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NAME

       perlfunc - Perl 内部函数

描述 DESCRIPTION

       这一章里的函数可以作为表达式来使用。 Perl
       中的函数主要分为两类:数组运算符和命名的一元运算符。 不同之处在于他们的优先级关系。(参阅
       perlop 中的优先级表 ) 数组运算符需要一个以上的参数,而一元运算符不能超过一个参数。
       因此,一个逗号将结束一个一元运算符,  但对于数组运算符,只是起到分隔的作用。
       一元运算符一般只提供一个标量作为参数,而数组运算符可能会提供标量或者数组作为参数。
       如果二者都有,标量参数一般在前面,数组参数跟在后面。 (注意,可以只有一个数组变量) 例如,
       splice() 有三个标量变量,后面加上一个数组, 相反 gethostbyname() 有四个标量变量。

       在语法描述中,数组运算符需要一个用LIST标识的数组作为参数。 这些
       数组可能由标量参数和数组值混合组成; 数组值将包含在数组中,每个元素被插入数组中,
       形成一个更长一维的数组值。 数组的元素应该用逗号分开。

       下面列出的任何函数可以在参数两边有括号,也可以没有。(语法描述中省略括号)
       如果你使用括号,一个简单的规则是 (偶尔会令人吃惊):
       如果是函数,没有优先级的问题;如果它是一个数组运算符或者一元运算符
       那么就要考虑优先级。并且,函数两边的空白和 "(" 是不计算的--因此,
       有时候需要小心行事。看看下面的几个例子:

           print 1+2+4;        # Prints 7.
           print(1+2) + 4;     # Prints 3.
           print (1+2)+4;      # Also prints 3!
           print +(1+2)+4;     # Prints 7.
           print ((1+2)+4);    # Prints 7.

       前面说得似乎有点抽象,那么你在运行PERL时带上-w开关你将得到一些
       警告信息,您可以根据这些信息再体会一下。例如,上面的例子会产生如下信息:

           print (...) interpreted as function at - line 1.
           Useless use of integer addition in void context at - line 1.

       有些函数根本不需要参数,因此工作方式和一元运算符和数组运算符都不同, "time" 和 "endpwent"
       算是两个典型吧.  如, "time+86_400" 实际上是 "time() + 86_400".

       对于可以用在标量或者数组的上下文中的函数,非失败性的错误在标量环境下
       通常暗示返回了未定义的值或在数组环境下返回一个空的数组。

       记住下面的重要原则:
       没有规则和数组环境下的表达式的行为和他的标量环境的行为有关系,反之亦然。
       这可能产生两种完全不同的情况。在标量环境下,每个运算符和函数决定怎样以最恰当的次序返回值。
       有些运算符在数组环境下返回数组的长度.,有些运算符返回的一个元素,有些返回数组中的最后一个元素,有些返回成功执行的操作的语句数。通常,他们返回一些你需要的值,除非你需要连续性。

       在标量环境下的命名数组在第一眼看上去时和在标量环境下的列表有很大的不同。
       在标量环境下,你不能得到一个像 "(1,2,3)"
       的列表,因为在编译时,编译器是知道当前环境的,它将在那里产生标量的逗号运算符,
       而不是用于分隔数组元素的逗号. 也就是说,它永远不会以一个数组开始。

       一般说来, PERL中的函数对应相应的系统调用 (如chown(2), fork(2), closedir(2), 等等.)
       成功调用后返回真值,否则返回 "undef" ,
       下面将会提到。这一点和C的接口不一样,C中出错时将返回"-1" .但是也有几个例外,他们是
       "wait", "waitpid", 和 "syscall" 。
       系统调用出错时出错信息将通过特殊变量$!返回。其他的函数则不会,除非发生意外。

       函数分类 Perl Functions by Category

       下面是Perl中的函数(包括看起来像函数的,如某些关键词,命名运算符)的分类.
       有些函数在多处出现了。

       标量和字符串函数 Functions for SCALARs or strings
           "chomp", "chop", "chr", "crypt", "hex", "index", "lc", "lcfirst", "length", "oct",
           "ord", "pack", "q/STRING/", "qq/STRING/", "reverse", "rindex", "sprintf", "substr",
           "tr///", "uc", "ucfirst", "y///"

       正则表达式和模式匹配 Regular expressions and pattern matching
           "m//", "pos", "quotemeta", "s///", "split", "study", "qr//"

       数字运算 Numeric functions
           "abs", "atan2", "cos", "exp", "hex", "int", "log", "oct", "rand", "sin", "sqrt",
           "srand"

       真实数组函数 Functions for real @ARRAYs
           "pop", "push", "shift", "splice", "unshift"

       列表数据函数 Functions for list data
           "grep", "join", "map", "qw/STRING/", "reverse", "sort", "unpack"

       真实哈希函数 Functions for real %HASHes
           "delete", "each", "exists", "keys", "values"

       输入输出 Input and output functions
           "binmode", "close", "closedir", "dbmclose", "dbmopen", "die", "eof", "fileno",
           "flock", "format", "getc", "print", "printf", "read", "readdir", "rewinddir", "seek",
           "seekdir", "select", "syscall", "sysread", "sysseek", "syswrite", "tell", "telldir",
           "truncate", "warn", "write"

       定长的数据或记录 Functions for fixed length data or records
           "pack", "read", "syscall", "sysread", "syswrite", "unpack", "vec"

       文件目录控制 Functions for filehandles, files, or directories
           "-X", "chdir", "chmod", "chown", "chroot", "fcntl", "glob", "ioctl", "link", "lstat",
           "mkdir", "open", "opendir", "readlink", "rename", "rmdir", "stat", "symlink",
           "sysopen", "umask", "unlink", "utime"

       流控制关键词 Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program
           "caller", "continue", "die", "do", "dump", "eval", "exit", "goto", "last", "next",
           "redo", "return", "sub", "wantarray"

       作用域关键词 Keywords related to scoping
           "caller", "import", "local", "my", "our", "package", "use"

       杂项 Miscellaneous functions
           "defined", "dump", "eval", "formline", "local", "my", "our", "reset", "scalar",
           "undef", "wantarray"

       进程和进程组 Functions for processes and process groups
           "alarm", "exec", "fork", "getpgrp", "getppid", "getpriority", "kill", "pipe",
           "qx/STRING/", "setpgrp", "setpriority", "sleep", "system", "times", "wait", "waitpid"

       模块关键词 Keywords related to perl modules
           "do", "import", "no", "package", "require", "use"

       类和面向对象关键词 Keywords related to classes and object-orientedness
           "bless", "dbmclose", "dbmopen", "package", "ref", "tie", "tied", "untie", "use"

       底层 socket 函数 Low-level socket functions
           "accept", "bind", "connect", "getpeername", "getsockname", "getsockopt", "listen",
           "recv", "send", "setsockopt", "shutdown", "socket", "socketpair"

       SysV 进程间通讯 System V interprocess communication functions
           "msgctl", "msgget", "msgrcv", "msgsnd", "semctl", "semget", "semop", "shmctl",
           "shmget", "shmread", "shmwrite"

       获取用户信息 Fetching user and group info
           "endgrent", "endhostent", "endnetent", "endpwent", "getgrent", "getgrgid", "getgrnam",
           "getlogin", "getpwent", "getpwnam", "getpwuid", "setgrent", "setpwent"

       获取网络信息 Fetching network info
           "endprotoent", "endservent", "gethostbyaddr", "gethostbyname", "gethostent",
           "getnetbyaddr", "getnetbyname", "getnetent", "getprotobyname", "getprotobynumber",
           "getprotoent", "getservbyname", "getservbyport", "getservent", "sethostent",
           "setnetent", "setprotoent", "setservent"

       时间函数 Time-related functions
           "gmtime", "localtime", "time", "times"

       PERL5中的新函数 Functions new in perl5
           "abs", "bless", "chomp", "chr", "exists", "formline", "glob", "import", "lc",
           "lcfirst", "map", "my", "no", "our", "prototype", "qx", "qw", "readline", "readpipe",
           "ref", "sub*", "sysopen", "tie", "tied", "uc", "ucfirst", "untie", "use"

           * - "sub" was a keyword in perl4, but in perl5 it is an operator, which can be used in
           expressions.

       过时的函数 Functions obsoleted in perl5
           "dbmclose", "dbmopen"

       可移植性 Portability

       Perl 诞生于UNIX,因此可以访问所有的一般系统调用。
       在非UNIX环境中,某些UNIX下有的调用是没有实现的,或者有轻微的区别。受到影响的有:

       "-X", "binmode", "chmod", "chown", "chroot", "crypt", "dbmclose", "dbmopen", "dump",
       "endgrent", "endhostent", "endnetent", "endprotoent", "endpwent", "endservent", "exec",
       "fcntl", "flock", "fork", "getgrent", "getgrgid", "gethostbyname", "gethostent",
       "getlogin", "getnetbyaddr", "getnetbyname", "getnetent", "getppid", "getprgp",
       "getpriority", "getprotobynumber", "getprotoent", "getpwent", "getpwnam", "getpwuid",
       "getservbyport", "getservent", "getsockopt", "glob", "ioctl", "kill", "link", "lstat",
       "msgctl", "msgget", "msgrcv", "msgsnd", "open", "pipe", "readlink", "rename", "select",
       "semctl", "semget", "semop", "setgrent", "sethostent", "setnetent", "setpgrp",
       "setpriority", "setprotoent", "setpwent", "setservent", "setsockopt", "shmctl", "shmget",
       "shmread", "shmwrite", "socket", "socketpair", "stat", "symlink", "syscall", "sysopen",
       "system", "times", "truncate", "umask", "unlink", "utime", "wait", "waitpid"

       参见 perlport 和其他平台的说明文档以获得更多关于移植性的资料

       按字母顺序排列的PERL函数 Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions

       -X FILEHANDLE
       -X EXPR
       -X      A file test, where X is one of the letters listed below.  This unary operator
               takes one argument, either a filename or a filehandle, and tests the associated
               file to see if something is true about it.  If the argument is omitted, tests $_,
               except for "-t", which tests STDIN.  Unless otherwise documented, it returns 1 for
               true and '' for false, or the undefined value if the file doesn't exist.  Despite
               the funny names, precedence is the same as any other named unary operator, and the
               argument may be parenthesized like any other unary operator.  The operator may be
               any of:

                   -r  File is readable by effective uid/gid.
                   -w  File is writable by effective uid/gid.
                   -x  File is executable by effective uid/gid.
                   -o  File is owned by effective uid.

                   -R  File is readable by real uid/gid.
                   -W  File is writable by real uid/gid.
                   -X  File is executable by real uid/gid.
                   -O  File is owned by real uid.

                   -e  File exists.
                   -z  File has zero size (is empty).
                   -s  File has nonzero size (returns size in bytes).

                   -f  File is a plain file.
                   -d  File is a directory.
                   -l  File is a symbolic link.
                   -p  File is a named pipe (FIFO), or Filehandle is a pipe.
                   -S  File is a socket.
                   -b  File is a block special file.
                   -c  File is a character special file.
                   -t  Filehandle is opened to a tty.

                   -u  File has setuid bit set.
                   -g  File has setgid bit set.
                   -k  File has sticky bit set.

                   -T  File is an ASCII text file (heuristic guess).
                   -B  File is a "binary" file (opposite of -T).

                   -M  Script start time minus file modification time, in days.
                   -A  Same for access time.
                   -C  Same for inode change time (Unix, may differ for other platforms)

               Example:

                   while (<>) {
                       chomp;
                       next unless -f $_;      # ignore specials
                       #...
                   }

               The interpretation of the file permission operators "-r", "-R", "-w", "-W", "-x",
               and "-X" is by default based solely on the mode of the file and the uids and gids
               of the user.  There may be other reasons you can't actually read, write, or
               execute the file.  Such reasons may be for example network filesystem access
               controls, ACLs (access control lists), read-only filesystems, and unrecognized
               executable formats.

               Also note that, for the superuser on the local filesystems, the "-r", "-R", "-w",
               and "-W" tests always return 1, and "-x" and "-X" return 1 if any execute bit is
               set in the mode.  Scripts run by the superuser may thus need to do a stat() to
               determine the actual mode of the file, or temporarily set their effective uid to
               something else.

               If you are using ACLs, there is a pragma called "filetest" that may produce more
               accurate results than the bare stat() mode bits.  When under the "use filetest
               'access'" the above-mentioned filetests will test whether the permission can (not)
               be granted using the access() family of system calls.  Also note that the "-x" and
               "-X" may under this pragma return true even if there are no execute permission
               bits set (nor any extra execute permission ACLs).  This strangeness is due to the
               underlying system calls' definitions.  Read the documentation for the "filetest"
               pragma for more information.

               Note that "-s/a/b/" does not do a negated substitution.  Saying "-exp($foo)" still
               works as expected, however--only single letters following a minus are interpreted
               as file tests.

               The "-T" and "-B" switches work as follows.  The first block or so of the file is
               examined for odd characters such as strange control codes or characters with the
               high bit set.  If too many strange characters (>30%) are found, it's a "-B" file,
               otherwise it's a "-T" file.  Also, any file containing null in the first block is
               considered a binary file.  If "-T" or "-B" is used on a filehandle, the current IO
               buffer is examined rather than the first block.  Both "-T" and "-B" return true on
               a null file, or a file at EOF when testing a filehandle.  Because you have to read
               a file to do the "-T" test, on most occasions you want to use a "-f" against the
               file first, as in "next unless -f $file && -T $file".

               If any of the file tests (or either the "stat" or "lstat" operators) are given the
               special filehandle consisting of a solitary underline, then the stat structure of
               the previous file test (or stat operator) is used, saving a system call.  (This
               doesn't work with "-t", and you need to remember that lstat() and "-l" will leave
               values in the stat structure for the symbolic link, not the real file.)  (Also, if
               the stat buffer was filled by a "lstat" call, "-T" and "-B" will reset it with the
               results of "stat _").  Example:

                   print "Can do.\n" if -r $a ⎪⎪ -w _ ⎪⎪ -x _;

                   stat($filename);
                   print "Readable\n" if -r _;
                   print "Writable\n" if -w _;
                   print "Executable\n" if -x _;
                   print "Setuid\n" if -u _;
                   print "Setgid\n" if -g _;
                   print "Sticky\n" if -k _;
                   print "Text\n" if -T _;
                   print "Binary\n" if -B _;

       abs VALUE
       abs     Returns the absolute value of its argument.  If VALUE is omitted, uses $_.

       accept NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET
               Accepts an incoming socket connect, just as the accept(2) system call does.
               Returns the packed address if it succeeded, false otherwise.  See the example in
               "Sockets: Client/Server Communication" in perlipc.

               On systems that support a close-on-exec flag on files, the flag will be set for
               the newly opened file descriptor, as determined by the value of $^F.  See "$^F" in
               perlvar.

       alarm SECONDS
       alarm   Arranges to have a SIGALRM delivered to this process after the specified number of
               wallclock seconds have elapsed.  If SECONDS is not specified, the value stored in
               $_ is used. (On some machines, unfortunately, the elapsed time may be up to one
               second less or more than you specified because of how seconds are counted, and
               process scheduling may delay the delivery of the signal even further.)

               Only one timer may be counting at once.  Each call disables the previous timer,
               and an argument of 0 may be supplied to cancel the previous timer without starting
               a new one.  The returned value is the amount of time remaining on the previous
               timer.

               For delays of finer granularity than one second, you may use Perl's four-argument
               version of select() leaving the first three arguments undefined, or you might be
               able to use the "syscall" interface to access setitimer(2) if your system supports
               it.  The Time::HiRes module (from CPAN, and starting from Perl 5.8 part of the
               standard distribution) may also prove useful.

               It is usually a mistake to intermix "alarm" and "sleep" calls.  ("sleep" may be
               internally implemented in your system with "alarm")

               If you want to use "alarm" to time out a system call you need to use an
               "eval"/"die" pair.  You can't rely on the alarm causing the system call to fail
               with $! set to "EINTR" because Perl sets up signal handlers to restart system
               calls on some systems.  Using "eval"/"die" always works, modulo the caveats given
               in "Signals" in perlipc.

                   eval {
                       local $SIG{ALRM} = sub { die "alarm\n" }; # NB: \n required
                       alarm $timeout;
                       $nread = sysread SOCKET, $buffer, $size;
                       alarm 0;
                   };
                   if ($@) {
                       die unless $@ eq "alarm\n";   # propagate unexpected errors
                       # timed out
                   }
                   else {
                       # didn't
                   }

               For more information see perlipc.

       atan2 Y,X
               Returns the arctangent of Y/X in the range -PI to PI.

               For the tangent operation, you may use the "Math::Trig::tan" function, or use the
               familiar relation:

                   sub tan { sin($_[0]) / cos($_[0])  }

       bind SOCKET,NAME
               Binds a network address to a socket, just as the bind system call does.  Returns
               true if it succeeded, false otherwise.  NAME should be a packed address of the
               appropriate type for the socket.  See the examples in "Sockets: Client/Server
               Communication" in perlipc.

       binmode FILEHANDLE, LAYER
       binmode FILEHANDLE
               Arranges for FILEHANDLE to be read or written in "binary" or "text" mode on
               systems where the run-time libraries distinguish between binary and text files.
               If FILEHANDLE is an expression, the value is taken as the name of the filehandle.
               Returns true on success, otherwise it returns "undef" and sets $! (errno).

