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       perlfaq7 -  (2003/07/24 02:17:21)



        Perl BNF/yacc/RE

        BNF,  perly.y  yacc  toke.c

        Chaim Frenkel"Perl BNF Perl yacclexer"



           * 4 perl


        <FILE>  <> FILE (scalar context)  FILE  ( $/) (list context)   <>
       <>"eof(FH)", "seek(FH, 0, 2)"  "copying from STDIN to FILE".


        (bareword) ( "use strict" )() "=>"

           ------------            ---------------
           $foo{line}              $foo{"line"}
           bar => stuff            "bar" => stuff

        (perlstyle) (one-liners)

           if ($whoops) { exit 1 }
           @nums = (1, 2, 3);

           if ($whoops) {
               exit 1;
           @lines = (
               "There Beren came from mountains cold",
               "And lost he wandered under leaves",

               $dir = (getpwnam($user))[7];


           ($dev, $ino, undef, undef, $uid, $gid) = stat($file);

               ($dev, $ino, $uid, $gid) = ( stat($file) )[0,1,4,5];

        Perl 5.6.0  "use warnings"  perllexwarn

               no warnings;          #
               $a = $b + $c;         #

        Perl $^W ( perlvar )

               local $^W = 0;        #
               $a = $b + $c;         #

        $^W  my() local()


        Perl C perlxstut(extensions)

        Perl C

        Perl C C  C print, chmod, exec("list operators") perlop

           unlink $file || die "snafu";

           unlink ($file || die "snafu");


           (unlink $file) || die "snafu";
           unlink $file or die "snafu";

       "" (and, or, xor, not)

        "-2**2"""(right-associate) "2**3**2"

       Although it has the same precedence as in C, Perl's "?:" operator
       produces an lvalue.  This assigns $x to either $a or $b, depending on
       the trueness of $maybe:

           ($maybe ? $a : $b) = $x;


        ``''  ()  (hash reference) perlref  perldsc

           $person = {};                   # new anonymous hash
           $person->{AGE}  = 24;           # set field AGE to 24
           $person->{NAME} = "Nat";        # set field NAME to "Nat"


       (package)Hello::ThereHello/There.pmperlmod Exporter  C  C Perl

       The "h2xs" program will create stubs for all the important stuff for

         % h2xs -XA -n My::Module

       The "-X" switch tells "h2xs" that you are not using "XS" extension
       code.  The "-A" switch tells "h2xs" that you are not using the
       AutoLoader, and the "-n" switch specifies the name of the module.  See
       h2xs for more details.

       perltoot  perlobj  perlbot

        Scalar::Util  tainted()  ( CPAN  Perl 5.8.0 ) perlsec  "Laundering and
       Detecting Tainted Data"


        (closure) Perl  ()

        ( Perl ) Python Scheme

           sub add_function_generator {
             return sub { shift + shift };

           $add_sub = add_function_generator();
           $sum = $add_sub->(4,5);                # $sum is 9 now.


        make_adder() Perl

           sub make_adder {
               my $addpiece = shift;
               return sub { shift + $addpiece };

           $f1 = make_adder(20);
           $f2 = make_adder(555);

        "&$f1($n)"  20 $n  "&$f2($n)"   555 $n$addpiece

           my $line;
           timeout( 30, sub { $line = <STDIN> } );

        '$line = <STDIN>'  timeout()  $line

        () my()  local() foreach()

           my $f = "foo";
           sub T {
             while ($i++ < 3) { my $f = $f; $f .= "bar"; print $f, "\n" }
           print "Finally $f\n";

        "bar"  $f  $f ( "my $f" ) Perl  ( 5.004_05, 5.005_03  5.005_56 )

       /{ Function,  FileHandle,  Array, Hash,  Method,  Regex}?

        perlsub  "Pass by Reference" perlref

        ``Passing Regexes''

               func( \$some_scalar );

               func( \@some_array  );
               func( [ 1 .. 10 ]   );

               func( \%some_hash   );
               func( { this => 10, that => 20 }   );

               func( \&some_func   );
               func( sub { $_[0] ** $_[1] }   );


                   open my $fh, $filename or die "Cannot open $filename! $!";
                   func( $fh );

                   sub func {
                           my $passed_fh = shift;

