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NAME

     taskqueue — asynchronous task execution

SYNOPSIS

     #include <sys/param.h>
     #include <sys/kernel.h>
     #include <sys/malloc.h>
     #include <sys/queue.h>
     #include <sys/taskqueue.h>

     typedef void (*task_fn_t)(void *context, int pending);

     typedef void (*taskqueue_enqueue_fn)(void *context);

     struct task {
             STAILQ_ENTRY(task)      ta_link;        /* link for queue */
             u_short                 ta_pending;     /* count times queued */
             u_short                 ta_priority;    /* priority of task in queue */
             task_fn_t               ta_func;        /* task handler */
             void                    *ta_context;    /* argument for handler */
     };

     struct taskqueue *
     taskqueue_create(const char *name, int mflags, taskqueue_enqueue_fn enqueue, void *context);

     struct taskqueue *
     taskqueue_create_fast(const char *name, int mflags, taskqueue_enqueue_fn enqueue,
         void *context);

     void
     taskqueue_free(struct taskqueue *queue);

     int
     taskqueue_enqueue(struct taskqueue *queue, struct task *task);

     int
     taskqueue_enqueue_fast(struct taskqueue *queue, struct task *task);

     void
     taskqueue_run(struct taskqueue *queue);

     void
     taskqueue_run_fast(struct taskqueue *queue);

     void
     taskqueue_drain(struct taskqueue *queue, struct task *task);

     int
     taskqueue_member(struct taskqueue *queue, struct thread *td);

     TASK_INIT(struct task *task, int priority, task_fn_t *func, void *context);

     TASKQUEUE_DECLARE(name);

     TASKQUEUE_DEFINE(name, taskqueue_enqueue_fn enqueue, void *context, init);

     TASKQUEUE_FAST_DEFINE(name, taskqueue_enqueue_fn enqueue, void *context, init);

     TASKQUEUE_DEFINE_THREAD(name);

     TASKQUEUE_FAST_DEFINE_THREAD(name);

DESCRIPTION

     These functions provide a simple interface for asynchronous execution of code.

     The function taskqueue_create() is used to create new queues.  The arguments to
     taskqueue_create() include a name that should be unique, a set of malloc(9) flags that
     specify whether the call to malloc() is allowed to sleep, a function that is called from
     taskqueue_enqueue() when a task is added to the queue, and a pointer to the memory location
     where the identity of the thread that services the queue is recorded.  The function called
     from taskqueue_enqueue() must arrange for the queue to be processed (for instance by
     scheduling a software interrupt or waking a kernel thread).  The memory location where the
     thread identity is recorded is used to signal the service thread(s) to terminate--when this
     value is set to zero and the thread is signaled it will terminate.  If the queue is intended
     for use in fast interrupt handlers taskqueue_create_fast() should be used in place of
     taskqueue_create().

     The function taskqueue_free() should be used to free the memory used by the queue.  Any
     tasks that are on the queue will be executed at this time after which the thread servicing
     the queue will be signaled that it should exit.

     To add a task to the list of tasks queued on a taskqueue, call taskqueue_enqueue() with
     pointers to the queue and task.  If the task's ta_pending field is non-zero, then it is
     simply incremented to reflect the number of times the task was enqueued.  Otherwise, the
     task is added to the list before the first task which has a lower ta_priority value or at
     the end of the list if no tasks have a lower priority.  Enqueueing a task does not perform
     any memory allocation which makes it suitable for calling from an interrupt handler.  This
     function will return EPIPE if the queue is being freed.

     The function taskqueue_enqueue_fast() should be used in place of taskqueue_enqueue() when
     the enqueuing must happen from a fast interrupt handler.  This method uses spin locks to
     avoid the possibility of sleeping in the fast interrupt context.

