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     atomic_add, atomic_clear, atomic_cmpset, atomic_fetchadd, atomic_load, atomic_readandclear,
     atomic_set, atomic_subtract, atomic_store — atomic operations


     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <machine/atomic.h>

     atomic_add_[acq_|rel_]<type>(volatile <type> *p, <type> v);

     atomic_clear_[acq_|rel_]<type>(volatile <type> *p, <type> v);

     atomic_cmpset_[acq_|rel_]<type>(volatile <type> *dst, <type> old, <type> new);

     atomic_fetchadd_<type>(volatile <type> *p, <type> v);

     atomic_load_acq_<type>(volatile <type> *p);

     atomic_readandclear_<type>(volatile <type> *p);

     atomic_set_[acq_|rel_]<type>(volatile <type> *p, <type> v);

     atomic_subtract_[acq_|rel_]<type>(volatile <type> *p, <type> v);

     atomic_store_rel_<type>(volatile <type> *p, <type> v);


     Each of the atomic operations is guaranteed to be atomic in the presence of interrupts.
     They can be used to implement reference counts or as building blocks for more advanced
     synchronization primitives such as mutexes.

     Each atomic operation operates on a specific type.  The type to use is indicated in the
     function name.  The available types that can be used are:

           int    unsigned integer
           long   unsigned long integer
           ptr    unsigned integer the size of a pointer
           32     unsigned 32-bit integer
           64     unsigned 64-bit integer

     For example, the function to atomically add two integers is called atomic_add_int().

     Certain architectures also provide operations for types smaller than “int”.

           char   unsigned character
           short  unsigned short integer
           8      unsigned 8-bit integer
           16     unsigned 16-bit integer

     These must not be used in MI code because the instructions to implement them efficiently may
     not be available.

   Memory Barriers
     Memory barriers are used to guarantee the order of data accesses in two ways.  First, they
     specify hints to the compiler to not re-order or optimize the operations.  Second, on
     architectures that do not guarantee ordered data accesses, special instructions or special
     variants of instructions are used to indicate to the processor that data accesses need to
     occur in a certain order.  As a result, most of the atomic operations have three variants in
     order to include optional memory barriers.  The first form just performs the operation
     without any explicit barriers.  The second form uses a read memory barrier, and the third
     variant uses a write memory barrier.

     The second variant of each operation includes a read memory barrier.  This barrier ensures
     that the effects of this operation are completed before the effects of any later data
     accesses.  As a result, the operation is said to have acquire semantics as it acquires a
     pseudo-lock requiring further operations to wait until it has completed.  To denote this,
     the suffix “_acq” is inserted into the function name immediately prior to the “_⟨type⟩”
     suffix.  For example, to subtract two integers ensuring that any later writes will happen
     after the subtraction is performed, use atomic_subtract_acq_int().

     The third variant of each operation includes a write memory barrier.  This ensures that all
     effects of all previous data accesses are completed before this operation takes place.  As a
     result, the operation is said to have release semantics as it releases any pending data
     accesses to be completed before its operation is performed.  To denote this, the suffix
     “_rel” is inserted into the function name immediately prior to the “_⟨type⟩” suffix.  For
     example, to add two long integers ensuring that all previous writes will happen first, use

     A practical example of using memory barriers is to ensure that data accesses that are
     protected by a lock are all performed while the lock is held.  To achieve this, one would
     use a read barrier when acquiring the lock to guarantee that the lock is held before any
     protected operations are performed.  Finally, one would use a write barrier when releasing
     the lock to ensure that all of the protected operations are completed before the lock is

   Multiple Processors
     The current set of atomic operations do not necessarily guarantee atomicity across multiple
     processors.  To guarantee atomicity across processors, not only does the individual
     operation need to be atomic on the processor performing the operation, but the result of the
     operation needs to be pushed out to stable storage and the caches of all other processors on
     the system need to invalidate any cache lines that include the affected memory region.  On
     the i386 architecture, the cache coherency model requires that the hardware perform this
     task, thus the atomic operations are atomic across multiple processors.  On the ia64
     architecture, coherency is only guaranteed for pages that are configured to using a caching
     policy of either uncached or write back.

     This section describes the semantics of each operation using a C like notation.

     atomic_add(p, v)
             *p += v;

     atomic_clear(p, v)
             *p &= ~v;

     atomic_cmpset(dst, old, new)
             if (*dst == old) {
                     *dst = new;
                     return 1;
             } else
                     return 0;

     The atomic_cmpset() functions are not implemented for the types “char”, “short”, “8”, and

     atomic_fetchadd(p, v)
             tmp = *p;
             *p += v;
             return tmp;

     The atomic_fetchadd() functions are only implemented for the types “int”, “long” and “32”
     and do not have any variants with memory barriers at this time.

             return (*addr)

     The atomic_load() functions are only provided with acquire memory barriers.

             temp = *addr;
             *addr = 0;
             return (temp);

     The atomic_readandclear() functions are not implemented for the types “char”, “short”,
     “ptr”, “8”, and “16” and do not have any variants with memory barriers at this time.

     atomic_set(p, v)
             *p |= v;

     atomic_subtract(p, v)
             *p -= v;

     atomic_store(p, v)
             *p = v;

     The atomic_store() functions are only provided with release memory barriers.

     The type “64” is currently not implemented for any of the atomic operations on the arm,
     i386, and powerpc architectures.


     The atomic_cmpset() function returns the result of the compare operation.  The
     atomic_fetchadd(), atomic_load(), and atomic_readandclear() functions return the value at
     the specified address.


     This example uses the atomic_cmpset_acq_ptr() and atomic_set_ptr() functions to obtain a
     sleep mutex and handle recursion.  Since the mtx_lock member of a struct mtx is a pointer,
     the “ptr” type is used.

     /* Try to obtain mtx_lock once. */
     #define _obtain_lock(mp, tid)                                           \
             atomic_cmpset_acq_ptr(&(mp)->mtx_lock, MTX_UNOWNED, (tid))

     /* Get a sleep lock, deal with recursion inline. */
     #define _get_sleep_lock(mp, tid, opts, file, line) do {                 \
             uintptr_t _tid = (uintptr_t)(tid);                              \
             if (!_obtain_lock(mp, tid)) {                                   \
                     if (((mp)->mtx_lock & MTX_FLAGMASK) != _tid)            \
                             _mtx_lock_sleep((mp), _tid, (opts), (file), (line));\
                     else {                                                  \
                             atomic_set_ptr(&(mp)->mtx_lock, MTX_RECURSE);   \
                             (mp)->mtx_recurse++;                            \
                     }                                                       \
             }                                                               \
     } while (0)


     The atomic_add(), atomic_clear(), atomic_set(), and atomic_subtract() operations were first
     introduced in FreeBSD 3.0.  This first set only supported the types “char”, “short”, “int”,
     and “long”.  The atomic_cmpset(), atomic_load(), atomic_readandclear(), and atomic_store()
     operations were added in FreeBSD 5.0.  The types “8”, “16”, “32”, “64”, and “ptr” and all of
     the acquire and release variants were added in FreeBSD 5.0 as well.  The atomic_fetchadd()
     operations were added in FreeBSD 6.0.