                           my $line = <$fh>;

            Perl5.6  *FH  "\*FH"  "typeglobs"-- perldata  "Typeglobs and
           Filehandles"  perlsub  "Pass by Reference"

            Perl  "qr//"  eval


               sub compare($$) {
                   my ($val1, $regex) = @_;
                   my $retval = $val1 =~ /$regex/;
                   return $retval;
               $match = compare("old McDonald", qr/d.*D/i);

            "qr//"  "qr//"  5.005  "qr//" :

               sub compare($$) {
                   my ($val1, $regex) = @_;
                   my $retval = eval { $val1 =~ /$regex/ };
                   die if $@;
                   return $retval;

               $match = compare("old McDonald", q/($?i)d.*D/);

               return eval "\$val =~ /$regex/";   # WRONG

            eval  shell

               $pattern_of_evil = 'danger ${ system("rm -rf * &") } danger';

               eval "\$string =~ /$pattern_of_evil/";

            O'Reilly  Mastering Regular Expressions Jeffrey Friedl 273
           Build_MatchMany_Function() perlfaq2

               call_a_lot(10, $some_obj, "methname")
               sub call_a_lot {
                   my ($count, $widget, $trick) = @_;
                   for (my $i = 0; $i < $count; $i++) {

               my $whatnot =  sub { $some_obj->obfuscate(@args) };
               sub func {
                   my $code = shift;

            UNIVERSAL  can() ( Perl )

       How do I create a static variable?

        Perl``'' (TMTOWTDI) ``'' (static variable) Perl()(file-private)()

           BEGIN {
               my $counter = 42;
               sub prev_counter { return --$counter }
               sub next_counter { return $counter++ }

       prev_counter()  next_counter()  $counter

       (file-private) my()

           package Pax;
           my $started = scalar(localtime(time()));

           sub begun { return $started }

        "use Pax"  "require Pax"  begun() $Pax::started (package)

        perlsub  "Persistent Private Variables" .

       What's the difference between dynamic and lexical (static) scoping?
       Between local() and my()?

       local($x)  $x  (dynamic scoping)local()

       "my($x)" (compile-time)my()()()

           sub visible {
               print "var has value $var\n";

           sub dynamic {
               local $var = 'local';   #
               visible();              #  $var

           sub lexical {
               my $var = 'private';    #  $var
               visible();              # ( sub )

           $var = 'global';

           visible();                  # prints global
           dynamic();                  # prints local
           lexical();                  # prints global

        ``private'' $varlexical()

       local() my()

        perlsub  "Private Variables via my()" "Temporary Values via local()"

       (package) $Some_Pack::var  $::var   (package)  $var main(package)

               use vars '$var';
               local $var = "global";
               my    $var = "lexical";

               print "lexical is $var\n";
               print "global  is $main::var\n";


               require 5.006; # our() did not exist before 5.6
               use vars '$var';

               local $var = "global";
               my $var    = "lexical";

               print "lexical is $var\n";

                 our $var;
                 print "global  is $var\n";

       Perl( my())((global)(local)(package))  ""

       local() = <FH>   Perlscalar()()( sort() )


           local($foo) = <FILE>;           # WRONG
           local($foo) = scalar(<FILE>);   # ok
           local $foo  = <FILE>;           # right

        (lexical variables)

           my($foo) = <FILE>;  # WRONG
           my $foo  = <FILE>;  # right


        open()  perlsub  Overriding Builtin Functions "Class::Template"

        Perl "+"  "**",  "use overload"  overload

        (parent class) (method calls) perltoot  Overridden Methods

        &foo  foo() ?

        &foo @_ (prototypes) @_  @_ bug ( perlsub)

        &foo() @_

        foo() use ( require) use subs @_

        perlsyn  Perl ( glob ) case perl1 Larry

        Perl 5.8  swtich  case Switch

               use Switch;

        switch  case .  It is not as fast as it could be because it's not
       really part of the language (it's done using source filters) but it is
       available, and it's very flexible.