     To execute all the tasks on a queue, call taskqueue_run() or taskqueue_run_fast() depending
     on the flavour of the queue.  When a task is executed, first it is removed from the queue,
     the value of ta_pending is recorded and then the field is zeroed.  The function ta_func from
     the task structure is called with the value of the field ta_context as its first argument
     and the value of ta_pending as its second argument.  After the function ta_func returns,
     wakeup(9) is called on the task pointer passed to taskqueue_enqueue().

     The taskqueue_drain() function is used to wait for the task to finish.  There is no
     guarantee that the task will not be enqueued after call to taskqueue_drain().

     The taskqueue_member() function returns 1 if the given thread td is part of the given
     taskqeueue queue and 0 otherwise.

     A convenience macro, TASK_INIT(task, priority, func, context) is provided to initialise a
     task structure.  The values of priority, func, and context are simply copied into the task
     structure fields and the ta_pending field is cleared.

     Five macros TASKQUEUE_DECLARE(name), TASKQUEUE_DEFINE(name, enqueue, context, init),
     TASKQUEUE_FAST_DEFINE(name, enqueue, context, init), and TASKQUEUE_DEFINE_THREAD(name)
     TASKQUEUE_FAST_DEFINE_THREAD(name) are used to declare a reference to a global queue, to
     define the implementation of the queue, and declare a queue that uses its own thread.  The
     TASKQUEUE_DEFINE() macro arranges to call taskqueue_create() with the values of its name,
     enqueue and context arguments during system initialisation.  After calling
     taskqueue_create(), the init argument to the macro is executed as a C statement, allowing
     any further initialisation to be performed (such as registering an interrupt handler etc.)

     The TASKQUEUE_DEFINE_THREAD() macro defines a new taskqueue with its own kernel thread to
     serve tasks.  The variable struct taskqueue *taskqueue_name is used to enqueue tasks onto
     the queue.

     TASKQUEUE_FAST_DEFINE() and TASKQUEUE_FAST_DEFINE_THREAD() act just like TASKQUEUE_DEFINE()
     and TASKQUEUE_DEFINE_THREAD() respectively but taskqueue is created with
     taskqueue_create_fast().

   Predefined Task Queues
     The system provides four global taskqueues, taskqueue_fast, taskqueue_swi,
     taskqueue_swi_giant, and taskqueue_thread.  The taskqueue_fast queue is for swi handlers
     dispatched from fast interrupt handlers, where sleep mutexes cannot be used.  The swi
     taskqueues are run via a software interrupt mechanism.  The taskqueue_swi queue runs without
     the protection of the Giant kernel lock, and the taskqueue_swi_giant queue runs with the
     protection of the Giant kernel lock.  The thread taskqueue taskqueue_thread runs in a kernel
     thread context, and tasks run from this thread do not run under the Giant kernel lock.  If
     the caller wants to run under Giant, he should explicitly acquire and release Giant in his
     taskqueue handler routine.

     To use these queues, call taskqueue_enqueue() with the value of the global taskqueue
     variable for the queue you wish to use (taskqueue_swi, taskqueue_swi_giant, or
     taskqueue_thread).  Use taskqueue_enqueue_fast() for the global taskqueue variable
     taskqueue_fast.

     The software interrupt queues can be used, for instance, for implementing interrupt handlers
     which must perform a significant amount of processing in the handler.  The hardware
     interrupt handler would perform minimal processing of the interrupt and then enqueue a task
     to finish the work.  This reduces to a minimum the amount of time spent with interrupts
     disabled.

     The thread queue can be used, for instance, by interrupt level routines that need to call
     kernel functions that do things that can only be done from a thread context.  (e.g., call
     malloc with the M_WAITOK flag.)

     Note that tasks queued on shared taskqueues such as taskqueue_swi may be delayed an
     indeterminate amount of time before execution.  If queueing delays cannot be tolerated then
     a private taskqueue should be created with a dedicated processing thread.

SEE ALSO

     ithread(9), kthread(9), swi(9)

HISTORY

     This interface first appeared in FreeBSD 5.0.  There is a similar facility called tqueue in
     the Linux kernel.

AUTHORS

     This manual page was written by Doug Rabson.