               On some systems (in general, DOS and Windows-based systems) binmode() is necessary
               when you're not working with a text file.  For the sake of portability it is a
               good idea to always use it when appropriate, and to never use it when it isn't
               appropriate.  Also, people can set their I/O to be by default UTF-8 encoded
               Unicode, not bytes.

               In other words: regardless of platform, use binmode() on binary data, like for
               example images.

               If LAYER is present it is a single string, but may contain multiple directives.
               The directives alter the behaviour of the file handle.  When LAYER is present
               using binmode on text file makes sense.

               If LAYER is omitted or specified as ":raw" the filehandle is made suitable for
               passing binary data. This includes turning off possible CRLF translation and
               marking it as bytes (as opposed to Unicode characters).  Note that as despite what
               may be implied in "Programming Perl" (the Camel) or elsewhere ":raw" is not the
               simply inverse of ":crlf" -- other layers which would affect binary nature of the
               stream are also disabled. See PerlIO, perlrun and the discussion about the PERLIO
               environment variable.

               The ":bytes", ":crlf", and ":utf8", and any other directives of the form ":...",
               are called I/O layers.  The "open" pragma can be used to establish default I/O
               layers.  See open.

               The LAYER parameter of the binmode() function is described as "DISCIPLINE" in
               "Programming Perl, 3rd Edition".  However, since the publishing of this book, by
               many known as "Camel III", the consensus of the naming of this functionality has
               moved from "discipline" to "layer".  All documentation of this version of Perl
               therefore refers to "layers" rather than to "disciplines".  Now back to the
               regularly scheduled documentation...

               To mark FILEHANDLE as UTF-8, use ":utf8".

               In general, binmode() should be called after open() but before any I/O is done on
               the filehandle.  Calling binmode() will normally flush any pending buffered output
               data (and perhaps pending input data) on the handle.  An exception to this is the
               ":encoding" layer that changes the default character encoding of the handle, see
               open.  The ":encoding" layer sometimes needs to be called in mid-stream, and it
               doesn't flush the stream.  The ":encoding" also implicitly pushes on top of itself
               the ":utf8" layer because internally Perl will operate on UTF-8 encoded Unicode
               characters.

               The operating system, device drivers, C libraries, and Perl run-time system all
               work together to let the programmer treat a single character ("\n") as the line
               terminator, irrespective of the external representation.  On many operating
               systems, the native text file representation matches the internal representation,
               but on some platforms the external representation of "\n" is made up of more than
               one character.

               Mac OS, all variants of Unix, and Stream_LF files on VMS use a single character to
               end each line in the external representation of text (even though that single
               character is CARRIAGE RETURN on Mac OS and LINE FEED on Unix and most VMS files).
               In other systems like OS/2, DOS and the various flavors of MS-Windows your program
               sees a "\n" as a simple "\cJ", but what's stored in text files are the two
               characters "\cM\cJ".  That means that, if you don't use binmode() on these
               systems, "\cM\cJ" sequences on disk will be converted to "\n" on input, and any
               "\n" in your program will be converted back to "\cM\cJ" on output.  This is what
               you want for text files, but it can be disastrous for binary files.

               Another consequence of using binmode() (on some systems) is that special end-of-
               file markers will be seen as part of the data stream.  For systems from the
               Microsoft family this means that if your binary data contains "\cZ", the I/O
               subsystem will regard it as the end of the file, unless you use binmode().

               binmode() is not only important for readline() and print() operations, but also
               when using read(), seek(), sysread(), syswrite() and tell() (see perlport for more
               details).  See the $/ and "$\" variables in perlvar for how to manually set your
               input and output line-termination sequences.

       bless REF,CLASSNAME
       bless REF
               This function tells the thingy referenced by REF that it is now an object in the
               CLASSNAME package.  If CLASSNAME is omitted, the current package is used.  Because
               a "bless" is often the last thing in a constructor, it returns the reference for
               convenience.  Always use the two-argument version if the function doing the
               blessing might be inherited by a derived class.  See perltoot and perlobj for more
               about the blessing (and blessings) of objects.

               Consider always blessing objects in CLASSNAMEs that are mixed case.  Namespaces
               with all lowercase names are considered reserved for Perl pragmata.  Builtin types
               have all uppercase names, so to prevent confusion, you may wish to avoid such
               package names as well.  Make sure that CLASSNAME is a true value.

               See "Perl Modules" in perlmod.

       caller EXPR
       caller  Returns the context of the current subroutine call.  In scalar context, returns
               the caller's package name if there is a caller, that is, if we're in a subroutine
               or "eval" or "require", and the undefined value otherwise.  In list context,
               returns

                   ($package, $filename, $line) = caller;

               With EXPR, it returns some extra information that the debugger uses to print a
               stack trace.  The value of EXPR indicates how many call frames to go back before
               the current one.

                   ($package, $filename, $line, $subroutine, $hasargs,
                   $wantarray, $evaltext, $is_require, $hints, $bitmask) = caller($i);

               Here $subroutine may be "(eval)" if the frame is not a subroutine call, but an
               "eval".  In such a case additional elements $evaltext and $is_require are set:
               $is_require is true if the frame is created by a "require" or "use" statement,
               $evaltext contains the text of the "eval EXPR" statement.  In particular, for an
               "eval BLOCK" statement, $filename is "(eval)", but $evaltext is undefined.  (Note
               also that each "use" statement creates a "require" frame inside an "eval EXPR"
               frame.)  $subroutine may also be "(unknown)" if this particular subroutine happens
               to have been deleted from the symbol table.  $hasargs is true if a new instance of
               @_ was set up for the frame.  $hints and $bitmask contain pragmatic hints that the
               caller was compiled with.  The $hints and $bitmask values are subject to change
               between versions of Perl, and are not meant for external use.

               Furthermore, when called from within the DB package, caller returns more detailed
               information: it sets the list variable @DB::args to be the arguments with which
               the subroutine was invoked.

               Be aware that the optimizer might have optimized call frames away before "caller"
               had a chance to get the information.  That means that caller(N) might not return
               information about the call frame you expect it do, for "N > 1".  In particular,
               @DB::args might have information from the previous time "caller" was called.

       chdir EXPR
               Changes the working directory to EXPR, if possible. If EXPR is omitted, changes to
               the directory specified by $ENV{HOME}, if set; if not, changes to the directory
               specified by $ENV{LOGDIR}. (Under VMS, the variable $ENV{SYS$LOGIN} is also
               checked, and used if it is set.) If neither is set, "chdir" does nothing. It
               returns true upon success, false otherwise. See the example under "die".

       chmod LIST
               Changes the permissions of a list of files.  The first element of the list must be
               the numerical mode, which should probably be an octal number, and which definitely
               should not a string of octal digits: 0644 is okay, '0644' is not.  Returns the
               number of files successfully changed.  See also "oct", if all you have is a
               string.

                   $cnt = chmod 0755, 'foo', 'bar';
                   chmod 0755, @executables;
                   $mode = '0644'; chmod $mode, 'foo';      # !!! sets mode to
                                                            # --w----r-T
                   $mode = '0644'; chmod oct($mode), 'foo'; # this is better
                   $mode = 0644;   chmod $mode, 'foo';      # this is best

               You can also import the symbolic "S_I*" constants from the Fcntl module:

                   use Fcntl ':mode';

                   chmod S_IRWXU⎪S_IRGRP⎪S_IXGRP⎪S_IROTH⎪S_IXOTH, @executables;
                   # This is identical to the chmod 0755 of the above example.

       chomp VARIABLE
       chomp( LIST )
       chomp   This safer version of "chop" removes any trailing string that corresponds to the
               current value of $/ (also known as $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR in the "English"
               module).  It returns the total number of characters removed from all its
               arguments.  It's often used to remove the newline from the end of an input record
               when you're worried that the final record may be missing its newline.  When in
               paragraph mode ("$/ = """), it removes all trailing newlines from the string.
               When in slurp mode ("$/ = undef") or fixed-length record mode ($/ is a reference
               to an integer or the like, see perlvar) chomp() won't remove anything.  If
               VARIABLE is omitted, it chomps $_.  Example:

                   while (<>) {
                       chomp;  # avoid \n on last field
                       @array = split(/:/);
                       # ...
                   }

               If VARIABLE is a hash, it chomps the hash's values, but not its keys.

               You can actually chomp anything that's an lvalue, including an assignment:

                   chomp($cwd = `pwd`);
                   chomp($answer = <STDIN>);

               If you chomp a list, each element is chomped, and the total number of characters
               removed is returned.

               Note that parentheses are necessary when you're chomping anything that is not a
               simple variable.  This is because "chomp $cwd = `pwd`;" is interpreted as "(chomp
               $cwd) = `pwd`;", rather than as "chomp( $cwd = `pwd` )" which you might expect.
               Similarly, "chomp $a, $b" is interpreted as "chomp($a), $b" rather than as
               "chomp($a, $b)".

       chop VARIABLE
       chop( LIST )
       chop    Chops off the last character of a string and returns the character chopped.  It is
               much more efficient than "s/.$//s" because it neither scans nor copies the string.
               If VARIABLE is omitted, chops $_.  If VARIABLE is a hash, it chops the hash's
               values, but not its keys.

               You can actually chop anything that's an lvalue, including an assignment.

               If you chop a list, each element is chopped.  Only the value of the last "chop" is
               returned.

               Note that "chop" returns the last character.  To return all but the last
               character, use "substr($string, 0, -1)".

               See also "chomp".

       chown LIST
               Changes the owner (and group) of a list of files.  The first two elements of the
               list must be the numeric uid and gid, in that order.  A value of -1 in either
               position is interpreted by most systems to leave that value unchanged.  Returns
               the number of files successfully changed.

                   $cnt = chown $uid, $gid, 'foo', 'bar';
                   chown $uid, $gid, @filenames;

               Here's an example that looks up nonnumeric uids in the passwd file:

                   print "User: ";
                   chomp($user = <STDIN>);
                   print "Files: ";
                   chomp($pattern = <STDIN>);

                   ($login,$pass,$uid,$gid) = getpwnam($user)
                       or die "$user not in passwd file";

                   @ary = glob($pattern);      # expand filenames
                   chown $uid, $gid, @ary;

               On most systems, you are not allowed to change the ownership of the file unless
               you're the superuser, although you should be able to change the group to any of
               your secondary groups.  On insecure systems, these restrictions may be relaxed,
               but this is not a portable assumption.  On POSIX systems, you can detect this
               condition this way:

                   use POSIX qw(sysconf _PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED);
                   $can_chown_giveaway = not sysconf(_PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED);

       chr NUMBER
       chr     Returns the character represented by that NUMBER in the character set.  For
               example, "chr(65)" is "A" in either ASCII or Unicode, and chr(0x263a) is a Unicode
               smiley face.  Note that characters from 128 to 255 (inclusive) are by default not
               encoded in UTF-8 Unicode for backward compatibility reasons (but see encoding).

               If NUMBER is omitted, uses $_.

               For the reverse, use "ord".

               Note that under the "bytes" pragma the NUMBER is masked to the low eight bits.

               See perlunicode and encoding for more about Unicode.

       chroot FILENAME
       chroot  This function works like the system call by the same name: it makes the named
               directory the new root directory for all further pathnames that begin with a "/"
               by your process and all its children.  (It doesn't change your current working
               directory, which is unaffected.)  For security reasons, this call is restricted to
               the superuser.  If FILENAME is omitted, does a "chroot" to $_.

       close FILEHANDLE
       close   Closes the file or pipe associated with the file handle, returning true only if IO
               buffers are successfully flushed and closes the system file descriptor.  Closes
               the currently selected filehandle if the argument is omitted.

               You don't have to close FILEHANDLE if you are immediately going to do another
               "open" on it, because "open" will close it for you.  (See "open".)  However, an
               explicit "close" on an input file resets the line counter ($.), while the implicit
               close done by "open" does not.

               If the file handle came from a piped open "close" will additionally return false
               if one of the other system calls involved fails or if the program exits with non-
               zero status.  (If the only problem was that the program exited non-zero $! will be
               set to 0.)  Closing a pipe also waits for the process executing on the pipe to
               complete, in case you want to look at the output of the pipe afterwards, and
               implicitly puts the exit status value of that command into $?.

               Prematurely closing the read end of a pipe (i.e. before the process writing to it
               at the other end has closed it) will result in a SIGPIPE being delivered to the
               writer.  If the other end can't handle that, be sure to read all the data before
               closing the pipe.

               Example:

                   open(OUTPUT, '⎪sort >foo')  # pipe to sort
                       or die "Can't start sort: $!";
                   #...                        # print stuff to output
                   close OUTPUT                # wait for sort to finish
                       or warn $! ? "Error closing sort pipe: $!"
                                  : "Exit status $? from sort";
                   open(INPUT, 'foo')          # get sort's results
                       or die "Can't open 'foo' for input: $!";

               FILEHANDLE may be an expression whose value can be used as an indirect filehandle,
               usually the real filehandle name.

       closedir DIRHANDLE
               Closes a directory opened by "opendir" and returns the success of that system
               call.

       connect SOCKET,NAME
               Attempts to connect to a remote socket, just as the connect system call does.
               Returns true if it succeeded, false otherwise.  NAME should be a packed address of
               the appropriate type for the socket.  See the examples in "Sockets: Client/Server
               Communication" in perlipc.

       continue BLOCK
               Actually a flow control statement rather than a function.  If there is a
               "continue" BLOCK attached to a BLOCK (typically in a "while" or "foreach"), it is
               always executed just before the conditional is about to be evaluated again, just
               like the third part of a "for" loop in C.  Thus it can be used to increment a loop
               variable, even when the loop has been continued via the "next" statement (which is
               similar to the C "continue" statement).

               "last", "next", or "redo" may appear within a "continue" block.  "last" and "redo"
               will behave as if they had been executed within the main block.  So will "next",
               but since it will execute a "continue" block, it may be more entertaining.

                   while (EXPR) {
                       ### redo always comes here
                       do_something;
                   } continue {
                       ### next always comes here
                       do_something_else;
                       # then back the top to re-check EXPR
                   }
                   ### last always comes here

               Omitting the "continue" section is semantically equivalent to using an empty one,
               logically enough.  In that case, "next" goes directly back to check the condition
               at the top of the loop.

       cos EXPR
       cos     Returns the cosine of EXPR (expressed in radians).  If EXPR is omitted, takes
               cosine of $_.

               For the inverse cosine operation, you may use the "Math::Trig::acos()" function,
               or use this relation:

                   sub acos { atan2( sqrt(1 - $_[0] * $_[0]), $_[0] ) }

       crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT
               Encrypts a string exactly like the crypt(3) function in the C library (assuming
               that you actually have a version there that has not been extirpated as a potential
               munition).  This can prove useful for checking the password file for lousy
               passwords, amongst other things.  Only the guys wearing white hats should do this.

               Note that crypt is intended to be a one-way function, much like breaking eggs to
               make an omelette.  There is no (known) corresponding decrypt function (in other
               words, the crypt() is a one-way hash function).  As a result, this function isn't
               all that useful for cryptography.  (For that, see your nearby CPAN mirror.)

               When verifying an existing encrypted string you should use the encrypted text as
               the salt (like "crypt($plain, $crypted) eq $crypted").  This allows your code to
               work with the standard crypt and with more exotic implementations.  In other
               words, do not assume anything about the returned string itself, or how many bytes
               in the encrypted string matter.

               Traditionally the result is a string of 13 bytes: two first bytes of the salt,
               followed by 11 bytes from the set "[./0-9A-Za-z]", and only the first eight bytes
               of the encrypted string mattered, but alternative hashing schemes (like MD5),
               higher level security schemes (like C2), and implementations on non-UNIX platforms
               may produce different strings.

               When choosing a new salt create a random two character string whose characters
               come from the set "[./0-9A-Za-z]" (like "join '', ('.', '/', 0..9, 'A'..'Z',
               'a'..'z')[rand 64, rand 64]").  This set of characters is just a recommendation;
               the characters allowed in the salt depend solely on your system's crypt library,
               and Perl can't restrict what salts "crypt()" accepts.

               Here's an example that makes sure that whoever runs this program knows their own
               password:

                   $pwd = (getpwuid($<))[1];

                   system "stty -echo";
                   print "Password: ";
                   chomp($word = <STDIN>);
                   print "\n";
                   system "stty echo";

                   if (crypt($word, $pwd) ne $pwd) {
                       die "Sorry...\n";
                   } else {
                       print "ok\n";
                   }

               Of course, typing in your own password to whoever asks you for it is unwise.

               The crypt function is unsuitable for encrypting large quantities of data, not
               least of all because you can't get the information back.  Look at the
               by-module/Crypt and by-module/PGP directories on your favorite CPAN mirror for a
               slew of potentially useful modules.

