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NAME

       ld - GNU linker ()

 (SYNOPSIS)
       ld     [-o output] objfile...
              [-Aarchitecture] [-b input-format] [-Bstatic] [-Bdynamic]
              [-Bsymbolic] [-c commandfile] [--cref] [-d|-dc|-dp]
              [-defsym symbol = expression] [--demangle] [--no-demangle]
              [-e entry] [-embedded-relocs] [-E] [-export-dynamic] [-f name]
              [--auxiliary name] [-F name] [--filter name] [-format input-
              format] [-g] [-G size] [-h name] [-soname name] [--help] [-i]
              [-lar] [-Lsearchdir] [-M] [-Map mapfile] [-m emulation] [-n|-N]
              [-noinhibit-exec] [-no-keep-memory] [-no-warn-mismatch]
              [-Olevel] [-oformat output-format] [-R filename] [-relax]
              [-r|-Ur] [-rpath directory] [-rpath-link directory] [-S] [-s]
              [-shared] [-sort-common] [-split-by-reloc count]
              [-split-by-file] [-T commandfile] [-Ttext textorg]
              [-Tdata dataorg] [-Tbss bssorg] [-t] [-u sym] [-V] [-v]
              [--verbose] [--version] [-warn-common] [-warn-constructors]
              [-warn-multiple-gp] [-warn-once] [-warn-section-align]
              [--whole-archive] [--no-whole-archive] [--wrap symbol] [-X] [-x]

 (DESCRIPTION)
       ld   (object)  (archive),  ,  (symbol reference). ,    ld.

       ld    (Linker Command Language)  ,          .     ;  `info'  `ld' , ld:
       the GNU linker ,       GNU linker  .

         ld  BFD  , ld    ,     -- COFF  a.out,      ,      .    `objdump  -i'
       ; objdump(1).

       GNU linker   ,    linker    .   linker      ; ld   , (, ,   ).

       GNU linker ld     ,    linker.     ,    ld   .

 (OPTIONS)
           ,   ,    . ,   ,    Unix  ,   ld   Unix .   hello.o:

       $ ld -o output /lib/crt0.o hello.o -lc

         ld    output   ,    /lib/crt0.o  hello.o  libc.a ( ).

       ld     ,  .   ,       , ld   ,   . (   )

        --      -- -A, -b ( -format), -defsym, -L, -l, -R,  -u.

         ,   objfile,     , ,  ;    objfile      .

        linker     ,    -l, -R    ,     .      , linker   , `No input files'.

              ,  ,  .

       -Aarchitecture
                 ld ,    Intel 960 .  ld   , architecture   960     ,   ;    ,
              .     linker    ,   ,       .

              ,  ld   `-ACA'  `-ltry', linker   (   -L )

              try
              libtry.a
              tryca
              libtryca.a

                ;   `-ACA'.

               ld      .

                   -A ,       ,   ld   -l  ,    .

       -b input-format
                 ,     ,    .     ,  ld         .  input-format   ,  BFD     .
              -format input-format   , TARGET  .

                    .   -b    (   ), ,        -b input-format .

               GNUTARGET   .      TARGET   .

       -Bstatic
                .        .

       -Bdynamic
               .        ,  .

       -Bsymbolic
                  ,  ,    (bind reference)   (definition). ,    .      ELF   .

       -c commandfile
               ld commandfile    .     ld     ( ); commandfile      .

                    ,     `{'  `}' .

       --cref  (cross reference).    (linker map) ,     ,   .

       -d

       -dc

       -dp         ,      linker    .      ld    (-r),    (common  symbol)   .
              FORCE_COMMON_ALLOCATION  .

       -defsym symbol = expression
                   ,   expression  .       .  expression    : ,    .     +   -
              .    , .

       --demangle

       --no-demangle
                     ,   (demangle)  .    demangle , linker   :    (   );  C++
              (symbol name)   .  linker   , COLLECT_NO_DEMANGLE .     .

       -e entry
               entry ()      ,  .       `info' ld' .

       -embedded-relocs
                 MIPS  PIC , GNU -membedded-pic    .  linker   ,   ,         .
              testsuite/ld-empic  .

       -E

       -export-dynamic
                ELF  ,     .  ,   (dynamic object)  .  dlopen     .

       -f name

       --auxiliary name
               ELF  ,   DT_AUXILIARY name.    linker, name    .

       -F name

       --filter name
               ELF  ,   DT_FILTER name.    linker, name    .

       -format input-format
               -b input-format.

       -g     ;    .

       -G size
                GP   () size .   MIPS ECOFF,    .

       -h name

       -soname name
                ELF   ,    DT_SONAME    name.       DT_SONAME   ,    ,  linker
              DT_SONAME ,    linker  .

       --help      ,  .  --version    ,  ,    GNU .          linker.

       -i      (incremental link),  -r .

