Provided by: manpages-pt_20040726-4_all bug

NAME

       man2html - convert UNIX nroff(1) manual pages to HTML format

SYNOPSIS

       man2html [-bare] [-belem name] [-botm lines] [-cgiurl string] [-cgiurlexp expr]
                [-compress] [-headmap mapfile] [-help] [-k] [-leftm chars] [-nodepage] [-noheads]
                [-pgsize lines] [-seealso] [-solaris] [-sun] [-title string] [-topm lines]
                [-uelem name]

       Typical Usage:

       man2html [-options]  < infile   > outfile

       man topic | man2html [-options]  > outfile

DESCRIPTION

       The man2html filter reads formatted nroff text from standard input (stdin) and writes a
       HTML document to standard output (stdout).

       The formatted nroff output is surrounded with <PRE> tags with the following
       exceptions/additions:

         · Section heads are wrapped in HTML header tags.  See the SECTION HEAD MAP FILE section
           below for additional information.  The -noheads option can be used to disable this
           feature.

         · Bold words designated by a "<char><bs><char>" sequences are wrapped in <B> tags (or
           the element specified via the -belem option).

         · Underlined words designated by a "_<bs><char>" sequences are wrapped in <I> tags (or
           the element specified via the -uelem option).

OPTIONS

       -bare
            This option will eliminate HTML <HEAD> and <BODY> tags from the output.  This is
            useful when you wish to incorporate the output into another HTML document.

       -belem name
            Use name as the name of the element to wrap overstriken characters.  The default is
            B.

       -botm lines
            The lines argument specifies the number of lines representing the bottom margin of
            the formatted nroff input.  The line count includes any running footers.  The default
            value is 7.

       -cgiurl string
            The string argument specifies a template URL for creating links to other manpages.
            See the LINKING TO OTHER MANPAGES section below for additional information.

       -cgiurlexp expr
            The expr argument specifies a Perl expression evaluting to a URL for creating links
            to other manpages.  See the LINKING TO OTHER MANPAGES section below for additional
            information.

       -compress
            Compress consecutive blank lines into a single line.

       -headmap mapfile
            The mapfile argument is read to determine which HTML header tags are to be used for
            various section heading in the manpage.  See the SECTION HEAD MAP FILE section below
            for information on the format of the map file.

       -help
            Print out a short usage message and then exit immediately.

       -k   Process input resulting from a manpage keyword search (man -k).  See the
            KEYWORD SEARCH section below for additional information.

       -leftm chars
            The chars argument specifies the width of the number of characters making up the left
            margin of the formatted nroff input.  The default value is 0.

       -nodepage
            By default, man2html merges multi-page formatted nroff into a single page.  This
            option may be used to disable depagination, causing running headers and footers in
            the formatted nroff input to be carried over into the HTML output.

       -noheads
            By default, man2html wraps section heads in HTML header tags.  See the
            SECTION HEAD MAP FILE section below for additional information.  This option may be
            specified to disabled this feature.

       -pgsize lines
            The lines argument specifies the number of lines making up the page size (length) of
            the formatted nroff input.  The default value is 66.

       -seealso
            If the -cgiurl option has been specified, then this option restricts the creation of
            links to other manual pages to the SEE ALSO section only.

       -solaris
            If the -k option has been specified, then this option modifies its operation to
            process the alternate manual page keyword search format produced by the man(1)
            utility on systems running Solaris.  See the KEYWORD SEARCH section below for
            additional information.

       -sun Do not require a section head to have bold overstriking in the formatted nroff input.
            The option is called sun because it was on a Sun workstation that section heads in
            manpages were found to not be overstruck.

       -title string
            By default, man2html does not generate a HTML title (<TITLE>).  This option sets the
            title of the HTML output to the specified string.

       -topm lines
            The lines argument specifies number number of lines representing the top margin of
            the formatted nroff input.  The line count includes any running headers.  The default
            value is 7.

       -uelem name
            Use name as the name of the element to wrap underscored characters.  The default is
            I.

SECTION HEAD MAP FILE

       The -headmap option may be used to customize which HTML header tags, <H1> ... <H6>, are
       used in manpage section headings.  Normally, man2html treats lines that are flush to the
       left margin (-leftm), and contain overstriking (overstrike check is canceled with the -sun
       option), as section heads.  However, you can augment/override what HTML header tags are
       used for any given section head.

       In order to write a section head map file, you will need to know about perl(1) associative
       arrays.  You do not need to be an expert in perl to write a map file, however, having
       knowledge of perl allows you to be more clever.

   Augmenting the Default Map
       To add to the default mapping defined by man2html, your map file will contain lines with
       the following syntax:

       $SectionHead{'<section head text>'} = '<html header tag>';

       where

       <section head text>
              is the text of the manpage section head.  For example: SYNOPSIS or DESCRIPTION.