               If using crypt() on a Unicode string (which potentially has characters with
               codepoints above 255), Perl tries to make sense of the situation by trying to
               downgrade (a copy of the string) the string back to an eight-bit byte string
               before calling crypt() (on that copy).  If that works, good.  If not, crypt() dies
               with "Wide character in crypt".

       dbmclose HASH
               [This function has been largely superseded by the "untie" function.]

               Breaks the binding between a DBM file and a hash.

       dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MASK
               [This function has been largely superseded by the "tie" function.]

               This binds a dbm(3), ndbm(3), sdbm(3), gdbm(3), or Berkeley DB file to a hash.
               HASH is the name of the hash.  (Unlike normal "open", the first argument is not a
               filehandle, even though it looks like one).  DBNAME is the name of the database
               (without the .dir or .pag extension if any).  If the database does not exist, it
               is created with protection specified by MASK (as modified by the "umask").  If
               your system supports only the older DBM functions, you may perform only one
               "dbmopen" in your program.  In older versions of Perl, if your system had neither
               DBM nor ndbm, calling "dbmopen" produced a fatal error; it now falls back to
               sdbm(3).

               If you don't have write access to the DBM file, you can only read hash variables,
               not set them.  If you want to test whether you can write, either use file tests or
               try setting a dummy hash entry inside an "eval", which will trap the error.

               Note that functions such as "keys" and "values" may return huge lists when used on
               large DBM files.  You may prefer to use the "each" function to iterate over large
               DBM files.  Example:

                   # print out history file offsets
                   dbmopen(%HIST,'/usr/lib/news/history',0666);
                   while (($key,$val) = each %HIST) {
                       print $key, ' = ', unpack('L',$val), "\n";
                   }
                   dbmclose(%HIST);

               See also AnyDBM_File for a more general description of the pros and cons of the
               various dbm approaches, as well as DB_File for a particularly rich implementation.

               You can control which DBM library you use by loading that library before you call
               dbmopen():

                   use DB_File;
                   dbmopen(%NS_Hist, "$ENV{HOME}/.netscape/history.db")
                       or die "Can't open netscape history file: $!";

       defined EXPR
       defined Returns a Boolean value telling whether EXPR has a value other than the undefined
               value "undef".  If EXPR is not present, $_ will be checked.

               Many operations return "undef" to indicate failure, end of file, system error,
               uninitialized variable, and other exceptional conditions.  This function allows
               you to distinguish "undef" from other values.  (A simple Boolean test will not
               distinguish among "undef", zero, the empty string, and "0", which are all equally
               false.)  Note that since "undef" is a valid scalar, its presence doesn't
               necessarily indicate an exceptional condition: "pop" returns "undef" when its
               argument is an empty array, or when the element to return happens to be "undef".

               You may also use "defined(&func)" to check whether subroutine &func has ever been
               defined.  The return value is unaffected by any forward declarations of &func.
               Note that a subroutine which is not defined may still be callable: its package may
               have an "AUTOLOAD" method that makes it spring into existence the first time that
               it is called -- see perlsub.

               Use of "defined" on aggregates (hashes and arrays) is deprecated.  It used to
               report whether memory for that aggregate has ever been allocated.  This behavior
               may disappear in future versions of Perl.  You should instead use a simple test
               for size:

                   if (@an_array) { print "has array elements\n" }
                   if (%a_hash)   { print "has hash members\n"   }

               When used on a hash element, it tells you whether the value is defined, not
               whether the key exists in the hash.  Use "exists" for the latter purpose.

               Examples:

                   print if defined $switch{'D'};
                   print "$val\n" while defined($val = pop(@ary));
                   die "Can't readlink $sym: $!"
                       unless defined($value = readlink $sym);
                   sub foo { defined &$bar ? &$bar(@_) : die "No bar"; }
                   $debugging = 0 unless defined $debugging;

               Note:  Many folks tend to overuse "defined", and then are surprised to discover
               that the number 0 and "" (the zero-length string) are, in fact, defined values.
               For example, if you say

                   "ab" =~ /a(.*)b/;

               The pattern match succeeds, and $1 is defined, despite the fact that it matched
               "nothing".  But it didn't really match nothing--rather, it matched something that
               happened to be zero characters long.  This is all very above-board and honest.
               When a function returns an undefined value, it's an admission that it couldn't
               give you an honest answer.  So you should use "defined" only when you're
               questioning the integrity of what you're trying to do.  At other times, a simple
               comparison to 0 or "" is what you want.

               See also "undef", "exists", "ref".

       delete EXPR
               Given an expression that specifies a hash element, array element, hash slice, or
               array slice, deletes the specified element(s) from the hash or array.  In the case
               of an array, if the array elements happen to be at the end, the size of the array
               will shrink to the highest element that tests true for exists() (or 0 if no such
               element exists).

               Returns each element so deleted or the undefined value if there was no such
               element.  Deleting from $ENV{} modifies the environment.  Deleting from a hash
               tied to a DBM file deletes the entry from the DBM file.  Deleting from a "tie"d
               hash or array may not necessarily return anything.

               Deleting an array element effectively returns that position of the array to its
               initial, uninitialized state.  Subsequently testing for the same element with
               exists() will return false.  Note that deleting array elements in the middle of an
               array will not shift the index of the ones after them down--use splice() for that.
               See "exists".

               The following (inefficiently) deletes all the values of %HASH and @ARRAY:

                   foreach $key (keys %HASH) {
                       delete $HASH{$key};
                   }

                   foreach $index (0 .. $#ARRAY) {
                       delete $ARRAY[$index];
                   }

               And so do these:

                   delete @HASH{keys %HASH};

                   delete @ARRAY[0 .. $#ARRAY];

               But both of these are slower than just assigning the empty list or undefining
               %HASH or @ARRAY:

                   %HASH = ();         # completely empty %HASH
                   undef %HASH;        # forget %HASH ever existed

                   @ARRAY = ();        # completely empty @ARRAY
                   undef @ARRAY;       # forget @ARRAY ever existed

               Note that the EXPR can be arbitrarily complicated as long as the final operation
               is a hash element, array element,  hash slice, or array slice lookup:

                   delete $ref->[$x][$y]{$key};
                   delete @{$ref->[$x][$y]}{$key1, $key2, @morekeys};

                   delete $ref->[$x][$y][$index];
                   delete @{$ref->[$x][$y]}[$index1, $index2, @moreindices];

       die LIST
               Outside an "eval", prints the value of LIST to "STDERR" and exits with the current
               value of $! (errno).  If $! is 0, exits with the value of "($? >> 8)" (backtick
               `command` status).  If "($? >> 8)" is 0, exits with 255.  Inside an "eval()," the
               error message is stuffed into $@ and the "eval" is terminated with the undefined
               value.  This makes "die" the way to raise an exception.

               Equivalent examples:

                   die "Can't cd to spool: $!\n" unless chdir '/usr/spool/news';
                   chdir '/usr/spool/news' or die "Can't cd to spool: $!\n"

               If the last element of LIST does not end in a newline, the current script line
               number and input line number (if any) are also printed, and a newline is supplied.
               Note that the "input line number" (also known as "chunk") is subject to whatever
               notion of "line" happens to be currently in effect, and is also available as the
               special variable $..  See "$/" in perlvar and "$." in perlvar.

               Hint: sometimes appending ", stopped" to your message will cause it to make better
               sense when the string "at foo line 123" is appended.  Suppose you are running
               script "canasta".

                   die "/etc/games is no good";
                   die "/etc/games is no good, stopped";

               produce, respectively

                   /etc/games is no good at canasta line 123.
                   /etc/games is no good, stopped at canasta line 123.

               See also exit(), warn(), and the Carp module.

               If LIST is empty and $@ already contains a value (typically from a previous eval)
               that value is reused after appending "\t...propagated".  This is useful for
               propagating exceptions:

                   eval { ... };
                   die unless $@ =~ /Expected exception/;

               If LIST is empty and $@ contains an object reference that has a "PROPAGATE"
               method, that method will be called with additional file and line number
               parameters.  The return value replaces the value in $@.  ie. as if "$@ = eval {
               $@->PROPAGATE(__FILE__, __LINE__) };" were called.

               If $@ is empty then the string "Died" is used.

               die() can also be called with a reference argument.  If this happens to be trapped
               within an eval(), $@ contains the reference.  This behavior permits a more
               elaborate exception handling implementation using objects that maintain arbitrary
               state about the nature of the exception.  Such a scheme is sometimes preferable to
               matching particular string values of $@ using regular expressions.  Here's an
               example:

                   eval { ... ; die Some::Module::Exception->new( FOO => "bar" ) };
                   if ($@) {
                       if (ref($@) && UNIVERSAL::isa($@,"Some::Module::Exception")) {
                           # handle Some::Module::Exception
                       }
                       else {
                           # handle all other possible exceptions
                       }
                   }

               Because perl will stringify uncaught exception messages before displaying them,
               you may want to overload stringification operations on such custom exception
               objects.  See overload for details about that.

               You can arrange for a callback to be run just before the "die" does its deed, by
               setting the $SIG{__DIE__} hook.  The associated handler will be called with the
               error text and can change the error message, if it sees fit, by calling "die"
               again.  See "$SIG{expr}" in perlvar for details on setting %SIG entries, and "eval
               BLOCK" for some examples.  Although this feature was meant to be run only right
               before your program was to exit, this is not currently the case--the $SIG{__DIE__}
               hook is currently called even inside eval()ed blocks/strings!  If one wants the
               hook to do nothing in such situations, put

                       die @_ if $^S;

               as the first line of the handler (see "$^S" in perlvar).  Because this promotes
               strange action at a distance, this counterintuitive behavior may be fixed in a
               future release.

       do BLOCK
               Not really a function.  Returns the value of the last command in the sequence of
               commands indicated by BLOCK.  When modified by a loop modifier, executes the BLOCK
               once before testing the loop condition.  (On other statements the loop modifiers
               test the conditional first.)

               "do BLOCK" does not count as a loop, so the loop control statements "next",
               "last", or "redo" cannot be used to leave or restart the block.  See perlsyn for
               alternative strategies.

       do SUBROUTINE(LIST)
               A deprecated form of subroutine call.  See perlsub.

       do EXPR Uses the value of EXPR as a filename and executes the contents of the file as a
               Perl script.  Its primary use is to include subroutines from a Perl subroutine
               library.

                   do 'stat.pl';

               is just like

                   eval `cat stat.pl`;

               except that it's more efficient and concise, keeps track of the current filename
               for error messages, searches the @INC libraries, and updates %INC if the file is
               found.  See "Predefined Names" in perlvar for these variables.  It also differs in
               that code evaluated with "do FILENAME" cannot see lexicals in the enclosing scope;
               "eval STRING" does.  It's the same, however, in that it does reparse the file
               every time you call it, so you probably don't want to do this inside a loop.

               If "do" cannot read the file, it returns undef and sets $! to the error.  If "do"
               can read the file but cannot compile it, it returns undef and sets an error
               message in $@.   If the file is successfully compiled, "do" returns the value of
               the last expression evaluated.

               Note that inclusion of library modules is better done with the "use" and "require"
               operators, which also do automatic error checking and raise an exception if
               there's a problem.

               You might like to use "do" to read in a program configuration file.  Manual error
               checking can be done this way:

                   # read in config files: system first, then user
                   for $file ("/share/prog/defaults.rc",
                              "$ENV{HOME}/.someprogrc")
                  {
                       unless ($return = do $file) {
                           warn "couldn't parse $file: $@" if $@;
                           warn "couldn't do $file: $!"    unless defined $return;
                           warn "couldn't run $file"       unless $return;
                       }
                   }

       dump LABEL
       dump    This function causes an immediate core dump.  See also the -u command-line switch
               in perlrun, which does the same thing.  Primarily this is so that you can use the
               undump program (not supplied) to turn your core dump into an executable binary
               after having initialized all your variables at the beginning of the program.  When
               the new binary is executed it will begin by executing a "goto LABEL" (with all the
               restrictions that "goto" suffers).  Think of it as a goto with an intervening core
               dump and reincarnation.  If "LABEL" is omitted, restarts the program from the top.

               WARNING: Any files opened at the time of the dump will not be open any more when
               the program is reincarnated, with possible resulting confusion on the part of
               Perl.

               This function is now largely obsolete, partly because it's very hard to convert a
               core file into an executable, and because the real compiler backends for
               generating portable bytecode and compilable C code have superseded it.  That's why
               you should now invoke it as "CORE::dump()", if you don't want to be warned against
               a possible typo.

               If you're looking to use dump to speed up your program, consider generating
               bytecode or native C code as described in perlcc.  If you're just trying to
               accelerate a CGI script, consider using the "mod_perl" extension to Apache, or the
               CPAN module, CGI::Fast.  You might also consider autoloading or selfloading, which
               at least make your program appear to run faster.

       each HASH
               When called in list context, returns a 2-element list consisting of the key and
               value for the next element of a hash, so that you can iterate over it.  When
               called in scalar context, returns only the key for the next element in the hash.

               Entries are returned in an apparently random order.  The actual random order is
               subject to change in future versions of perl, but it is guaranteed to be in the
               same order as either the "keys" or "values" function would produce on the same
               (unmodified) hash.  Since Perl 5.8.1 the ordering is different even between
               different runs of Perl for security reasons (see "Algorithmic Complexity Attacks"
               in perlsec).

               When the hash is entirely read, a null array is returned in list context (which
               when assigned produces a false (0) value), and "undef" in scalar context.  The
               next call to "each" after that will start iterating again.  There is a single
               iterator for each hash, shared by all "each", "keys", and "values" function calls
               in the program; it can be reset by reading all the elements from the hash, or by
               evaluating "keys HASH" or "values HASH".  If you add or delete elements of a hash
               while you're iterating over it, you may get entries skipped or duplicated, so
               don't.  Exception: It is always safe to delete the item most recently returned by
               "each()", which means that the following code will work:

                       while (($key, $value) = each %hash) {
                         print $key, "\n";
                         delete $hash{$key};   # This is safe
                       }

               The following prints out your environment like the printenv(1) program, only in a
               different order:

                   while (($key,$value) = each %ENV) {
                       print "$key=$value\n";
                   }

               See also "keys", "values" and "sort".

       eof FILEHANDLE
       eof ()
       eof     Returns 1 if the next read on FILEHANDLE will return end of file, or if FILEHANDLE
               is not open.  FILEHANDLE may be an expression whose value gives the real
               filehandle.  (Note that this function actually reads a character and then
               "ungetc"s it, so isn't very useful in an interactive context.)  Do not read from a
               terminal file (or call "eof(FILEHANDLE)" on it) after end-of-file is reached.
               File types such as terminals may lose the end-of-file condition if you do.

               An "eof" without an argument uses the last file read.  Using "eof()" with empty
               parentheses is very different.  It refers to the pseudo file formed from the files
               listed on the command line and accessed via the "<>" operator.  Since "<>" isn't
               explicitly opened, as a normal filehandle is, an "eof()" before "<>" has been used
               will cause @ARGV to be examined to determine if input is available.   Similarly,
               an "eof()" after "<>" has returned end-of-file will assume you are processing
               another @ARGV list, and if you haven't set @ARGV, will read input from "STDIN";
               see "I/O Operators" in perlop.

               In a "while (<>)" loop, "eof" or "eof(ARGV)" can be used to detect the end of each
               file, "eof()" will only detect the end of the last file.  Examples:

                   # reset line numbering on each input file
                   while (<>) {
                       next if /^\s*#/;        # skip comments
                       print "$.\t$_";
                   } continue {
                       close ARGV  if eof;     # Not eof()!
                   }

                   # insert dashes just before last line of last file
                   while (<>) {
                       if (eof()) {            # check for end of last file
                           print "--------------\n";
                       }
                       print;
                       last if eof();          # needed if we're reading from a terminal
                   }

               Practical hint: you almost never need to use "eof" in Perl, because the input
               operators typically return "undef" when they run out of data, or if there was an
               error.

       eval EXPR
       eval BLOCK
               In the first form, the return value of EXPR is parsed and executed as if it were a
               little Perl program.  The value of the expression (which is itself determined
               within scalar context) is first parsed, and if there weren't any errors, executed
               in the lexical context of the current Perl program, so that any variable settings
               or subroutine and format definitions remain afterwards.  Note that the value is
               parsed every time the eval executes.  If EXPR is omitted, evaluates $_.  This form
               is typically used to delay parsing and subsequent execution of the text of EXPR
               until run time.

               In the second form, the code within the BLOCK is parsed only once--at the same
               time the code surrounding the eval itself was parsed--and executed within the
               context of the current Perl program.  This form is typically used to trap
               exceptions more efficiently than the first (see below), while also providing the
               benefit of checking the code within BLOCK at compile time.

               The final semicolon, if any, may be omitted from the value of EXPR or within the
               BLOCK.

               In both forms, the value returned is the value of the last expression evaluated
               inside the mini-program; a return statement may be also used, just as with
               subroutines.  The expression providing the return value is evaluated in void,
               scalar, or list context, depending on the context of the eval itself.  See
               "wantarray" for more on how the evaluation context can be determined.