       But if one wants to use pure Perl, the general answer is to write a
       construct like this:

           for ($variable_to_test) {
               if    (/pat1/)  { }     # do something
               elsif (/pat2/)  { }     # do something else
               elsif (/pat3/)  { }     # do something else
               else            { }     # default

        switch $whatchamacallit (reference)$whatchamacallit

           SWITCH: for (ref $whatchamacallit) {

               /^$/            && die "not a reference";

               /SCALAR/        && do {
                                       last SWITCH;

               /ARRAY/         && do {
                                       last SWITCH;

               /HASH/          && do {
                                       last SWITCH;

               /CODE/          && do {
                                       warn "can't print function ref";
                                       last SWITCH;

               # DEFAULT

               warn "User defined type skipped";


       See "perlsyn/"Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements"" for many other
       examples in this style.

       Sometimes you should change the positions of the constant and the
       variable.  For example, let's say you wanted to test which of many
       answers you were given, but in a case-insensitive way that also allows
       abbreviations.  You can use the following technique if the strings all
       start with different characters or if you want to arrange the matches
       so that one takes precedence over another, as "SEND" has precedence
       over "STOP" here:

           chomp($answer = <>);
           if    ("SEND"  =~ /^\Q$answer/i) { print "Action is send\n"  }
           elsif ("STOP"  =~ /^\Q$answer/i) { print "Action is stop\n"  }
           elsif ("ABORT" =~ /^\Q$answer/i) { print "Action is abort\n" }
           elsif ("LIST"  =~ /^\Q$answer/i) { print "Action is list\n"  }
           elsif ("EDIT"  =~ /^\Q$answer/i) { print "Action is edit\n"  }

       A totally different approach is to create a hash of function

           my %commands = (
               "happy" => \&joy,
               "sad",  => \&sullen,
               "done"  => sub { die "See ya!" },
               "mad"   => \&angry,

           print "How are you? ";
           chomp($string = <STDIN>);
           if ($commands{$string}) {
           } else {
               print "No such command: $string\n";

        perlsub  "Autoloading"  perltoot  "AUTOLOAD: Proxy Methods"   AUTOLOAD

       When it comes to undefined variables that would trigger a warning under
       "use warnings", you can promote the warning to an error.

               use warnings FATAL => qw(uninitialized);

        perltoot "print ref($object)"  $object

        Perl (package) ( "find Guru "Samy"") use  require

       Make sure to read about creating modules in perlmod and the perils of
       indirect objects in "Method Invocation" in perlobj.

           my $packname = __PACKAGE__;


           sub amethod {
               my $self  = shift;
               my $class = ref($self) || $self;
               warn "called me from a $class object";


        POD POD ,  "=for nobody"  "=cut" ( POD ).


           =for nobody

           all of this stuff


           # program continues

       The pod directives cannot go just anywhere.  You must put a pod
       directive where the parser is expecting a new statement, not just in
       the middle of an expression or some other arbitrary grammar production.

       See perlpod for more details.

       How do I clear a package?

       Use this code, provided by Mark-Jason Dominus:

           sub scrub_package {
               no strict 'refs';
               my $pack = shift;
               die "Shouldn't delete main package"
                   if $pack eq "" || $pack eq "main";
               my $stash = *{$pack . '::'}{HASH};
               my $name;
               foreach $name (keys %$stash) {
                   my $fullname = $pack . '::' . $name;
                   # Get rid of everything with that name.
                   undef $$fullname;
                   undef @$fullname;
                   undef %$fullname;
                   undef &$fullname;
                   undef *$fullname;

       Or, if you're using a recent release of Perl, you can just use the
       Symbol::delete_package() function instead.

       How can I use a variable as a variable name?

       Beginners often think they want to have a variable contain the name of
       a variable.

           $fred    = 23;
           $varname = "fred";
           ++$$varname;         # $fred now 24

       This works sometimes, but it is a very bad idea for two reasons.

       The first reason is that this technique only works on global variables.
       That means that if $fred is a lexical variable created with my() in the
       above example, the code wouldn't work at all: you'd accidentally access
       the global and skip right over the private lexical altogether.  Global
       variables are bad because they can easily collide accidentally and in
       general make for non-scalable and confusing code.

       Symbolic references are forbidden under the "use strict" pragma.  They
       are not true references and consequently are not reference counted or
       garbage collected.