       <html header tag>
              is the HTML header tag to wrap the section head in.  Legal values are: <H1>, <H2>,
              <H3>, <H4>, <H5>, <H6>.

   Overriding the Default Map
       To override the default mapping with your own, then your map file will have the following
       syntax:

           %SectionHead = (
                    '<section head text>', '<html header tag>',
                    '<section head text>', '<html header tag>',
                    # ... More section head/tag pairs
                    '<section head text>', '<html header tag>',
           );

   The Default Map
       As of this writing, this is the default map used by man2html:

           %SectionHead = (
               '\S.*OPTIONS.*'             => '<H2>',
               'AUTHORS?'                  => '<H2>',
               'BUGS'                      => '<H2>',
               'COMPATIBILITY'             => '<H2>',
               'DEPENDENCIES'              => '<H2>',
               'DESCRIPTION'               => '<H2>',
               'DIAGNOSTICS'               => '<H2>',
               'ENVIRONMENT'               => '<H2>',
               'ERRORS'                    => '<H2>',
               'EXAMPLES'                  => '<H2>',
               'EXTERNAL INFLUENCES'       => '<H2>',
               'FILES'                     => '<H2>',
               'LIMITATIONS'               => '<H2>',
               'NAME'                      => '<H2>',
               'NOTES?'                    => '<H2>',
               'OPTIONS'                   => '<H2>',
               'REFERENCES'                => '<H2>',
               'RETURN VALUE'              => '<H2>',
               'SECTION.*:'                => '<H2>',
               'SEE ALSO'                  => '<H2>',
               'STANDARDS CONFORMANCE'     => '<H2>',
               'STYLE CONVENTION'          => '<H2>',
               'SYNOPSIS'                  => '<H2>',
               'SYNTAX'                    => '<H2>',
               'WARNINGS'                  => '<H2>',
               '\s+Section.*:'             => '<H3>',
           );
           $HeadFallback = '<H2>';  # Fallback tag if above is not found.

       Check the perl source code of man2html for the latest default mapping.

       You can reassign the $HeadFallback variable to a different value if you choose.  This
       value is used as the header tag of a section head if no matches are found in the
       %SectionHead map.

   Using Regular Expressions in the Map File
       You may have noticed unusual characters in the default map file, like "\s" or "*".  The
       man2html utility actual treats the <section head text> as a perl regular expression.  If
       you are comfortable with perl regular expressions, then you have their full power to use
       in your map file.

       Caution: The man2html utility already anchors the regular expression to the beginning of
       the line with left margin spacing specified by the -leftm option.  Therefore, do not use
       the `^' character to anchor your regular expression to the beginning.  However, you may
       end your expression with a `$' to anchor it to the end of the line.

       Since the <section head text> is actually a regular expression, you will have to be
       careful of special characters if you want them to be treated literally.  Any of the
       characters `[ ] ( ) . ^ { } $ * ? +  |' should be escaped by prefixing them by the `\'
       character if you want perl to treat them "as is".

       Caution: One should use single quotes instead of double quotes to delimit
       <section head text>.  This will preserve any `\' characters for character escaping or when
       the `\' is used for special perl character matching sequences (e.g.,  \s, \w, \S).

   Other Tid-bits on the Map File
       Comments can be inserted in the map file by using the '#' character.  Anything after, and
       including, the '#' character is ignored, up to the end of line.

       You might be thinking that the above is quite-a-bit-of-stuff just for doing manpage
       section heads.  However, you will be surprised how much better the HTML output looks with
       header tags, even though, everything else is in a <PRE> tag.

LINKING TO OTHER MANPAGES

       The man2html utility allows the ability to link to other manpage references.  If the
       -cgiurl option is specified, man2html will create anchors that link to other manpages.

       The URL entered with the -cgiurl option is actually a template that determines the actual
       URL used to link to other manpages.  The following variables are defined during run time
       that may be used in the template string:

           $title The title of the manual page referenced.

           $section
                  The section number of the manual page referenced.

           $subsection
                  The subsection of the manual page referenced.

       Any other text in the template is preserved "as is".

       Caution: The man2html utility evaluates the template string as a perl string expression.
       Therefore, one might need to surround the variable names with '{}' (e.g., ${title}) so
       that man2html properly recognizes the variable.

       Note: If a CGI program calling man2html is actually a shell script or a perl program, make
       sure to properly escape the '$' character in the URL template to avoid variable
       interpolation by the CGI program.

       Normally, the URL calls a CGI program (hence the option name), but the URL can easily link
       to statically converted documents.