               If there is a syntax error or runtime error, or a "die" statement is executed, an
               undefined value is returned by "eval", and $@ is set to the error message.  If
               there was no error, $@ is guaranteed to be a null string.  Beware that using
               "eval" neither silences perl from printing warnings to STDERR, nor does it stuff
               the text of warning messages into $@.  To do either of those, you have to use the
               $SIG{__WARN__} facility, or turn off warnings inside the BLOCK or EXPR using
               "no warnings 'all'".  See "warn", perlvar, warnings and perllexwarn.

               Note that, because "eval" traps otherwise-fatal errors, it is useful for
               determining whether a particular feature (such as "socket" or "symlink") is
               implemented.  It is also Perl's exception trapping mechanism, where the die
               operator is used to raise exceptions.

               If the code to be executed doesn't vary, you may use the eval-BLOCK form to trap
               run-time errors without incurring the penalty of recompiling each time.  The
               error, if any, is still returned in $@.  Examples:

                   # make divide-by-zero nonfatal
                   eval { $answer = $a / $b; }; warn $@ if $@;

                   # same thing, but less efficient
                   eval '$answer = $a / $b'; warn $@ if $@;

                   # a compile-time error
                   eval { $answer = };                 # WRONG

                   # a run-time error
                   eval '$answer =';   # sets $@

               Due to the current arguably broken state of "__DIE__" hooks, when using the
               "eval{}" form as an exception trap in libraries, you may wish not to trigger any
               "__DIE__" hooks that user code may have installed.  You can use the "local
               $SIG{__DIE__}" construct for this purpose, as shown in this example:

                   # a very private exception trap for divide-by-zero
                   eval { local $SIG{'__DIE__'}; $answer = $a / $b; };
                   warn $@ if $@;

               This is especially significant, given that "__DIE__" hooks can call "die" again,
               which has the effect of changing their error messages:

                   # __DIE__ hooks may modify error messages
                   {
                      local $SIG{'__DIE__'} =
                             sub { (my $x = $_[0]) =~ s/foo/bar/g; die $x };
                      eval { die "foo lives here" };
                      print $@ if $@;                # prints "bar lives here"
                   }

               Because this promotes action at a distance, this counterintuitive behavior may be
               fixed in a future release.

               With an "eval", you should be especially careful to remember what's being looked
               at when:

                   eval $x;            # CASE 1
                   eval "$x";          # CASE 2

                   eval '$x';          # CASE 3
                   eval { $x };        # CASE 4

                   eval "\$$x++";      # CASE 5
                   $$x++;              # CASE 6

               Cases 1 and 2 above behave identically: they run the code contained in the
               variable $x.  (Although case 2 has misleading double quotes making the reader
               wonder what else might be happening (nothing is).)  Cases 3 and 4 likewise behave
               in the same way: they run the code '$x', which does nothing but return the value
               of $x.  (Case 4 is preferred for purely visual reasons, but it also has the
               advantage of compiling at compile-time instead of at run-time.)  Case 5 is a place
               where normally you would like to use double quotes, except that in this particular
               situation, you can just use symbolic references instead, as in case 6.

               "eval BLOCK" does not count as a loop, so the loop control statements "next",
               "last", or "redo" cannot be used to leave or restart the block.

               Note that as a very special case, an "eval ''" executed within the "DB" package
               doesn't see the usual surrounding lexical scope, but rather the scope of the first
               non-DB piece of code that called it. You don't normally need to worry about this
               unless you are writing a Perl debugger.

       exec LIST
       exec PROGRAM LIST
               The "exec" function executes a system command and never returns-- use "system"
               instead of "exec" if you want it to return.  It fails and returns false only if
               the command does not exist and it is executed directly instead of via your
               system's command shell (see below).

               Since it's a common mistake to use "exec" instead of "system", Perl warns you if
               there is a following statement which isn't "die", "warn", or "exit" (if "-w" is
               set  -  but you always do that).   If you really want to follow an "exec" with
               some other statement, you can use one of these styles to avoid the warning:

                   exec ('foo')   or print STDERR "couldn't exec foo: $!";
                   { exec ('foo') }; print STDERR "couldn't exec foo: $!";

               If there is more than one argument in LIST, or if LIST is an array with more than
               one value, calls execvp(3) with the arguments in LIST.  If there is only one
               scalar argument or an array with one element in it, the argument is checked for
               shell metacharacters, and if there are any, the entire argument is passed to the
               system's command shell for parsing (this is "/bin/sh -c" on Unix platforms, but
               varies on other platforms).  If there are no shell metacharacters in the argument,
               it is split into words and passed directly to "execvp", which is more efficient.
               Examples:

                   exec '/bin/echo', 'Your arguments are: ', @ARGV;
                   exec "sort $outfile ⎪ uniq";

               If you don't really want to execute the first argument, but want to lie to the
               program you are executing about its own name, you can specify the program you
               actually want to run as an "indirect object" (without a comma) in front of the
               LIST.  (This always forces interpretation of the LIST as a multivalued list, even
               if there is only a single scalar in the list.)  Example:

                   $shell = '/bin/csh';
                   exec $shell '-sh';          # pretend it's a login shell

               or, more directly,

                   exec {'/bin/csh'} '-sh';    # pretend it's a login shell

               When the arguments get executed via the system shell, results will be subject to
               its quirks and capabilities.  See "`STRING`" in perlop for details.

               Using an indirect object with "exec" or "system" is also more secure.  This usage
               (which also works fine with system()) forces interpretation of the arguments as a
               multivalued list, even if the list had just one argument.  That way you're safe
               from the shell expanding wildcards or splitting up words with whitespace in them.

                   @args = ( "echo surprise" );

                   exec @args;               # subject to shell escapes
                                               # if @args == 1
                   exec { $args[0] } @args;  # safe even with one-arg list

               The first version, the one without the indirect object, ran the echo program,
               passing it "surprise" an argument.  The second version didn't--it tried to run a
               program literally called "echo surprise", didn't find it, and set $? to a non-zero
               value indicating failure.

               Beginning with v5.6.0, Perl will attempt to flush all files opened for output
               before the exec, but this may not be supported on some platforms (see perlport).
               To be safe, you may need to set $⎪ ($AUTOFLUSH in English) or call the
               "autoflush()" method of "IO::Handle" on any open handles in order to avoid lost
               output.

               Note that "exec" will not call your "END" blocks, nor will it call any "DESTROY"
               methods in your objects.

       exists EXPR
               Given an expression that specifies a hash element or array element, returns true
               if the specified element in the hash or array has ever been initialized, even if
               the corresponding value is undefined.  The element is not autovivified if it
               doesn't exist.

                   print "Exists\n"    if exists $hash{$key};
                   print "Defined\n"   if defined $hash{$key};
                   print "True\n"      if $hash{$key};

                   print "Exists\n"    if exists $array[$index];
                   print "Defined\n"   if defined $array[$index];
                   print "True\n"      if $array[$index];

               A hash or array element can be true only if it's defined, and defined if it
               exists, but the reverse doesn't necessarily hold true.

               Given an expression that specifies the name of a subroutine, returns true if the
               specified subroutine has ever been declared, even if it is undefined.  Mentioning
               a subroutine name for exists or defined does not count as declaring it.  Note that
               a subroutine which does not exist may still be callable: its package may have an
               "AUTOLOAD" method that makes it spring into existence the first time that it is
               called -- see perlsub.

                   print "Exists\n"    if exists &subroutine;
                   print "Defined\n"   if defined &subroutine;

               Note that the EXPR can be arbitrarily complicated as long as the final operation
               is a hash or array key lookup or subroutine name:

                   if (exists $ref->{A}->{B}->{$key})  { }
                   if (exists $hash{A}{B}{$key})       { }

                   if (exists $ref->{A}->{B}->[$ix])   { }
                   if (exists $hash{A}{B}[$ix])        { }

                   if (exists &{$ref->{A}{B}{$key}})   { }

               Although the deepest nested array or hash will not spring into existence just
               because its existence was tested, any intervening ones will.  Thus "$ref->{"A"}"
               and "$ref->{"A"}->{"B"}" will spring into existence due to the existence test for
               the $key element above.  This happens anywhere the arrow operator is used,
               including even:

                   undef $ref;
                   if (exists $ref->{"Some key"})      { }
                   print $ref;             # prints HASH(0x80d3d5c)

               This surprising autovivification in what does not at first--or even second--glance
               appear to be an lvalue context may be fixed in a future release.

               See "Pseudo-hashes: Using an array as a hash" in perlref for specifics on how
               exists() acts when used on a pseudo-hash.

               Use of a subroutine call, rather than a subroutine name, as an argument to
               exists() is an error.

                   exists &sub;        # OK
                   exists &sub();      # Error

       exit EXPR
               Evaluates EXPR and exits immediately with that value.    Example:

                   $ans = <STDIN>;
                   exit 0 if $ans =~ /^[Xx]/;

               See also "die".  If EXPR is omitted, exits with 0 status.  The only universally
               recognized values for EXPR are 0 for success and 1 for error; other values are
               subject to interpretation depending on the environment in which the Perl program
               is running.  For example, exiting 69 (EX_UNAVAILABLE) from a sendmail incoming-
               mail filter will cause the mailer to return the item undelivered, but that's not
               true everywhere.

               Don't use "exit" to abort a subroutine if there's any chance that someone might
               want to trap whatever error happened.  Use "die" instead, which can be trapped by
               an "eval".

               The exit() function does not always exit immediately.  It calls any defined "END"
               routines first, but these "END" routines may not themselves abort the exit.
               Likewise any object destructors that need to be called are called before the real
               exit.  If this is a problem, you can call "POSIX:_exit($status)" to avoid END and
               destructor processing.  See perlmod for details.

       exp EXPR
       exp     Returns e (the natural logarithm base) to the power of EXPR.  If EXPR is omitted,
               gives "exp($_)".

       fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR
               Implements the fcntl(2) function.  You'll probably have to say

                   use Fcntl;

               first to get the correct constant definitions.  Argument processing and value
               return works just like "ioctl" below.  For example:

                   use Fcntl;
                   fcntl($filehandle, F_GETFL, $packed_return_buffer)
                       or die "can't fcntl F_GETFL: $!";

               You don't have to check for "defined" on the return from "fcntl".  Like "ioctl",
               it maps a 0 return from the system call into "0 but true" in Perl.  This string is
               true in boolean context and 0 in numeric context.  It is also exempt from the
               normal -w warnings on improper numeric conversions.

               Note that "fcntl" will produce a fatal error if used on a machine that doesn't
               implement fcntl(2).  See the Fcntl module or your fcntl(2) manpage to learn what
               functions are available on your system.

       fileno FILEHANDLE
               Returns the file descriptor for a filehandle, or undefined if the filehandle is
               not open.  This is mainly useful for constructing bitmaps for "select" and low-
               level POSIX tty-handling operations.  If FILEHANDLE is an expression, the value is
               taken as an indirect filehandle, generally its name.

               You can use this to find out whether two handles refer to the same underlying
               descriptor:

                   if (fileno(THIS) == fileno(THAT)) {
                       print "THIS and THAT are dups\n";
                   }

               (Filehandles connected to memory objects via new features of "open" may return
               undefined even though they are open.)

       flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION
               Calls flock(2), or an emulation of it, on FILEHANDLE.  Returns true for success,
               false on failure.  Produces a fatal error if used on a machine that doesn't
               implement flock(2), fcntl(2) locking, or lockf(3).  "flock" is Perl's portable
               file locking interface, although it locks only entire files, not records.

               Two potentially non-obvious but traditional "flock" semantics are that it waits
               indefinitely until the lock is granted, and that its locks merely advisory.  Such
               discretionary locks are more flexible, but offer fewer guarantees.  This means
               that files locked with "flock" may be modified by programs that do not also use
               "flock".  See perlport, your port's specific documentation, or your system-
               specific local manpages for details.  It's best to assume traditional behavior if
               you're writing portable programs.  (But if you're not, you should as always feel
               perfectly free to write for your own system's idiosyncrasies (sometimes called
               "features").  Slavish adherence to portability concerns shouldn't get in the way
               of your getting your job done.)

               OPERATION is one of LOCK_SH, LOCK_EX, or LOCK_UN, possibly combined with LOCK_NB.
               These constants are traditionally valued 1, 2, 8 and 4, but you can use the
               symbolic names if you import them from the Fcntl module, either individually, or
               as a group using the ':flock' tag.  LOCK_SH requests a shared lock, LOCK_EX
               requests an exclusive lock, and LOCK_UN releases a previously requested lock.  If
               LOCK_NB is bitwise-or'ed with LOCK_SH or LOCK_EX then "flock" will return
               immediately rather than blocking waiting for the lock (check the return status to
               see if you got it).

               To avoid the possibility of miscoordination, Perl now flushes FILEHANDLE before
               locking or unlocking it.

               Note that the emulation built with lockf(3) doesn't provide shared locks, and it
               requires that FILEHANDLE be open with write intent.  These are the semantics that
               lockf(3) implements.  Most if not all systems implement lockf(3) in terms of
               fcntl(2) locking, though, so the differing semantics shouldn't bite too many
               people.

               Note that the fcntl(2) emulation of flock(3) requires that FILEHANDLE be open with
               read intent to use LOCK_SH and requires that it be open with write intent to use
               LOCK_EX.

               Note also that some versions of "flock" cannot lock things over the network; you
               would need to use the more system-specific "fcntl" for that.  If you like you can
               force Perl to ignore your system's flock(2) function, and so provide its own
               fcntl(2)-based emulation, by passing the switch "-Ud_flock" to the Configure
               program when you configure perl.

               Here's a mailbox appender for BSD systems.

                   use Fcntl ':flock'; # import LOCK_* constants

                   sub lock {
                       flock(MBOX,LOCK_EX);
                       # and, in case someone appended
                       # while we were waiting...
                       seek(MBOX, 0, 2);
                   }

                   sub unlock {
                       flock(MBOX,LOCK_UN);
                   }

                   open(MBOX, ">>/usr/spool/mail/$ENV{'USER'}")
                           or die "Can't open mailbox: $!";

                   lock();
                   print MBOX $msg,"\n\n";
                   unlock();

               On systems that support a real flock(), locks are inherited across fork() calls,
               whereas those that must resort to the more capricious fcntl() function lose the
               locks, making it harder to write servers.

               See also DB_File for other flock() examples.

       fork    Does a fork(2) system call to create a new process running the same program at the
               same point.  It returns the child pid to the parent process, 0 to the child
               process, or "undef" if the fork is unsuccessful.  File descriptors (and sometimes
               locks on those descriptors) are shared, while everything else is copied.  On most
               systems supporting fork(), great care has gone into making it extremely efficient
               (for example, using copy-on-write technology on data pages), making it the
               dominant paradigm for multitasking over the last few decades.

               Beginning with v5.6.0, Perl will attempt to flush all files opened for output
               before forking the child process, but this may not be supported on some platforms
               (see perlport).  To be safe, you may need to set $⎪ ($AUTOFLUSH in English) or
               call the "autoflush()" method of "IO::Handle" on any open handles in order to
               avoid duplicate output.

               If you "fork" without ever waiting on your children, you will accumulate zombies.
               On some systems, you can avoid this by setting $SIG{CHLD} to "IGNORE".  See also
               perlipc for more examples of forking and reaping moribund children.

               Note that if your forked child inherits system file descriptors like STDIN and
               STDOUT that are actually connected by a pipe or socket, even if you exit, then the
               remote server (such as, say, a CGI script or a backgrounded job launched from a
               remote shell) won't think you're done.  You should reopen those to /dev/null if
               it's any issue.

       format  Declare a picture format for use by the "write" function.  For example:

                   format Something =
                       Test: @<<<<<<<< @⎪⎪⎪⎪⎪ @>>>>>
                             $str,     $%,    '$' . int($num)
                   .

                   $str = "widget";
                   $num = $cost/$quantity;
                   $~ = 'Something';
                   write;

               See perlform for many details and examples.

       formline PICTURE,LIST
               This is an internal function used by "format"s, though you may call it, too.  It
               formats (see perlform) a list of values according to the contents of PICTURE,
               placing the output into the format output accumulator, $^A (or $ACCUMULATOR in
               English).  Eventually, when a "write" is done, the contents of $^A are written to
               some filehandle, but you could also read $^A yourself and then set $^A back to "".
               Note that a format typically does one "formline" per line of form, but the
               "formline" function itself doesn't care how many newlines are embedded in the
               PICTURE.  This means that the "~" and "~~" tokens will treat the entire PICTURE as
               a single line.  You may therefore need to use multiple formlines to implement a
               single record format, just like the format compiler.

