NULL, 0, sysctl_kern_timecounter_hardware, "A",
When adding, modifying, or removing sysctl names, it is important to be
aware that these interfaces may be used by users, libraries,
applications, or documentation (such as published books), and are
implicitly published application interfaces. As with other application
interfaces, caution must be taken not to break existing applications, and
to think about future use of new name spaces so as to avoid the need to
rename or remove interfaces that might be depended on in the future.
The semantics chosen for a new sysctl should be as clear as possible, and
the name of the sysctl must closely reflect its semantics. Therefore the
sysctl name deserves a fair amount of consideration. It should be short
but yet representative of the sysctl meaning. If the name consists of
several words, they should be separated by underscore characters, as in
compute_summary_at_mount. Underscore characters may be omitted only if
the name consists of not more than two words, each being not longer than
four characters, as in bootfile. For boolean sysctls, negative logic
should be totally avoided. That is, do not use names like no_foobar or
foobar_disable. They are confusing and lead to configuration errors.
Use positive logic instead: foobar, foobar_enable.
A temporary sysctl node that should not be relied upon must be designated
as such by a leading underscore character in its name. For example:
sysctl(8), sysctl_add_oid(9), sysctl_ctx_free(9), sysctl_ctx_init(9),
The sysctl(8) utility first appeared in 4.4BSD.
The sysctl implementation originally found in BSD has been extensively
rewritten by Poul-Henning Kamp in order to add support for name lookups,
name space iteration, and dynamic addition of MIB nodes.
This man page was written by Robert N. M. Watson.