       The other reason why using a variable to hold the name of another
       variable is a bad idea is that the question often stems from a lack of
       understanding of Perl data structures, particularly hashes.  By using
       symbolic references, you are just using the package's symbol-table hash
       (like %main::) instead of a user-defined hash.  The solution is to use
       your own hash or a real reference instead.

           $USER_VARS{"fred"} = 23;
           $varname = "fred";
           $USER_VARS{$varname}++;  # not $$varname++

       There we're using the %USER_VARS hash instead of symbolic references.
       Sometimes this comes up in reading strings from the user with variable
       references and wanting to expand them to the values of your perl
       program's variables.  This is also a bad idea because it conflates the
       program-addressable namespace and the user-addressable one.  Instead of
       reading a string and expanding it to the actual contents of your
       program's own variables:

           $str = 'this has a $fred and $barney in it';
           $str =~ s/(\$\w+)/$1/eeg;             # need double eval

       it would be better to keep a hash around like %USER_VARS and have
       variable references actually refer to entries in that hash:

           $str =~ s/\$(\w+)/$USER_VARS{$1}/g;   # no /e here at all

       That's faster, cleaner, and safer than the previous approach.  Of
       course, you don't need to use a dollar sign.  You could use your own
       scheme to make it less confusing, like bracketed percent symbols, etc.

           $str = 'this has a %fred% and %barney% in it';
           $str =~ s/%(\w+)%/$USER_VARS{$1}/g;   # no /e here at all

       Another reason that folks sometimes think they want a variable to
       contain the name of a variable is because they don't know how to build
       proper data structures using hashes.  For example, let's say they
       wanted two hashes in their program: %fred and %barney, and that they
       wanted to use another scalar variable to refer to those by name.

           $name = "fred";
           $$name{WIFE} = "wilma";     # set %fred

           $name = "barney";
           $$name{WIFE} = "betty";     # set %barney

       This is still a symbolic reference, and is still saddled with the
       problems enumerated above.  It would be far better to write:

           $folks{"fred"}{WIFE}   = "wilma";
           $folks{"barney"}{WIFE} = "betty";

       And just use a multilevel hash to start with.

       The only times that you absolutely must use symbolic references are
       when you really must refer to the symbol table.  This may be because
       it's something that can't take a real reference to, such as a format
       name.  Doing so may also be important for method calls, since these
       always go through the symbol table for resolution.

       In those cases, you would turn off "strict 'refs'" temporarily so you
       can play around with the symbol table.  For example:

           @colors = qw(red blue green yellow orange purple violet);
           for my $name (@colors) {
               no strict 'refs';  # renege for the block
               *$name = sub { "<FONT COLOR='$name'>@_</FONT>" };

       All those functions (red(), blue(), green(), etc.) appear to be
       separate, but the real code in the closure actually was compiled only

       So, sometimes you might want to use symbolic references to directly
       manipulate the symbol table.  This doesn't matter for formats, handles,
       and subroutines, because they are always global--you can't use my() on
       them.  For scalars, arrays, and hashes, though--and usually for
       subroutines-- you probably only want to use hard references.

       What does "bad interpreter" mean?

       The "bad interpreter" message comes from the shell, not perl.  The
       actual message may vary depending on your platform, shell, and locale

       If you see "bad interpreter - no such file or directory", the first
       line in your perl script (the "shebang" line) does not contain the
       right path to perl (or any other program capable of running scripts).
       Sometimes this happens when you move the script from one machine to
       another and each machine has a different path to perl---/usr/bin/perl
       versus /usr/local/bin/perl for instance.

       If you see "bad interpreter: Permission denied", you need to make your
       script executable.

       In either case, you should still be able to run the scripts with perl

               % perl

       If you get a message like "perl: command not found", perl is not in
       your PATH, which might also mean that the location of perl is not where
       you expect it so you need to adjust your shebang line.


       Copyright (c) 1997-2002 Tom Christiansen and Nathan Torkington.  All
       rights reserved.

       This documentation is free; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

       Irrespective of its distribution, all code examples in this file are
       hereby placed into the public domain.  You are permitted and encouraged
       to use this code in your own programs for fun or for profit as you see
       fit.  A simple comment in the code giving credit would be courteous but
       is not required.