               Be careful if you put double quotes around the picture, because an "@" character
               may be taken to mean the beginning of an array name.  "formline" always returns
               true.  See perlform for other examples.

       getc FILEHANDLE
       getc    Returns the next character from the input file attached to FILEHANDLE, or the
               undefined value at end of file, or if there was an error (in the latter case $! is
               set).  If FILEHANDLE is omitted, reads from STDIN.  This is not particularly
               efficient.  However, it cannot be used by itself to fetch single characters
               without waiting for the user to hit enter.  For that, try something more like:

                   if ($BSD_STYLE) {
                       system "stty cbreak </dev/tty >/dev/tty 2>&1";
                   }
                   else {
                       system "stty", '-icanon', 'eol', "\001";
                   }

                   $key = getc(STDIN);

                   if ($BSD_STYLE) {
                       system "stty -cbreak </dev/tty >/dev/tty 2>&1";
                   }
                   else {
                       system "stty", 'icanon', 'eol', '^@'; # ASCII null
                   }
                   print "\n";

               Determination of whether $BSD_STYLE should be set is left as an exercise to the
               reader.

               The "POSIX::getattr" function can do this more portably on systems purporting
               POSIX compliance.  See also the "Term::ReadKey" module from your nearest CPAN
               site; details on CPAN can be found on "CPAN" in perlmodlib.

       getlogin
               Implements the C library function of the same name, which on most systems returns
               the current login from /etc/utmp, if any.  If null, use "getpwuid".

                   $login = getlogin ⎪⎪ getpwuid($<) ⎪⎪ "Kilroy";

               Do not consider "getlogin" for authentication: it is not as secure as "getpwuid".

       getpeername SOCKET
               Returns the packed sockaddr address of other end of the SOCKET connection.

                   use Socket;
                   $hersockaddr    = getpeername(SOCK);
                   ($port, $iaddr) = sockaddr_in($hersockaddr);
                   $herhostname    = gethostbyaddr($iaddr, AF_INET);
                   $herstraddr     = inet_ntoa($iaddr);

       getpgrp PID
               Returns the current process group for the specified PID.  Use a PID of 0 to get
               the current process group for the current process.  Will raise an exception if
               used on a machine that doesn't implement getpgrp(2).  If PID is omitted, returns
               process group of current process.  Note that the POSIX version of "getpgrp" does
               not accept a PID argument, so only "PID==0" is truly portable.

       getppid Returns the process id of the parent process.

               Note for Linux users: on Linux, the C functions "getpid()" and "getppid()" return
               different values from different threads. In order to be portable, this behavior is
               not reflected by the perl-level function "getppid()", that returns a consistent
               value across threads. If you want to call the underlying "getppid()", you may use
               the CPAN module "Linux::Pid".

       getpriority WHICH,WHO
               Returns the current priority for a process, a process group, or a user.  (See
               getpriority(2).)  Will raise a fatal exception if used on a machine that doesn't
               implement getpriority(2).

       getpwnam NAME
       getgrnam NAME
       gethostbyname NAME
       getnetbyname NAME
       getprotobyname NAME
       getpwuid UID
       getgrgid GID
       getservbyname NAME,PROTO
       gethostbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE
       getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE
       getprotobynumber NUMBER
       getservbyport PORT,PROTO
       getpwent
       getgrent
       gethostent
       getnetent
       getprotoent
       getservent
       setpwent
       setgrent
       sethostent STAYOPEN
       setnetent STAYOPEN
       setprotoent STAYOPEN
       setservent STAYOPEN
       endpwent
       endgrent
       endhostent
       endnetent
       endprotoent
       endservent
               These routines perform the same functions as their counterparts in the system
               library.  In list context, the return values from the various get routines are as
               follows:

                   ($name,$passwd,$uid,$gid,
                      $quota,$comment,$gcos,$dir,$shell,$expire) = getpw*
                   ($name,$passwd,$gid,$members) = getgr*
                   ($name,$aliases,$addrtype,$length,@addrs) = gethost*
                   ($name,$aliases,$addrtype,$net) = getnet*
                   ($name,$aliases,$proto) = getproto*
                   ($name,$aliases,$port,$proto) = getserv*

               (If the entry doesn't exist you get a null list.)

               The exact meaning of the $gcos field varies but it usually contains the real name
               of the user (as opposed to the login name) and other information pertaining to the
               user.  Beware, however, that in many system users are able to change this
               information and therefore it cannot be trusted and therefore the $gcos is tainted
               (see perlsec).  The $passwd and $shell, user's encrypted password and login shell,
               are also tainted, because of the same reason.

               In scalar context, you get the name, unless the function was a lookup by name, in
               which case you get the other thing, whatever it is.  (If the entry doesn't exist
               you get the undefined value.)  For example:

                   $uid   = getpwnam($name);
                   $name  = getpwuid($num);
                   $name  = getpwent();
                   $gid   = getgrnam($name);
                   $name  = getgrgid($num);
                   $name  = getgrent();
                   #etc.

               In getpw*() the fields $quota, $comment, and $expire are special cases in the
               sense that in many systems they are unsupported.  If the $quota is unsupported, it
               is an empty scalar.  If it is supported, it usually encodes the disk quota.  If
               the $comment field is unsupported, it is an empty scalar.  If it is supported it
               usually encodes some administrative comment about the user.  In some systems the
               $quota field may be $change or $age, fields that have to do with password aging.
               In some systems the $comment field may be $class.  The $expire field, if present,
               encodes the expiration period of the account or the password.  For the
               availability and the exact meaning of these fields in your system, please consult
               your getpwnam(3) documentation and your pwd.h file.  You can also find out from
               within Perl what your $quota and $comment fields mean and whether you have the
               $expire field by using the "Config" module and the values "d_pwquota", "d_pwage",
               "d_pwchange", "d_pwcomment", and "d_pwexpire".  Shadow password files are only
               supported if your vendor has implemented them in the intuitive fashion that
               calling the regular C library routines gets the shadow versions if you're running
               under privilege or if there exists the shadow(3) functions as found in System V (
               this includes Solaris and Linux.)  Those systems which implement a proprietary
               shadow password facility are unlikely to be supported.

               The $members value returned by getgr*() is a space separated list of the login
               names of the members of the group.

               For the gethost*() functions, if the "h_errno" variable is supported in C, it will
               be returned to you via $? if the function call fails.  The @addrs value returned
               by a successful call is a list of the raw addresses returned by the corresponding
               system library call.  In the Internet domain, each address is four bytes long and
               you can unpack it by saying something like:

                   ($a,$b,$c,$d) = unpack('C4',$addr[0]);

               The Socket library makes this slightly easier:

                   use Socket;
                   $iaddr = inet_aton("127.1"); # or whatever address
                   $name  = gethostbyaddr($iaddr, AF_INET);

                   # or going the other way
                   $straddr = inet_ntoa($iaddr);

               If you get tired of remembering which element of the return list contains which
               return value, by-name interfaces are provided in standard modules: "File::stat",
               "Net::hostent", "Net::netent", "Net::protoent", "Net::servent", "Time::gmtime",
               "Time::localtime", and "User::grent".  These override the normal built-ins,
               supplying versions that return objects with the appropriate names for each field.
               For example:

                  use File::stat;
                  use User::pwent;
                  $is_his = (stat($filename)->uid == pwent($whoever)->uid);

               Even though it looks like they're the same method calls (uid), they aren't,
               because a "File::stat" object is different from a "User::pwent" object.

       getsockname SOCKET
               Returns the packed sockaddr address of this end of the SOCKET connection, in case
               you don't know the address because you have several different IPs that the
               connection might have come in on.

                   use Socket;
                   $mysockaddr = getsockname(SOCK);
                   ($port, $myaddr) = sockaddr_in($mysockaddr);
                   printf "Connect to %s [%s]\n",
                      scalar gethostbyaddr($myaddr, AF_INET),
                      inet_ntoa($myaddr);

       getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME
               Returns the socket option requested, or undef if there is an error.

       glob EXPR
       glob    In list context, returns a (possibly empty) list of filename expansions on the
               value of EXPR such as the standard Unix shell /bin/csh would do. In scalar
               context, glob iterates through such filename expansions, returning undef when the
               list is exhausted. This is the internal function implementing the "<*.c>"
               operator, but you can use it directly. If EXPR is omitted, $_ is used.  The
               "<*.c>" operator is discussed in more detail in "I/O Operators" in perlop.

               Beginning with v5.6.0, this operator is implemented using the standard
               "File::Glob" extension.  See File::Glob for details.

       gmtime EXPR
               Converts a time as returned by the time function to an 8-element list with the
               time localized for the standard Greenwich time zone.  Typically used as follows:

                   #  0    1    2     3     4    5     6     7
                   ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday) =
                                                           gmtime(time);

               All list elements are numeric, and come straight out of the C `struct tm'.  $sec,
               $min, and $hour are the seconds, minutes, and hours of the specified time.  $mday
               is the day of the month, and $mon is the month itself, in the range 0..11 with 0
               indicating January and 11 indicating December.  $year is the number of years since
               1900.  That is, $year is 123 in year 2023.  $wday is the day of the week, with 0
               indicating Sunday and 3 indicating Wednesday.  $yday is the day of the year, in
               the range 0..364 (or 0..365 in leap years.)

               Note that the $year element is not simply the last two digits of the year.  If you
               assume it is, then you create non-Y2K-compliant programs--and you wouldn't want to
               do that, would you?

               The proper way to get a complete 4-digit year is simply:

                       $year += 1900;

               And to get the last two digits of the year (e.g., '01' in 2001) do:

                       $year = sprintf("%02d", $year % 100);

               If EXPR is omitted, "gmtime()" uses the current time ("gmtime(time)").

               In scalar context, "gmtime()" returns the ctime(3) value:

                   $now_string = gmtime;  # e.g., "Thu Oct 13 04:54:34 1994"

               Also see the "timegm" function provided by the "Time::Local" module, and the
               strftime(3) function available via the POSIX module.

               This scalar value is not locale dependent (see perllocale), but is instead a Perl
               builtin.  Also see the "Time::Local" module, and the strftime(3) and mktime(3)
               functions available via the POSIX module.  To get somewhat similar but locale
               dependent date strings, set up your locale environment variables appropriately
               (please see perllocale) and try for example:

                   use POSIX qw(strftime);
                   $now_string = strftime "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Y", gmtime;

               Note that the %a and %b escapes, which represent the short forms of the day of the
               week and the month of the year, may not necessarily be three characters wide in
               all locales.

       goto LABEL
       goto EXPR
       goto &NAME
               The "goto-LABEL" form finds the statement labeled with LABEL and resumes execution
               there.  It may not be used to go into any construct that requires initialization,
               such as a subroutine or a "foreach" loop.  It also can't be used to go into a
               construct that is optimized away, or to get out of a block or subroutine given to
               "sort".  It can be used to go almost anywhere else within the dynamic scope,
               including out of subroutines, but it's usually better to use some other construct
               such as "last" or "die".  The author of Perl has never felt the need to use this
               form of "goto" (in Perl, that is--C is another matter).  (The difference being
               that C does not offer named loops combined with loop control.  Perl does, and this
               replaces most structured uses of "goto" in other languages.)

               The "goto-EXPR" form expects a label name, whose scope will be resolved
               dynamically.  This allows for computed "goto"s per FORTRAN, but isn't necessarily
               recommended if you're optimizing for maintainability:

                   goto ("FOO", "BAR", "GLARCH")[$i];

               The "goto-&NAME" form is quite different from the other forms of "goto".  In fact,
               it isn't a goto in the normal sense at all, and doesn't have the stigma associated
               with other gotos.  Instead, it exits the current subroutine (losing any changes
               set by local()) and immediately calls in its place the named subroutine using the
               current value of @_.  This is used by "AUTOLOAD" subroutines that wish to load
               another subroutine and then pretend that the other subroutine had been called in
               the first place (except that any modifications to @_ in the current subroutine are
               propagated to the other subroutine.)  After the "goto", not even "caller" will be
               able to tell that this routine was called first.

               NAME needn't be the name of a subroutine; it can be a scalar variable containing a
               code reference, or a block which evaluates to a code reference.

       grep BLOCK LIST
       grep EXPR,LIST
               This is similar in spirit to, but not the same as, grep(1) and its relatives.  In
               particular, it is not limited to using regular expressions.

               Evaluates the BLOCK or EXPR for each element of LIST (locally setting $_ to each
               element) and returns the list value consisting of those elements for which the
               expression evaluated to true.  In scalar context, returns the number of times the
               expression was true.

                   @foo = grep(!/^#/, @bar);    # weed out comments

               or equivalently,

                   @foo = grep {!/^#/} @bar;    # weed out comments

               Note that $_ is an alias to the list value, so it can be used to modify the
               elements of the LIST.  While this is useful and supported, it can cause bizarre
               results if the elements of LIST are not variables.  Similarly, grep returns
               aliases into the original list, much as a for loop's index variable aliases the
               list elements.  That is, modifying an element of a list returned by grep (for
               example, in a "foreach", "map" or another "grep") actually modifies the element in
               the original list.  This is usually something to be avoided when writing clear
               code.

               See also "map" for a list composed of the results of the BLOCK or EXPR.

       hex EXPR
       hex     Interprets EXPR as a hex string and returns the corresponding value.  (To convert
               strings that might start with either 0, 0x, or 0b, see "oct".)  If EXPR is
               omitted, uses $_.

                   print hex '0xAf'; # prints '175'
                   print hex 'aF';   # same

               Hex strings may only represent integers.  Strings that would cause integer
               overflow trigger a warning.  Leading whitespace is not stripped, unlike oct().

       import  There is no builtin "import" function.  It is just an ordinary method (subroutine)
               defined (or inherited) by modules that wish to export names to another module.
               The "use" function calls the "import" method for the package used.  See also
               "use", perlmod, and Exporter.

       index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION
       index STR,SUBSTR
               The index function searches for one string within another, but without the
               wildcard-like behavior of a full regular-expression pattern match.  It returns the
               position of the first occurrence of SUBSTR in STR at or after POSITION.  If
               POSITION is omitted, starts searching from the beginning of the string.  The
               return value is based at 0 (or whatever you've set the $[ variable to--but don't
               do that).  If the substring is not found, returns one less than the base,
               ordinarily "-1".

       int EXPR
       int     Returns the integer portion of EXPR.  If EXPR is omitted, uses $_.  You should not
               use this function for rounding: one because it truncates towards 0, and two
               because machine representations of floating point numbers can sometimes produce
               counterintuitive results.  For example, "int(-6.725/0.025)" produces -268 rather
               than the correct -269; that's because it's really more like
               -268.99999999999994315658 instead.  Usually, the "sprintf", "printf", or the
               "POSIX::floor" and "POSIX::ceil" functions will serve you better than will int().

       ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR
               Implements the ioctl(2) function.  You'll probably first have to say

                   require "ioctl.ph"; # probably in /usr/local/lib/perl/ioctl.ph

               to get the correct function definitions.  If ioctl.ph doesn't exist or doesn't
               have the correct definitions you'll have to roll your own, based on your C header
               files such as <sys/ioctl.h>.  (There is a Perl script called h2ph that comes with
               the Perl kit that may help you in this, but it's nontrivial.)  SCALAR will be read
               and/or written depending on the FUNCTION--a pointer to the string value of SCALAR
               will be passed as the third argument of the actual "ioctl" call.  (If SCALAR has
               no string value but does have a numeric value, that value will be passed rather
               than a pointer to the string value.  To guarantee this to be true, add a 0 to the
               scalar before using it.)  The "pack" and "unpack" functions may be needed to
               manipulate the values of structures used by "ioctl".

               The return value of "ioctl" (and "fcntl") is as follows:

                       if OS returns:          then Perl returns:
                           -1                    undefined value
                            0                  string "0 but true"
                       anything else               that number

               Thus Perl returns true on success and false on failure, yet you can still easily
               determine the actual value returned by the operating system:

                   $retval = ioctl(...) ⎪⎪ -1;
                   printf "System returned %d\n", $retval;

               The special string "0 but true" is exempt from -w complaints about improper
               numeric conversions.

               Here's an example of setting a filehandle named "REMOTE" to be non-blocking at the
               system level.  You'll have to negotiate $⎪ on your own, though.

                   use Fcntl qw(F_GETFL F_SETFL O_NONBLOCK);

                   $flags = fcntl(REMOTE, F_GETFL, 0)
                               or die "Can't get flags for the socket: $!\n";

                   $flags = fcntl(REMOTE, F_SETFL, $flags ⎪ O_NONBLOCK)
                               or die "Can't set flags for the socket: $!\n";

       join EXPR,LIST
               Joins the separate strings of LIST into a single string with fields separated by
               the value of EXPR, and returns that new string.  Example:

                   $rec = join(':', $login,$passwd,$uid,$gid,$gcos,$home,$shell);

               Beware that unlike "split", "join" doesn't take a pattern as its first argument.
               Compare "split".

       keys HASH
               Returns a list consisting of all the keys of the named hash.  (In scalar context,
               returns the number of keys.)

               The keys are returned in an apparently random order.  The actual random order is
               subject to change in future versions of perl, but it is guaranteed to be the same
               order as either the "values" or "each" function produces (given that the hash has
               not been modified).  Since Perl 5.8.1 the ordering is different even between
               different runs of Perl for security reasons (see "Algorithmic Complexity Attacks"
               in perlsec).

               As a side effect, calling keys() resets the HASH's internal iterator, see "each".