       -lar         ar.     .   ar , ld        libar.a  .

       -Lsearchdir
                 searchdir    , ld      .    .

                ( -L )  ld  (emulation)  .    ,   SEARCH_DIR   .

       -M          --  ld      ,     .

       -Map mapfile
               mapfile   --  ld      ,     .

       -m emulation
               emulation .  --verbose -V    .       .

       -N           (section).    Unix  (magic number),    OMAGIC.

                `-N'  , linker    (page-align).

       -n        ,  , NMAGIC  .

       -noinhibit-exec
              ,     , linker   .    ,   ,   .

       -no-keep-memory
              linker   ,  ,       .    linker   ,   .    , linker   ,    .

       -no-warn-mismatch
              ,       , ,   ,    (endianness), linker   .     linker    .    ,
              ,     linker .

       -o output
              output   ld  ;    ,   `a.out'.   OUTPUT   .

       -Olevel
                .     ,   .  level  .       .

       -oformat output-format
                 .    , ld         . output-format   , BFD    .  OUTPUT_FORMAT
              ,      .

       -R filename
                filename     ,   ,  .         .

       -relax     ,   H8/300.

                      ,   linker  ,     (relax) (synthesize) .

                `-relax' ,  .

       -r        -- ,      ld  ,   (partial) .    ,    Unix (magic number)   ,
              OMAGIC.      ,   linker      .     C++  ,          (constructor)
              (reference);   -Ur .

                  -i .

       -rpath directory
                 (runtime)  .    ELF   .  -rpath      ,       linker,   linker
              .    -rpath       ;  -rpath-link    .     ELF  -rpath  ,  linker
              LD_RUN_PATH   --    .

              -rpath    SunOS , , linker -L    .  -rpath  ,  -rpath   ,  -L  .
              gcc,  NFS  , gcc -L .

       -rpath-link directory
               ELF  SunOS  ,      .  ld -shared  ,   .

                linker    ,     ,  ,  linker     ,      ,     .  , -rpath-link
              .  -rpath-link    ,    .      ,    .

                  , linker   ,   .

       -S         ( ).

       -s         .

       -shared
                .   ELF  SunOS  ( SunOS , , -e ,     , linker    ).

       -sort-common
              ld      ,   .   ,  ,  ,  .         .      .

       -split-by-reloc count
                   (extra  section),    ,  count   .       COFF  ,    ;   COFF
              65535  .  ,     ,     .  , linker   ,  , count  ,      .

       -split-by-file
               -split-by-reloc ,       .

       -Tbss org

       -Tdata org

       -Ttext org
               org      --  -- bss, data,  text .  org  .

       -T commandfile
               -c commandfile;   .

       -t      ld      .

       -u sym  sym  (undefined)    .   , ,  linker     .     -u     .

       -Ur       C++    ,  -r:     -- ,    ld  .  C++   , -Ur    (constructor)
              (reference),   -r .

       --verbose
               ld  ,   (emulation).     ,  ,

       -v, -V  ld  .  -V     .

       --version
               ld    .

       -warn-common
                    ,      , linker  . Unix  linker      ,   .         .

       -warn-constructors
                (global constructor), linker  .      ,    COFF   ELF,   linker
              .

       -warn-multiple-gp
                  , linker  .    ,  Alpha.

       -warn-once
                   ,      .

       -warn-section-align
                (section)       , linker  .     ,     ; , SECTIONS      .

       --whole-archive
               --whole-archive    ,      ,      .     ,     .

       --no-whole-archive
               --whole-archive     .

       --wrap symbol
                symbol   (wrapper  function).  symbol    (undefined reference)
              __wrap_symbol.  __real_symbol symbol.

       -X        .   ,      `L'  .

       -x       .

 (ENVIRONMENT)
         GNUTARGET ld  .

          -b  (  -format), GNUTARGET    ,   BFD  .     GNUTARGET    ,  ld    .
       GNUTARGET  default, BFD       ;   ,   ,    .  ,   BFD  , ,      .

 (SEE ALSO)
       objdump(1)
       `ld'  `binutils'  ( info)
       ld:  the GNU linker, Steve Chamberlain and Roland Pesch; The GNU Binary
       Utilities, Roland H. Pesch.

COPYING

       Copyright (c) 1991,  92,  93,  94,  95,  96,  97,  1998  Free  Software
       Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted  to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
       manual provided the copyright notice and  this  permission  notice  are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
       manual under the conditions for verbatim  copying,  provided  that  the
       entire  resulting  derived  work  is  distributed  under the terms of a
       permission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to  copy  and  distribute  translations  of  this
       manual  into  another language, under the above conditions for modified
       versions, except  that  this  permission  notice  may  be  included  in
       translations approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the
       original English.

[]

        <xuming@users.sourceforge.net>

[]

       2003/05/13

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