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       strtol - convert a string to a long integer.


       #include <stdlib.h>

       long int strtol(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);


       The  strtol()  function  converts  the string in nptr to a long integer
       value according to the given base, which  must  be  between  2  and  36
       inclusive, or be the special value 0.

       The  string  must  begin  with  an  arbitrary amount of white space (as
       determined by isspace(3)) followed by a  single  optional  `+'  or  `-'
       sign.   If  base  is  zero  or  16,  the string may then include a `0x'
       prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero  base
       is  taken  as  10  (decimal) unless the next character is `0', in which
       case it is taken as 8 (octal).

       The remainder of the string is converted to a long  int  value  in  the
       obvious  manner,  stopping  at the first character which is not a valid
       digit in the given base.  (In bases above 10, the letter `A' in  either
       upper  or  lower  case  represents 10, `B' represents 11, and so forth,
       with `Z' representing 35.)

       If endptr is not NULL, strtol() stores the address of the first invalid
       character  in *endptr.  If there were no digits at all, strtol() stores
       the original value of nptr in *endptr.  (Thus, if *nptr is not `\0' but
       **endptr is `\0' on return, the entire string is valid.)


       The  strtol() function returns the result of the conversion, unless the
       value would underflow or overflow.  If an  underflow  occurs,  strtol()
       returns  LONG_MIN.   If  an overflow occurs, strtol() returns LONG_MAX.
       In both cases, errno is set to ERANGE.


       ERANGE The given string was out of range; the value converted has  been


       SVID 3, BSD 4.3, ISO 9899


       atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtoul(3)


       Ignores the current locale.