               Here is yet another way to print your environment:

                   @keys = keys %ENV;
                   @values = values %ENV;
                   while (@keys) {
                       print pop(@keys), '=', pop(@values), "\n";
                   }

               or how about sorted by key:

                   foreach $key (sort(keys %ENV)) {
                       print $key, '=', $ENV{$key}, "\n";
                   }

               The returned values are copies of the original keys in the hash, so modifying them
               will not affect the original hash.  Compare "values".

               To sort a hash by value, you'll need to use a "sort" function.  Here's a
               descending numeric sort of a hash by its values:

                   foreach $key (sort { $hash{$b} <=> $hash{$a} } keys %hash) {
                       printf "%4d %s\n", $hash{$key}, $key;
                   }

               As an lvalue "keys" allows you to increase the number of hash buckets allocated
               for the given hash.  This can gain you a measure of efficiency if you know the
               hash is going to get big.  (This is similar to pre-extending an array by assigning
               a larger number to $#array.)  If you say

                   keys %hash = 200;

               then %hash will have at least 200 buckets allocated for it--256 of them, in fact,
               since it rounds up to the next power of two.  These buckets will be retained even
               if you do "%hash = ()", use "undef %hash" if you want to free the storage while
               %hash is still in scope.  You can't shrink the number of buckets allocated for the
               hash using "keys" in this way (but you needn't worry about doing this by accident,
               as trying has no effect).

               See also "each", "values" and "sort".

       kill SIGNAL, LIST
               Sends a signal to a list of processes.  Returns the number of processes
               successfully signaled (which is not necessarily the same as the number actually
               killed).

                   $cnt = kill 1, $child1, $child2;
                   kill 9, @goners;

               If SIGNAL is zero, no signal is sent to the process.  This is a useful way to
               check that a child process is alive and hasn't changed its UID.  See perlport for
               notes on the portability of this construct.

               Unlike in the shell, if SIGNAL is negative, it kills process groups instead of
               processes.  (On System V, a negative PROCESS number will also kill process groups,
               but that's not portable.)  That means you usually want to use positive not
               negative signals.  You may also use a signal name in quotes.

               See "Signals" in perlipc for more details.

       last LABEL
       last    The "last" command is like the "break" statement in C (as used in loops); it
               immediately exits the loop in question.  If the LABEL is omitted, the command
               refers to the innermost enclosing loop.  The "continue" block, if any, is not
               executed:

                   LINE: while (<STDIN>) {
                       last LINE if /^$/;      # exit when done with header
                       #...
                   }

               "last" cannot be used to exit a block which returns a value such as "eval {}",
               "sub {}" or "do {}", and should not be used to exit a grep() or map() operation.

               Note that a block by itself is semantically identical to a loop that executes
               once.  Thus "last" can be used to effect an early exit out of such a block.

               See also "continue" for an illustration of how "last", "next", and "redo" work.

       lc EXPR
       lc      Returns a lowercased version of EXPR.  This is the internal function implementing
               the "\L" escape in double-quoted strings.  Respects current LC_CTYPE locale if
               "use locale" in force.  See perllocale and perlunicode for more details about
               locale and Unicode support.

               If EXPR is omitted, uses $_.

       lcfirst EXPR
       lcfirst Returns the value of EXPR with the first character lowercased.  This is the
               internal function implementing the "\l" escape in double-quoted strings.  Respects
               current LC_CTYPE locale if "use locale" in force.  See perllocale and perlunicode
               for more details about locale and Unicode support.

               If EXPR is omitted, uses $_.

       length EXPR
       length  Returns the length in characters of the value of EXPR.  If EXPR is omitted,
               returns length of $_.  Note that this cannot be used on an entire array or hash to
               find out how many elements these have.  For that, use "scalar @array" and "scalar
               keys %hash" respectively.

               Note the characters: if the EXPR is in Unicode, you will get the number of
               characters, not the number of bytes.  To get the length in bytes, use "do { use
               bytes; length(EXPR) }", see bytes.

       link OLDFILE,NEWFILE
               Creates a new filename linked to the old filename.  Returns true for success,
               false otherwise.

       listen SOCKET,QUEUESIZE
               Does the same thing that the listen system call does.  Returns true if it
               succeeded, false otherwise.  See the example in "Sockets: Client/Server
               Communication" in perlipc.

       local EXPR
               You really probably want to be using "my" instead, because "local" isn't what most
               people think of as "local".  See "Private Variables via my()" in perlsub for
               details.

               A local modifies the listed variables to be local to the enclosing block, file, or
               eval.  If more than one value is listed, the list must be placed in parentheses.
               See "Temporary Values via local()" in perlsub for details, including issues with
               tied arrays and hashes.

       localtime EXPR
               Converts a time as returned by the time function to a 9-element list with the time
               analyzed for the local time zone.  Typically used as follows:

                   #  0    1    2     3     4    5     6     7     8
                   ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) =
                                                               localtime(time);

               All list elements are numeric, and come straight out of the C `struct tm'.  $sec,
               $min, and $hour are the seconds, minutes, and hours of the specified time.  $mday
               is the day of the month, and $mon is the month itself, in the range 0..11 with 0
               indicating January and 11 indicating December.  $year is the number of years since
               1900.  That is, $year is 123 in year 2023.  $wday is the day of the week, with 0
               indicating Sunday and 3 indicating Wednesday.  $yday is the day of the year, in
               the range 0..364 (or 0..365 in leap years.)  $isdst is true if the specified time
               occurs during daylight savings time, false otherwise.

               Note that the $year element is not simply the last two digits of the year.  If you
               assume it is, then you create non-Y2K-compliant programs--and you wouldn't want to
               do that, would you?

               The proper way to get a complete 4-digit year is simply:

                       $year += 1900;

               And to get the last two digits of the year (e.g., '01' in 2001) do:

                       $year = sprintf("%02d", $year % 100);

               If EXPR is omitted, "localtime()" uses the current time ("localtime(time)").

               In scalar context, "localtime()" returns the ctime(3) value:

                   $now_string = localtime;  # e.g., "Thu Oct 13 04:54:34 1994"

               This scalar value is not locale dependent, see perllocale, but instead a Perl
               builtin.  Also see the "Time::Local" module (to convert the second, minutes,
               hours, ... back to seconds since the stroke of midnight the 1st of January 1970,
               the value returned by time()), and the strftime(3) and mktime(3) functions
               available via the POSIX module.  To get somewhat similar but locale dependent date
               strings, set up your locale environment variables appropriately (please see
               perllocale) and try for example:

                   use POSIX qw(strftime);
                   $now_string = strftime "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Y", localtime;

               Note that the %a and %b, the short forms of the day of the week and the month of
               the year, may not necessarily be three characters wide.

       lock THING
               This function places an advisory lock on a shared variable, or referenced object
               contained in THING until the lock goes out of scope.

               lock() is a "weak keyword" : this means that if you've defined a function by this
               name (before any calls to it), that function will be called instead. (However, if
               you've said "use threads", lock() is always a keyword.) See threads.

       log EXPR
       log     Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of EXPR.  If EXPR is omitted, returns log
               of $_.  To get the log of another base, use basic algebra: The base-N log of a
               number is equal to the natural log of that number divided by the natural log of N.
               For example:

                   sub log10 {
                       my $n = shift;
                       return log($n)/log(10);
                   }

               See also "exp" for the inverse operation.

       lstat EXPR
       lstat   Does the same thing as the "stat" function (including setting the special "_"
               filehandle) but stats a symbolic link instead of the file the symbolic link points
               to.  If symbolic links are unimplemented on your system, a normal "stat" is done.
               For much more detailed information, please see the documentation for "stat".

               If EXPR is omitted, stats $_.

       m//     The match operator.  See perlop.

       map BLOCK LIST
       map EXPR,LIST
               Evaluates the BLOCK or EXPR for each element of LIST (locally setting $_ to each
               element) and returns the list value composed of the results of each such
               evaluation.  In scalar context, returns the total number of elements so generated.
               Evaluates BLOCK or EXPR in list context, so each element of LIST may produce zero,
               one, or more elements in the returned value.

                   @chars = map(chr, @nums);

               translates a list of numbers to the corresponding characters.  And

                   %hash = map { getkey($_) => $_ } @array;

               is just a funny way to write

                   %hash = ();
                   foreach $_ (@array) {
                       $hash{getkey($_)} = $_;
                   }

               Note that $_ is an alias to the list value, so it can be used to modify the
               elements of the LIST.  While this is useful and supported, it can cause bizarre
               results if the elements of LIST are not variables.  Using a regular "foreach" loop
               for this purpose would be clearer in most cases.  See also "grep" for an array
               composed of those items of the original list for which the BLOCK or EXPR evaluates
               to true.

               "{" starts both hash references and blocks, so "map { ..." could be either the
               start of map BLOCK LIST or map EXPR, LIST. Because perl doesn't look ahead for the
               closing "}" it has to take a guess at which its dealing with based what it finds
               just after the "{". Usually it gets it right, but if it doesn't it won't realize
               something is wrong until it gets to the "}" and encounters the missing (or
               unexpected) comma. The syntax error will be reported close to the "}" but you'll
               need to change something near the "{" such as using a unary "+" to give perl some
               help:

                   %hash = map {  "\L$_", 1  } @array  # perl guesses EXPR.  wrong
                   %hash = map { +"\L$_", 1  } @array  # perl guesses BLOCK. right
                   %hash = map { ("\L$_", 1) } @array  # this also works
                   %hash = map {  lc($_), 1  } @array  # as does this.
                   %hash = map +( lc($_), 1 ), @array  # this is EXPR and works!

                   %hash = map  ( lc($_), 1 ), @array  # evaluates to (1, @array)

               or to force an anon hash constructor use "+{"

                  @hashes = map +{ lc($_), 1 }, @array # EXPR, so needs , at end

               and you get list of anonymous hashes each with only 1 entry.

       mkdir FILENAME,MASK
       mkdir FILENAME
               Creates the directory specified by FILENAME, with permissions specified by MASK
               (as modified by "umask").  If it succeeds it returns true, otherwise it returns
               false and sets $! (errno).  If omitted, MASK defaults to 0777.

               In general, it is better to create directories with permissive MASK, and let the
               user modify that with their "umask", than it is to supply a restrictive MASK and
               give the user no way to be more permissive.  The exceptions to this rule are when
               the file or directory should be kept private (mail files, for instance).  The
               perlfunc(1) entry on "umask" discusses the choice of MASK in more detail.

               Note that according to the POSIX 1003.1-1996 the FILENAME may have any number of
               trailing slashes.  Some operating and filesystems do not get this right, so Perl
               automatically removes all trailing slashes to keep everyone happy.

       msgctl ID,CMD,ARG
               Calls the System V IPC function msgctl(2).  You'll probably have to say

                   use IPC::SysV;

               first to get the correct constant definitions.  If CMD is "IPC_STAT", then ARG
               must be a variable which will hold the returned "msqid_ds" structure.  Returns
               like "ioctl": the undefined value for error, "0 but true" for zero, or the actual
               return value otherwise.  See also "SysV IPC" in perlipc, "IPC::SysV", and
               "IPC::Semaphore" documentation.

       msgget KEY,FLAGS
               Calls the System V IPC function msgget(2).  Returns the message queue id, or the
               undefined value if there is an error.  See also "SysV IPC" in perlipc and
               "IPC::SysV" and "IPC::Msg" documentation.

       msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS
               Calls the System V IPC function msgrcv to receive a message from message queue ID
               into variable VAR with a maximum message size of SIZE.  Note that when a message
               is received, the message type as a native long integer will be the first thing in
               VAR, followed by the actual message.  This packing may be opened with "unpack("l!
               a*")".  Taints the variable.  Returns true if successful, or false if there is an
               error.  See also "SysV IPC" in perlipc, "IPC::SysV", and "IPC::SysV::Msg"
               documentation.

       msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS
               Calls the System V IPC function msgsnd to send the message MSG to the message
               queue ID.  MSG must begin with the native long integer message type, and be
               followed by the length of the actual message, and finally the message itself.
               This kind of packing can be achieved with "pack("l! a*", $type, $message)".
               Returns true if successful, or false if there is an error.  See also "IPC::SysV"
               and "IPC::SysV::Msg" documentation.

       my EXPR
       my TYPE EXPR
       my EXPR : ATTRS
       my TYPE EXPR : ATTRS
               A "my" declares the listed variables to be local (lexically) to the enclosing
               block, file, or "eval".  If more than one value is listed, the list must be placed
               in parentheses.

               The exact semantics and interface of TYPE and ATTRS are still evolving.  TYPE is
               currently bound to the use of "fields" pragma, and attributes are handled using
               the "attributes" pragma, or starting from Perl 5.8.0 also via the
               "Attribute::Handlers" module.  See "Private Variables via my()" in perlsub for
               details, and fields, attributes, and Attribute::Handlers.

       next LABEL
       next    The "next" command is like the "continue" statement in C; it starts the next
               iteration of the loop:

                   LINE: while (<STDIN>) {
                       next LINE if /^#/;      # discard comments
                       #...
                   }

               Note that if there were a "continue" block on the above, it would get executed
               even on discarded lines.  If the LABEL is omitted, the command refers to the
               innermost enclosing loop.

               "next" cannot be used to exit a block which returns a value such as "eval {}",
               "sub {}" or "do {}", and should not be used to exit a grep() or map() operation.

               Note that a block by itself is semantically identical to a loop that executes
               once.  Thus "next" will exit such a block early.

               See also "continue" for an illustration of how "last", "next", and "redo" work.

       no Module VERSION LIST
       no Module VERSION
       no Module LIST
       no Module
               See the "use" function, which "no" is the opposite of.

       oct EXPR
       oct     Interprets EXPR as an octal string and returns the corresponding value.  (If EXPR
               happens to start off with "0x", interprets it as a hex string.  If EXPR starts off
               with "0b", it is interpreted as a binary string.  Leading whitespace is ignored in
               all three cases.)  The following will handle decimal, binary, octal, and hex in
               the standard Perl or C notation:

                   $val = oct($val) if $val =~ /^0/;

               If EXPR is omitted, uses $_.   To go the other way (produce a number in octal),
               use sprintf() or printf():

                   $perms = (stat("filename"))[2] & 07777;
                   $oct_perms = sprintf "%lo", $perms;

               The oct() function is commonly used when a string such as 644 needs to be
               converted into a file mode, for example. (Although perl will automatically convert
               strings into numbers as needed, this automatic conversion assumes base 10.)

       open FILEHANDLE,EXPR
       open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR
       open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR,LIST
       open FILEHANDLE,MODE,REFERENCE
       open FILEHANDLE
               Opens the file whose filename is given by EXPR, and associates it with FILEHANDLE.

               (The following is a comprehensive reference to open(): for a gentler introduction
               you may consider perlopentut.)

               If FILEHANDLE is an undefined scalar variable (or array or hash element) the
               variable is assigned a reference to a new anonymous filehandle, otherwise if
               FILEHANDLE is an expression, its value is used as the name of the real filehandle
               wanted.  (This is considered a symbolic reference, so "use strict 'refs'" should
               not be in effect.)

               If EXPR is omitted, the scalar variable of the same name as the FILEHANDLE
               contains the filename.  (Note that lexical variables--those declared with
               "my"--will not work for this purpose; so if you're using "my", specify EXPR in
               your call to open.)

               If three or more arguments are specified then the mode of opening and the file
               name are separate. If MODE is '<' or nothing, the file is opened for input.  If
               MODE is '>', the file is truncated and opened for output, being created if
               necessary.  If MODE is '>>', the file is opened for appending, again being created
               if necessary.

               You can put a '+' in front of the '>' or '<' to indicate that you want both read
               and write access to the file; thus '+<' is almost always preferred for read/write
               updates--the '+>' mode would clobber the file first.  You can't usually use either
               read-write mode for updating textfiles, since they have variable length records.
               See the -i switch in perlrun for a better approach.  The file is created with
               permissions of 0666 modified by the process' "umask" value.

               These various prefixes correspond to the fopen(3) modes of 'r', 'r+', 'w', 'w+',
               'a', and 'a+'.

               In the 2-arguments (and 1-argument) form of the call the mode and filename should
               be concatenated (in this order), possibly separated by spaces.  It is possible to
               omit the mode in these forms if the mode is '<'.

               If the filename begins with '⎪', the filename is interpreted as a command to which
               output is to be piped, and if the filename ends with a '⎪', the filename is
               interpreted as a command which pipes output to us.  See "Using open() for IPC" in
               perlipc for more examples of this.  (You are not allowed to "open" to a command
               that pipes both in and out, but see IPC::Open2, IPC::Open3, and "Bidirectional
               Communication with Another Process" in perlipc for alternatives.)

               For three or more arguments if MODE is '⎪-', the filename is interpreted as a
               command to which output is to be piped, and if MODE is '-⎪', the filename is
               interpreted as a command which pipes output to us.  In the 2-arguments (and
               1-argument) form one should replace dash ('-') with the command.  See "Using
               open() for IPC" in perlipc for more examples of this.  (You are not allowed to
               "open" to a command that pipes both in and out, but see IPC::Open2, IPC::Open3,
               and "Bidirectional Communication" in perlipc for alternatives.)

