Provided by: passwd_4.1.4.2+svn3283-3ubuntu5_i386 bug

ИМЯ

       newusers - обновляет и создаёт новые учётные записи пользователей в
       пакетном режиме

СИНОПСИС

       newusers [ new_users]

ОПИСАНИЕ

       The newusers command reads a file of user name and clear-text password
       pairs and uses this information to update a group of existing users or
       to create new users. Each line is in the same format as the standard
       password file (see passwd(5)) with the exceptions explained below:

       pw_name:pw_passwd:pw_uid:pw_gid:pw_gecos:pw_dir:pw_shell

       pw_name
           This is the name of the user.

           It can be the name of a new user or the name of an existing user
           (or an user created before by newusers). In case of an existing
           user, the user's information will be changed, otherwise a new user
           will be created.

       pw_passwd
           Это поле будет зашифровано и использовано как новое значение
           шифрованного пароля.

       pw_uid
           This field is used to define the UID of the user.

           If the field is empty, an new (unused) UID will be defined
           automatically by newusers.

           If this field contains a number, this number will be used as the
           UID.

           If this field contains the name of an existing user (or the name of
           an user created before by newusers), the UID of the specified user
           will be used.

           If the UID of an existing user is changed, the files ownership of
           the user's file should be fixed manually.

       pw_gid
           This field is used to define the primary group ID for the user.

           If this field contains the name of an existing group (or a group
           created before by newusers), the GID of this group will be used as
           the primary group ID for the user.

           If this field is a number, this number will be used as the primary
           group ID of the user. If no groups exist with this GID, a new group
           will be created with this GID, and the name of the user.

           If this field is empty, a new group will be created with the name
           of the user and a GID will be automatically defined by newusers to
           be used as the primary group ID for the user and as the GID for the
           new group.

           If this field contains the name of a group which does not exist
           (and was not created earlier wbefore by newusers), a new group will
           be created with the specified name and a GID will be automatically
           defined by newusers to be used as the primary group ID for the user
           and Gs the ID for the new group.

       pw_gecos
           This field is copied in the GECOS field of the user.

       pw_dir
           This field is used to define the home directory of the user.

           If this field does not specify an existing directory, the specified
           directory is created, with ownership set to the user being created
           or updated and its primary group.

           If the home directory of an existing user is changed, newusers does
           not move or copy the content of the old directory to the new
           location. This should be done manually.

       pw_shell
           This field defines the shell of the user. No checks are performed
           on this field.

       newusers first tries to create or change all the specified users, and
       then write these changes to the user or group databases. If an error
       occurs (except in the final writes to the databases), no changes are
       committed to the databases.

       During this first pass, users are created with a locked password (and
       passwords are not changed for the users which are not created). A
       second pass is used to update the passwords using PAM. Failures to
       update a password are reported, but will not stop the other password
       updates.

       Данная команда предназначена для работы в крупных системных средах, где
       за один раз заводится несколько учётных записей.

ПАРАМЕТРЫ

       The options which apply to the newusers command are:

       -h, --help
           Показать краткую справку и закончить работу.

       -r, --system
           Create a system account.

           System users will be created with no aging information in
           /etc/shadow, and their numeric identifiers are chosen in the
           SYS_UID_MIN-SYS_UID_MAX range, defined in login.defs, instead of
           UID_MIN-UID_MAX (and their GID counterparts for the creation of
           groups).

ПРЕДОСТЕРЕЖЕНИЯ

       Файл с входными данными должен быть защищён, так как в нём содержатся
       не шифрованные пароли.

CONFIGURATION

       The following configuration variables in /etc/login.defs change the
       behavior of this tool:

       GID_MAX (number), GID_MIN (number)
           Range of group IDs used for the creation of regular groups by
           useradd, groupadd, or newusers.

       MAX_MEMBERS_PER_GROUP (number)
           Maximum members per group entry. When the maximum is reached, a new
           group entry (line) is started in /etc/group (with the same name,
           same password, and same GID).

           The default value is 0, meaning that there are no limits in the
           number of members in a group.

           This feature (split group) permits to limit the length of lines in
           the group file. This is useful to make sure that lines for NIS
           groups are not larger than 1024 characters.

           If you need to enforce such limit, you can use 25.

           Note: split groups may not be supported by all tools (even in the
           Shadow toolsuite). You should not use this variable unless you
           really need it.

       PASS_MAX_DAYS (number)
           Максимальное число дней использования пароля. Если пароль старее
           этого числа, то будет запущена процедура смены пароля. Если
           значение не задано, то предполагается значение -1 (то есть
           возможность ограничения не используется).

       PASS_MIN_DAYS (number)
           Максимальное число дней между изменениями пароля. Любая смена
           пароля ранее заданного срока выполнена не будет. Если значение не
           задано, то предполагается значение -1 (то есть возможность
           ограничения не используется).

       PASS_WARN_AGE (number)
           Число дней за которое начнёт выдаваться предупреждение об
           устаревании пароля. Нулевое значение означает, что предупреждение
           выдаётся в день устаревания, при отрицательном значении
           предупреждение выдаваться не будет. Если значение не задано, выдача
           предупреждения отключается.

       SYS_GID_MAX (number), SYS_GID_MIN (number)
           Range of group IDs used for the creation of system groups by
           useradd, groupadd, or newusers.

       SYS_UID_MAX (number), SYS_UID_MIN (number)
           Range of user IDs used for the creation of system users by useradd
           or newusers.

       UID_MAX (number), UID_MIN (number)
           Range of user IDs used for the creation of regular users by useradd
           or newusers.

       UMASK (number)
           The file mode creation mask is initialized to this value. If not
           specified, the mask will be initialized to 022.

           useradd and newusers use this mask to set the mode of the home
           directory they create

           It is also used by pam_umask as the default umask value.

ФАЙЛЫ

       /etc/passwd
           содержит информацию о пользователях

       /etc/shadow
           содержит защищаемую информацию о пользователях

       /etc/group
           содержит информацию о группах

       /etc/gshadow
           содержит защищаемую информацию о группах

       /etc/login.defs
           содержит конфигурацию подсистемы теневых паролей

       /etc/pam.d/newusers
           PAM configuration for newusers.

СМОТРИТЕ ТАКЖЕ

       login.defs(5), passwd(1), useradd(8).