   Example1:
       The following template string is specified to call a CGI program to retrieve the
       appropriate manpage linked to:

       /cgi-bin/man.cgi?section=${section}${subsection}&topic=${title}

       If the ls(1) manpage is referenced in the SEE ALSO section, the above template will
       translate to the following URL:

       /cgi-bin/man.cgi?section=1&topic=ls

       The actual HTML markup will look like the following:

       <A HREF="/cgi-bin/man.cgi?section=1&topic=ls">ls(1)</A>

   Example2:
       The following template string is specified to retrieve pre-converted manpages:

       http://foo.org/man$section/$title.$section$subsection.html

       If the mount(1M) manpage is referenced, the above template will translate to the following
       URL:

       http://foo.org/man1/mount.1M.html

       The actual HTML markup will look like the following:

       <A HREF="http://foo.org/man1/mount.1M.html">mount(1M)</A>

   -cgiurlexp
       The option -cgiurlexp is a more general form of the -cgiurl option.  -cgiurlexp allows one
       to specify a general Perl expression.  For example:

       $title=~/^db_/i?"$title.html":"/cgi-bin/man?$title+$section"

       A -cgiurl string can be expressed as follows with -cgiurlexp:

       return "string"

KEYWORD SEARCH

       The man2html utility has the ability to process keyword search output generated by the
       man -k or apropos commands, through the use of the -k option.  The man2html utility will
       generate an HTML document of the keyword search input having the following format:

         · All manpage references are listed by section.

         · Within each section listing, the manpage references are sorted alphabetically (case-
           sensitive) in a <DL> tag.  The manpage references are listed in the <DT> section, and
           the summary text is listed in the <DD> section.

         · Each manpage reference listed is a hyperlink to the actual manpage as specified by the
           -cgiurl option.

       This ability to process keyword searches gives nice added functionality to a WWW forms
       interface to man(1).  Even if you have statically converted manpages to HTML via another
       man->HTML program, you can use man2html and "man -k" to provide keyword search
       capabilities easily for your HTML manpages.

   Processing Keyword Search Results
       Unfortunately, there is no standard controlling the format of keyword search results.  The
       man2html utility tries it best to handle all the variations.  However, the keyword search
       results generated by the Solaris operating system is different enough from other systems
       that a special command-line option (-solaris) must be specified to handle its output.

   Example of raw Solaris-type keyword search results:
       strcpy        strcpy (9f)  - copy a string from one location to another.
       strcpy        string (3c)  - string operations
       strncpy       strcpy (9f)  - copy a string from one location to another.
       strncpy       string (3c)  - string operations

       If keyword search results on your systems appear in the following format:

           <topic>  <actual_manpage> (#) - Description

       then you need to specify the -solaris option in addition to the -k option.

ADDITIONAL NOTES

       Different systems format manpages differently.  Here is a list of recommended command-line
       options for certain systems:

           Convex:   <defaults should be okay>
           HP:       -leftm 1 -topm 8
           Sun:      -sun (and -solaris when using -k)

       Some line spacing gets lost in the formatted nroff since the spacing would occur in the
       middle of a page break.  This can cause text to be merged that shouldn't be merged when
       man2html depaginates the text.  To avoid this problem, man2html keeps track of the margin
       indent right before and after a page break.  If the margin width of the line after the
       page break is less than the line before the page break, then man2html inserts a blank line
       in the HTML output.

       A manpage cross-reference is detected by the following pseudo expression:
       [A-z.-+_]+([0-9][A-z]?)

       The man2html utility only recognizes lines with " - " (the normal separator between
       manpage references and summary text) while in keyword search mode.

       The man2html utility can be hooked in a CGI script/program to convert manpages on the fly.
       This is the reason for the -cgiurl option.

LIMITATIONS

       The order that section head mapping is searched is not defined.  Therefore, if two or more
       <section head text> can match a give manpage section, there is no way to determine which
       map tag is chosen.

       If -seealso is specified, all xrefs are detected after the SEE ALSO heading.  In other
       words, sections after SEE ALSO may contain hyperlinked xrefs.

BUGS

       Text that is flush to the left margin, but is not actually a section head, can be mistaken
       for a section head.  This mistake is more likely when the -sun option is in affect.

VERSION

       This documentation describes man2html version 3.0.1

SEE ALSO

       man(1), nroff(1), perl(1)

       http://www.oac.uci.edu/indiv/ehood/man2html.html

AUTHOR

       Earl Hood
       ehood@medusa.acs.uci.edu

ERRORS AND OMISSIONS

       Troff version of this document initially created for version 2.1.0 by C. Jeffery Small
       (jeff@cjsa.com) by copying, reformatting, rearranging and partially rewriting the contents
       of the ascii text file doc/man2html.txt.

                                             97/08/12                                 MAN2HTML(1)