               In the three-or-more argument form of pipe opens, if LIST is specified (extra
               arguments after the command name) then LIST becomes arguments to the command
               invoked if the platform supports it.  The meaning of "open" with more than three
               arguments for non-pipe modes is not yet specified. Experimental "layers" may give
               extra LIST arguments meaning.

               In the 2-arguments (and 1-argument) form opening '-' opens STDIN and opening '>-'
               opens STDOUT.

               You may use the three-argument form of open to specify IO "layers" (sometimes also
               referred to as "disciplines") to be applied to the handle that affect how the
               input and output are processed (see open and PerlIO for more details). For example

                 open(FH, "<:utf8", "file")

               will open the UTF-8 encoded file containing Unicode characters, see perluniintro.
               (Note that if layers are specified in the three-arg form then default layers set
               by the "open" pragma are ignored.)

               Open returns nonzero upon success, the undefined value otherwise.  If the "open"
               involved a pipe, the return value happens to be the pid of the subprocess.

               If you're running Perl on a system that distinguishes between text files and
               binary files, then you should check out "binmode" for tips for dealing with this.
               The key distinction between systems that need "binmode" and those that don't is
               their text file formats.  Systems like Unix, Mac OS, and Plan 9, which delimit
               lines with a single character, and which encode that character in C as "\n", do
               not need "binmode".  The rest need it.

               When opening a file, it's usually a bad idea to continue normal execution if the
               request failed, so "open" is frequently used in connection with "die".  Even if
               "die" won't do what you want (say, in a CGI script, where you want to make a
               nicely formatted error message (but there are modules that can help with that
               problem)) you should always check the return value from opening a file.  The
               infrequent exception is when working with an unopened filehandle is actually what
               you want to do.

               As a special case the 3 arg form with a read/write mode and the third argument
               being "undef":

                   open(TMP, "+>", undef) or die ...

               opens a filehandle to an anonymous temporary file.  Also using "+<" works for
               symmetry, but you really should consider writing something to the temporary file
               first.  You will need to seek() to do the reading.

               File handles can be opened to "in memory" files held in Perl scalars via:

                   open($fh, '>', \$variable) ⎪⎪ ..

               Though if you try to re-open "STDOUT" or "STDERR" as an "in memory" file, you have
               to close it first:

                   close STDOUT;
                   open STDOUT, '>', \$variable or die "Can't open STDOUT: $!";

               Examples:

                   $ARTICLE = 100;
                   open ARTICLE or die "Can't find article $ARTICLE: $!\n";
                   while (<ARTICLE>) {...

                   open(LOG, '>>/usr/spool/news/twitlog');     # (log is reserved)
                   # if the open fails, output is discarded

                   open(DBASE, '+<', 'dbase.mine')             # open for update
                       or die "Can't open 'dbase.mine' for update: $!";

                   open(DBASE, '+<dbase.mine')                 # ditto
                       or die "Can't open 'dbase.mine' for update: $!";

                   open(ARTICLE, '-⎪', "caesar <$article")     # decrypt article
                       or die "Can't start caesar: $!";

                   open(ARTICLE, "caesar <$article ⎪")         # ditto
                       or die "Can't start caesar: $!";

                   open(EXTRACT, "⎪sort >/tmp/Tmp$$")          # $$ is our process id
                       or die "Can't start sort: $!";

                   # in memory files
                   open(MEMORY,'>', \$var)
                       or die "Can't open memory file: $!";
                   print MEMORY "foo!\n";                      # output will end up in $var

                   # process argument list of files along with any includes

                   foreach $file (@ARGV) {
                       process($file, 'fh00');
                   }

                   sub process {
                       my($filename, $input) = @_;
                       $input++;               # this is a string increment
                       unless (open($input, $filename)) {
                           print STDERR "Can't open $filename: $!\n";
                           return;
                       }

                       local $_;
                       while (<$input>) {              # note use of indirection
                           if (/^#include "(.*)"/) {
                               process($1, $input);
                               next;
                           }
                           #...                # whatever
                       }
                   }

               You may also, in the Bourne shell tradition, specify an EXPR beginning with '>&',
               in which case the rest of the string is interpreted as the name of a filehandle
               (or file descriptor, if numeric) to be duped (as dup(2)) and opened.  You may use
               "&" after ">", ">>", "<", "+>", "+>>", and "+<".  The mode you specify should
               match the mode of the original filehandle.  (Duping a filehandle does not take
               into account any existing contents of IO buffers.) If you use the 3 arg form then
               you can pass either a number, the name of a filehandle or the normal "reference to
               a glob".

               Here is a script that saves, redirects, and restores "STDOUT" and "STDERR" using
               various methods:

                   #!/usr/bin/perl
                   open my $oldout, ">&STDOUT"     or die "Can't dup STDOUT: $!";
                   open OLDERR,     ">&", \*STDERR or die "Can't dup STDERR: $!";

                   open STDOUT, '>', "foo.out" or die "Can't redirect STDOUT: $!";
                   open STDERR, ">&STDOUT"     or die "Can't dup STDOUT: $!";

                   select STDERR; $⎪ = 1;      # make unbuffered
                   select STDOUT; $⎪ = 1;      # make unbuffered

                   print STDOUT "stdout 1\n";  # this works for
                   print STDERR "stderr 1\n";  # subprocesses too

                   close STDOUT;
                   close STDERR;

                   open STDOUT, ">&", $oldout or die "Can't dup \$oldout: $!";
                   open STDERR, ">&OLDERR"    or die "Can't dup OLDERR: $!";

                   print STDOUT "stdout 2\n";
                   print STDERR "stderr 2\n";

               If you specify '<&=X', where "X" is a file descriptor number or a filehandle, then
               Perl will do an equivalent of C's "fdopen" of that file descriptor (and not call
               dup(2)); this is more parsimonious of file descriptors.  For example:

                   # open for input, reusing the fileno of $fd
                   open(FILEHANDLE, "<&=$fd")

               or

                   open(FILEHANDLE, "<&=", $fd)

               or

                   # open for append, using the fileno of OLDFH
                   open(FH, ">>&=", OLDFH)

               or

                   open(FH, ">>&=OLDFH")

               Being parsimonious on filehandles is also useful (besides being parsimonious) for
               example when something is dependent on file descriptors, like for example locking
               using flock().  If you do just "open(A, '>>&B')", the filehandle A will not have
               the same file descriptor as B, and therefore flock(A) will not flock(B), and vice
               versa.  But with "open(A, '>>&=B')" the filehandles will share the same file
               descriptor.

               Note that if you are using Perls older than 5.8.0, Perl will be using the standard
               C libraries' fdopen() to implement the "=" functionality.  On many UNIX systems
               fdopen() fails when file descriptors exceed a certain value, typically 255.  For
               Perls 5.8.0 and later, PerlIO is most often the default.

               You can see whether Perl has been compiled with PerlIO or not by running "perl -V"
               and looking for "useperlio=" line.  If "useperlio" is "define", you have PerlIO,
               otherwise you don't.

               If you open a pipe on the command '-', i.e., either '⎪-' or '-⎪' with 2-arguments
               (or 1-argument) form of open(), then there is an implicit fork done, and the
               return value of open is the pid of the child within the parent process, and 0
               within the child process.  (Use "defined($pid)" to determine whether the open was
               successful.)  The filehandle behaves normally for the parent, but i/o to that
               filehandle is piped from/to the STDOUT/STDIN of the child process.  In the child
               process the filehandle isn't opened--i/o happens from/to the new STDOUT or STDIN.
               Typically this is used like the normal piped open when you want to exercise more
               control over just how the pipe command gets executed, such as when you are running
               setuid, and don't want to have to scan shell commands for metacharacters.  The
               following triples are more or less equivalent:

                   open(FOO, "⎪tr '[a-z]' '[A-Z]'");
                   open(FOO, '⎪-', "tr '[a-z]' '[A-Z]'");
                   open(FOO, '⎪-') ⎪⎪ exec 'tr', '[a-z]', '[A-Z]';
                   open(FOO, '⎪-', "tr", '[a-z]', '[A-Z]');

                   open(FOO, "cat -n '$file'⎪");
                   open(FOO, '-⎪', "cat -n '$file'");
                   open(FOO, '-⎪') ⎪⎪ exec 'cat', '-n', $file;
                   open(FOO, '-⎪', "cat", '-n', $file);

               The last example in each block shows the pipe as "list form", which is not yet
               supported on all platforms.  A good rule of thumb is that if your platform has
               true "fork()" (in other words, if your platform is UNIX) you can use the list
               form.

               See "Safe Pipe Opens" in perlipc for more examples of this.

               Beginning with v5.6.0, Perl will attempt to flush all files opened for output
               before any operation that may do a fork, but this may not be supported on some
               platforms (see perlport).  To be safe, you may need to set $⎪ ($AUTOFLUSH in
               English) or call the "autoflush()" method of "IO::Handle" on any open handles.

               On systems that support a close-on-exec flag on files, the flag will be set for
               the newly opened file descriptor as determined by the value of $^F.  See "$^F" in
               perlvar.

               Closing any piped filehandle causes the parent process to wait for the child to
               finish, and returns the status value in $?.

               The filename passed to 2-argument (or 1-argument) form of open() will have leading
               and trailing whitespace deleted, and the normal redirection characters honored.
               This property, known as "magic open", can often be used to good effect.  A user
               could specify a filename of "rsh cat file ⎪", or you could change certain
               filenames as needed:

                   $filename =~ s/(.*\.gz)\s*$/gzip -dc < $1⎪/;
                   open(FH, $filename) or die "Can't open $filename: $!";

               Use 3-argument form to open a file with arbitrary weird characters in it,

                   open(FOO, '<', $file);

               otherwise it's necessary to protect any leading and trailing whitespace:

                   $file =~ s#^(\s)#./$1#;
                   open(FOO, "< $file\0");

               (this may not work on some bizarre filesystems).  One should conscientiously
               choose between the magic and 3-arguments form of open():

                   open IN, $ARGV[0];

               will allow the user to specify an argument of the form "rsh cat file ⎪", but will
               not work on a filename which happens to have a trailing space, while

                   open IN, '<', $ARGV[0];

               will have exactly the opposite restrictions.

               If you want a "real" C "open" (see open(2) on your system), then you should use
               the "sysopen" function, which involves no such magic (but may use subtly different
               filemodes than Perl open(), which is mapped to C fopen()).  This is another way to
               protect your filenames from interpretation.  For example:

                   use IO::Handle;
                   sysopen(HANDLE, $path, O_RDWR⎪O_CREAT⎪O_EXCL)
                       or die "sysopen $path: $!";
                   $oldfh = select(HANDLE); $⎪ = 1; select($oldfh);
                   print HANDLE "stuff $$\n";
                   seek(HANDLE, 0, 0);
                   print "File contains: ", <HANDLE>;

               Using the constructor from the "IO::Handle" package (or one of its subclasses,
               such as "IO::File" or "IO::Socket"), you can generate anonymous filehandles that
               have the scope of whatever variables hold references to them, and automatically
               close whenever and however you leave that scope:

                   use IO::File;
                   #...
                   sub read_myfile_munged {
                       my $ALL = shift;
                       my $handle = new IO::File;
                       open($handle, "myfile") or die "myfile: $!";
                       $first = <$handle>
                           or return ();     # Automatically closed here.
                       mung $first or die "mung failed";       # Or here.
                       return $first, <$handle> if $ALL;       # Or here.
                       $first;                                 # Or here.
                   }

               See "seek" for some details about mixing reading and writing.

       opendir DIRHANDLE,EXPR
               Opens a directory named EXPR for processing by "readdir", "telldir", "seekdir",
               "rewinddir", and "closedir".  Returns true if successful.  DIRHANDLE may be an
               expression whose value can be used as an indirect dirhandle, usually the real
               dirhandle name.  If DIRHANDLE is an undefined scalar variable (or array or hash
               element), the variable is assigned a reference to a new anonymous dirhandle.
               DIRHANDLEs have their own namespace separate from FILEHANDLEs.

       ord EXPR
       ord     Returns the numeric (the native 8-bit encoding, like ASCII or EBCDIC, or Unicode)
               value of the first character of EXPR.  If EXPR is omitted, uses $_.

               For the reverse, see "chr".  See perlunicode and encoding for more about Unicode.

       our EXPR
       our EXPR TYPE
       our EXPR : ATTRS
       our TYPE EXPR : ATTRS
               An "our" declares the listed variables to be valid globals within the enclosing
               block, file, or "eval".  That is, it has the same scoping rules as a "my"
               declaration, but does not create a local variable.  If more than one value is
               listed, the list must be placed in parentheses.  The "our" declaration has no
               semantic effect unless "use strict vars" is in effect, in which case it lets you
               use the declared global variable without qualifying it with a package name.  (But
               only within the lexical scope of the "our" declaration.  In this it differs from
               "use vars", which is package scoped.)

               An "our" declaration declares a global variable that will be visible across its
               entire lexical scope, even across package boundaries.  The package in which the
               variable is entered is determined at the point of the declaration, not at the
               point of use.  This means the following behavior holds:

                   package Foo;
                   our $bar;           # declares $Foo::bar for rest of lexical scope
                   $bar = 20;

                   package Bar;
                   print $bar;         # prints 20

               Multiple "our" declarations in the same lexical scope are allowed if they are in
               different packages.  If they happened to be in the same package, Perl will emit
               warnings if you have asked for them.

                   use warnings;
                   package Foo;
                   our $bar;           # declares $Foo::bar for rest of lexical scope
                   $bar = 20;

                   package Bar;
                   our $bar = 30;      # declares $Bar::bar for rest of lexical scope
                   print $bar;         # prints 30

                   our $bar;           # emits warning

               An "our" declaration may also have a list of attributes associated with it.

               The exact semantics and interface of TYPE and ATTRS are still evolving.  TYPE is
               currently bound to the use of "fields" pragma, and attributes are handled using
               the "attributes" pragma, or starting from Perl 5.8.0 also via the
               "Attribute::Handlers" module.  See "Private Variables via my()" in perlsub for
               details, and fields, attributes, and Attribute::Handlers.

               The only currently recognized "our()" attribute is "unique" which indicates that a
               single copy of the global is to be used by all interpreters should the program
               happen to be running in a multi-interpreter environment. (The default behaviour
               would be for each interpreter to have its own copy of the global.)  Examples:

                   our @EXPORT : unique = qw(foo);
                   our %EXPORT_TAGS : unique = (bar => [qw(aa bb cc)]);
                   our $VERSION : unique = "1.00";

               Note that this attribute also has the effect of making the global readonly when
               the first new interpreter is cloned (for example, when the first new thread is
               created).

               Multi-interpreter environments can come to being either through the fork()
               emulation on Windows platforms, or by embedding perl in a multi-threaded
               application.  The "unique" attribute does nothing in all other environments.

       pack TEMPLATE,LIST
               Takes a LIST of values and converts it into a string using the rules given by the
               TEMPLATE.  The resulting string is the concatenation of the converted values.
               Typically, each converted value looks like its machine-level representation.  For
               example, on 32-bit machines a converted integer may be represented by a sequence
               of 4 bytes.

               The TEMPLATE is a sequence of characters that give the order and type of values,
               as follows:

                   a   A string with arbitrary binary data, will be null padded.
                   A   A text (ASCII) string, will be space padded.
                   Z   A null terminated (ASCIZ) string, will be null padded.

                   b   A bit string (ascending bit order inside each byte, like vec()).
                   B   A bit string (descending bit order inside each byte).
                   h   A hex string (low nybble first).
                   H   A hex string (high nybble first).

                   c   A signed char value.
                   C   An unsigned char value.  Only does bytes.  See U for Unicode.

                   s   A signed short value.
                   S   An unsigned short value.
                         (This 'short' is _exactly_ 16 bits, which may differ from
                          what a local C compiler calls 'short'.  If you want
                          native-length shorts, use the '!' suffix.)

                   i   A signed integer value.
                   I   An unsigned integer value.
                         (This 'integer' is _at_least_ 32 bits wide.  Its exact
                          size depends on what a local C compiler calls 'int',
                          and may even be larger than the 'long' described in
                          the next item.)

                   l   A signed long value.
                   L   An unsigned long value.
                         (This 'long' is _exactly_ 32 bits, which may differ from
                          what a local C compiler calls 'long'.  If you want
                          native-length longs, use the '!' suffix.)

                   n   An unsigned short in "network" (big-endian) order.
                   N   An unsigned long in "network" (big-endian) order.
                   v   An unsigned short in "VAX" (little-endian) order.
                   V   An unsigned long in "VAX" (little-endian) order.
                         (These 'shorts' and 'longs' are _exactly_ 16 bits and
                          _exactly_ 32 bits, respectively.)

                   q   A signed quad (64-bit) value.
                   Q   An unsigned quad value.
                         (Quads are available only if your system supports 64-bit
                          integer values _and_ if Perl has been compiled to support those.
                          Causes a fatal error otherwise.)

                   j   A signed integer value (a Perl internal integer, IV).
                   J   An unsigned integer value (a Perl internal unsigned integer, UV).

                   f   A single-precision float in the native format.
                   d   A double-precision float in the native format.

                   F   A floating point value in the native native format
                          (a Perl internal floating point value, NV).
                   D   A long double-precision float in the native format.
                         (Long doubles are available only if your system supports long
                          double values _and_ if Perl has been compiled to support those.
                          Causes a fatal error otherwise.)

                   p   A pointer to a null-terminated string.
                   P   A pointer to a structure (fixed-length string).

                   u   A uuencoded string.
                   U   A Unicode character number.  Encodes to UTF-8 internally
                       (or UTF-EBCDIC in EBCDIC platforms).

                   w   A BER compressed integer.  Its bytes represent an unsigned
                       integer in base 128, most significant digit first, with as
                       few digits as possible.  Bit eight (the high bit) is set
                       on each byte except the last.

                   x   A null byte.
                   X   Back up a byte.
                   @   Null fill to absolute position, counted from the start of
                       the innermost ()-group.
                   (   Start of a ()-group.

               The following rules apply:

               *       Each letter may optionally be followed by a number giving a repeat count.
                       With all types except "a", "A", "Z", "b", "B", "h", "H", "@", "x", "X" and
                       "P" the pack function will gobble up that many values from the LIST.  A
                       "*" for the repeat count means to use however many items are left, except
                       for "@", "x", "X", where it is equivalent to 0, and "u", where it is
                       equivalent to 1 (or 45, what is the same).  A numeric repeat count may
                       optionally be enclosed in brackets, as in "pack 'C[80]', @arr".

                       One can replace the numeric repeat count by a template enclosed in
                       brackets; then the packed length of this template in bytes is used as a
                       count.  For example, "x[L]" skips a long (it skips the number of bytes in
                       a long); the template "$t X[$t] $t" unpack()s twice what $t unpacks.  If
                       the template in brackets contains alignment commands (such as "x![d]"),
                       its packed length is calculated as if the start of the template has the
                       maximal possible alignment.

                       When used with "Z", "*" results in the addition of a trailing null byte
                       (so the packed result will be one longer than the byte "length" of the
                       item).

                       The repeat count for "u" is interpreted as the maximal number of bytes to
                       encode per line of output, with 0 and 1 replaced by 45.

               *       The "a", "A", and "Z" types gobble just one value, but pack it as a string
                       of length count, padding with nulls or spaces as necessary.  When
                       unpacking, "A" strips trailing spaces and nulls, "Z" strips everything
                       after the first null, and "a" returns data verbatim.  When packing, "a",
                       and "Z" are equivalent.

                       If the value-to-pack is too long, it is truncated.  If too long and an
                       explicit count is provided, "Z" packs only "$count-1" bytes, followed by a
                       null byte.  Thus "Z" always packs a trailing null byte under all
                       circumstances.

               *       Likewise, the "b" and "B" fields pack a string that many bits long.  Each
                       byte of the input field of pack() generates 1 bit of the result.  Each
                       result bit is based on the least-significant bit of the corresponding
                       input byte, i.e., on "ord($byte)%2".  In particular, bytes "0" and "1"
                       generate bits 0 and 1, as do bytes "\0" and "\1".

                       Starting from the beginning of the input string of pack(), each 8-tuple of
                       bytes is converted to 1 byte of output.  With format "b" the first byte of
                       the 8-tuple determines the least-significant bit of a byte, and with
                       format "B" it determines the most-significant bit of a byte.

                       If the length of the input string is not exactly divisible by 8, the
                       remainder is packed as if the input string were padded by null bytes at
                       the end.  Similarly, during unpack()ing the "extra" bits are ignored.

                       If the input string of pack() is longer than needed, extra bytes are
                       ignored.  A "*" for the repeat count of pack() means to use all the bytes
                       of the input field.  On unpack()ing the bits are converted to a string of
                       "0"s and "1"s.

               *       The "h" and "H" fields pack a string that many nybbles (4-bit groups,
                       representable as hexadecimal digits, 0-9a-f) long.

                       Each byte of the input field of pack() generates 4 bits of the result.
                       For non-alphabetical bytes the result is based on the 4 least-significant
                       bits of the input byte, i.e., on "ord($byte)%16".  In particular, bytes
                       "0" and "1" generate nybbles 0 and 1, as do bytes "\0" and "\1".  For
                       bytes "a".."f" and "A".."F" the result is compatible with the usual
                       hexadecimal digits, so that "a" and "A" both generate the nybble
                       "0xa==10".  The result for bytes "g".."z" and "G".."Z" is not
                       well-defined.

                       Starting from the beginning of the input string of pack(), each pair of
                       bytes is converted to 1 byte of output.  With format "h" the first byte of
                       the pair determines the least-significant nybble of the output byte, and
                       with format "H" it determines the most-significant nybble.

                       If the length of the input string is not even, it behaves as if padded by
                       a null byte at the end.  Similarly, during unpack()ing the "extra" nybbles
                       are ignored.

                       If the input string of pack() is longer than needed, extra bytes are
                       ignored.  A "*" for the repeat count of pack() means to use all the bytes
                       of the input field.  On unpack()ing the bits are converted to a string of
                       hexadecimal digits.

               *       The "p" type packs a pointer to a null-terminated string.  You are
                       responsible for ensuring the string is not a temporary value (which can
                       potentially get deallocated before you get around to using the packed
                       result).  The "P" type packs a pointer to a structure of the size
                       indicated by the length.  A NULL pointer is created if the corresponding
                       value for "p" or "P" is "undef", similarly for unpack().

               *       The "/" template character allows packing and unpacking of strings where
                       the packed structure contains a byte count followed by the string itself.
                       You write length-item"/"string-item.

                       The length-item can be any "pack" template letter, and describes how the
                       length value is packed.  The ones likely to be of most use are integer-
                       packing ones like "n" (for Java strings), "w" (for ASN.1 or SNMP) and "N"
                       (for Sun XDR).

                       For "pack", the string-item must, at present, be "A*", "a*" or "Z*". For
                       "unpack" the length of the string is obtained from the length-item, but if
                       you put in the '*' it will be ignored. For all other codes, "unpack"
                       applies the length value to the next item, which must not have a repeat
                       count.

                           unpack 'C/a', "\04Gurusamy";        gives 'Guru'
                           unpack 'a3/A* A*', '007 Bond  J ';  gives (' Bond','J')
                           pack 'n/a* w/a*','hello,','world';  gives "\000\006hello,\005world"

                       The length-item is not returned explicitly from "unpack".

                       Adding a count to the length-item letter is unlikely to do anything
                       useful, unless that letter is "A", "a" or "Z".  Packing with a length-item
                       of "a" or "Z" may introduce "\000" characters, which Perl does not regard
                       as legal in numeric strings.

               *       The integer types "s", "S", "l", and "L" may be immediately followed by a
                       "!" suffix to signify native shorts or longs--as you can see from above
                       for example a bare "l" does mean exactly 32 bits, the native "long" (as
                       seen by the local C compiler) may be larger.  This is an issue mainly in
                       64-bit platforms.  You can see whether using "!" makes any difference by

                               print length(pack("s")), " ", length(pack("s!")), "\n";
                               print length(pack("l")), " ", length(pack("l!")), "\n";

                       "i!" and "I!" also work but only because of completeness; they are
                       identical to "i" and "I".

                       The actual sizes (in bytes) of native shorts, ints, longs, and long longs
                       on the platform where Perl was built are also available via Config:

                              use Config;
                              print $Config{shortsize},    "\n";
                              print $Config{intsize},      "\n";
                              print $Config{longsize},     "\n";
                              print $Config{longlongsize}, "\n";

                       (The $Config{longlongsize} will be undefined if your system does not
                       support long longs.)

               *       The integer formats "s", "S", "i", "I", "l", "L", "j", and "J" are
                       inherently non-portable between processors and operating systems because
                       they obey the native byteorder and endianness.  For example a 4-byte
                       integer 0x12345678 (305419896 decimal) would be ordered natively (arranged
                       in and handled by the CPU registers) into bytes as

                               0x12 0x34 0x56 0x78     # big-endian
                               0x78 0x56 0x34 0x12     # little-endian

                       Basically, the Intel and VAX CPUs are little-endian, while everybody else,
                       for example Motorola m68k/88k, PPC, Sparc, HP PA, Power, and Cray are
                       big-endian.  Alpha and MIPS can be either: Digital/Compaq used/uses them
                       in little-endian mode; SGI/Cray uses them in big-endian mode.

                       The names `big-endian' and `little-endian' are comic references to the
                       classic "Gulliver's Travels" (via the paper "On Holy Wars and a Plea for
                       Peace" by Danny Cohen, USC/ISI IEN 137, April 1, 1980) and the egg-eating
                       habits of the Lilliputians.

                       Some systems may have even weirder byte orders such as

                               0x56 0x78 0x12 0x34
                               0x34 0x12 0x78 0x56

                       You can see your system's preference with

                               print join(" ", map { sprintf "%#02x", $_ }
                                                   unpack("C*",pack("L",0x12345678))), "\n";

                       The byteorder on the platform where Perl was built is also available via
                       Config:

                               use Config;
                               print $Config{byteorder}, "\n";

                       Byteorders '1234' and '12345678' are little-endian, '4321' and '87654321'
                       are big-endian.

                       If you want portable packed integers use the formats "n", "N", "v", and
                       "V", their byte endianness and size are known.  See also perlport.

               *       Real numbers (floats and doubles) are in the native machine format only;
                       due to the multiplicity of floating formats around, and the lack of a
                       standard "network" representation, no facility for interchange has been
                       made.  This means that packed floating point data written on one machine
                       may not be readable on another - even if both use IEEE floating point
                       arithmetic (as the endian-ness of the memory representation is not part of
                       the IEEE spec).  See also perlport.

                       Note that Perl uses doubles internally for all numeric calculation, and
                       converting from double into float and thence back to double again will
                       lose precision (i.e., "unpack("f", pack("f", $foo)") will not in general
                       equal $foo).

               *       If the pattern begins with a "U", the resulting string will be treated as
                       UTF-8-encoded Unicode. You can force UTF-8 encoding on in a string with an
                       initial "U0", and the bytes that follow will be interpreted as Unicode
                       characters. If you don't want this to happen, you can begin your pattern
                       with "C0" (or anything else) to force Perl not to UTF-8 encode your
                       string, and then follow this with a "U*" somewhere in your pattern.

               *       You must yourself do any alignment or padding by inserting for example
                       enough 'x'es while packing.  There is no way to pack() and unpack() could
                       know where the bytes are going to or coming from.  Therefore "pack" (and
                       "unpack") handle their output and input as flat sequences of bytes.

               *       A ()-group is a sub-TEMPLATE enclosed in parentheses.  A group may take a
                       repeat count, both as postfix, and for unpack() also via the "/" template
                       character. Within each repetition of a group, positioning with "@" starts
                       again at 0. Therefore, the result of

                           pack( '@1A((@2A)@3A)', 'a', 'b', 'c' )

                       is the string "\0a\0\0bc".

               *       "x" and "X" accept "!" modifier.  In this case they act as alignment
                       commands: they jump forward/back to the closest position aligned at a
                       multiple of "count" bytes.  For example, to pack() or unpack() C's "struct
                       {char c; double d; char cc[2]}" one may need to use the template "C x![d]
                       d C[2]"; this assumes that doubles must be aligned on the double's size.

                       For alignment commands "count" of 0 is equivalent to "count" of 1; both
                       result in no-ops.

               *       A comment in a TEMPLATE starts with "#" and goes to the end of line.
                       White space may be used to separate pack codes from each other, but a "!"
                       modifier and a repeat count must follow immediately.

               *       If TEMPLATE requires more arguments to pack() than actually given, pack()
                       assumes additional "" arguments.  If TEMPLATE requires less arguments to
                       pack() than actually given, extra arguments are ignored.

               Examples:

                   $foo = pack("CCCC",65,66,67,68);
                   # foo eq "ABCD"
                   $foo = pack("C4",65,66,67,68);
                   # same thing
                   $foo = pack("U4",0x24b6,0x24b7,0x24b8,0x24b9);
                   # same thing with Unicode circled letters

                   $foo = pack("ccxxcc",65,66,67,68);
                   # foo eq "AB\0\0CD"

                   # note: the above examples featuring "C" and "c" are true
                   # only on ASCII and ASCII-derived systems such as ISO Latin 1
                   # and UTF-8.  In EBCDIC the first example would be
                   # $foo = pack("CCCC",193,194,195,196);

                   $foo = pack("s2",1,2);
                   # "\1\0\2\0" on little-endian
                   # "\0\1\0\2" on big-endian

                   $foo = pack("a4","abcd","x","y","z");
                   # "abcd"

                   $foo = pack("aaaa","abcd","x","y","z");
                   # "axyz"

                   $foo = pack("a14","abcdefg");
                   # "abcdefg\0\0\0\0\0\0\0"

                   $foo = pack("i9pl", gmtime);
                   # a real struct tm (on my system anyway)

                   $utmp_template = "Z8 Z8 Z16 L";
                   $utmp = pack($utmp_template, @utmp1);
                   # a struct utmp (BSDish)

                   @utmp2 = unpack($utmp_template, $utmp);
                   # "@utmp1" eq "@utmp2"

                   sub bintodec {
                       unpack("N", pack("B32", substr("0" x 32 . shift, -32)));
                   }

                   $foo = pack('sx2l', 12, 34);
                   # short 12, two zero bytes padding, long 34
                   $bar = pack('s@4l', 12, 34);
                   # short 12, zero fill to position 4, long 34
                   # $foo eq $bar

               The same template may generally also be used in unpack().

       package NAMESPACE
       package Declares the compilation unit as being in the given namespace.  The scope of the
               package declaration is from the declaration itself through the end of the
               enclosing block, file, or eval (the same as the "my" operator).  All further
               unqualified dynamic identifiers will be in this namespace.  A package statement
               affects only dynamic variables--including those you've used "local" on--but not
               lexical variables, which are created with "my".  Typically it would be the first
               declaration in a file to be included by the "require" or "use" operator.  You can
               switch into a package in more than one place; it merely influences which symbol
               table is used by the compiler for the rest of that block.  You can refer to
               variables and filehandles in other packages by prefixing the identifier with the
               package name and a double colon:  $Package::Variable.  If the package name is
               null, the "main" package as assumed.  That is, $::sail is equivalent to
               $main::sail (as well as to $main'sail, still seen in older code).

               If NAMESPACE is omitted, then there is no current package, and all identifiers
               must be fully qualified or lexicals.  However, you are strongly advised not to
               make use of this feature. Its use can cause unexpected behaviour, even crashing
               some versions of Perl. It is deprecated, and will be removed from a future
               release.

               See "Packages" in perlmod for more information about packages, modules, and
               classes.  See perlsub for other scoping issues.

       pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE
               Opens a pair of connected pipes like the corresponding system call.  Note that if
               you set up a loop of piped processes, deadlock can occur unless you are very
               careful.  In addition, note that Perl's pipes use IO buffering, so you may need to
               set $⎪ to flush your WRITEHANDLE after each command, depending on the application.

               See IPC::Open2, IPC::Open3, and "Bidirectional Communication" in perlipc for
               examples of such things.

               On systems that support a close-on-exec flag on files, the flag will be set for
               the newly opened file descriptors as determined by the value of $^F.  See "$^F" in
               perlvar.

       pop ARRAY
       pop     Pops and returns the last value of the array, shortening the array by one element.
               Has an effect similar to

                   $ARRAY[$#ARRAY--]

               If there are no elements in the array, returns the undefined value (although this
               may happen at other times as well).  If ARRAY is omitted, pops the @ARGV array in
               the main program, and the @_ array in subroutines, just like "shift".

       pos SCALAR
       pos     Returns the offset of where the last "m//g" search left off for the variable in
               question ($_ is used when the variable is not specified).  May be modified to
               change that offset.  Such modification will also influence the "\G" zero-width
               assertion in regular expressions.  See perlre and perlop.

       print FILEHANDLE LIST
       print LIST
       print   Prints a string or a list of strings.  Returns true if successful.  FILEHANDLE may
               be a scalar variable name, in which case the variable contains the name of or a
               reference to the filehandle, thus introducing one level of indirection.  (NOTE: If
               FILEHANDLE is a variable and the next token is a term, it may be misinterpreted as
               an operator unless you interpose a "+" or put parentheses around the arguments.)
               If FILEHANDLE is omitted, prints by default to standard output (or to the last
               selected output channel--see "select").  If LIST is also omitted, prints $_ to the
               currently selected output channel.  To set the default output channel to something
               other than STDOUT use the select operation.  The current value of $, (if any) is
               printed between each LIST item.  The current value of "$\" (if any) is printed
               after the entire LIST has been printed.  Because print takes a LIST, anything in
               the LIST is evaluated in list context, and any subroutine that you call will have
               one or more of its expressions evaluated in list context.  Also be careful not to
               follow the print keyword with a left parenthesis unless you want the corresponding
               right parenthesis to terminate the arguments to the print--interpose a "+" or put
               parentheses around all the arguments.

               Note that if you're storing FILEHANDLES in an array or other expression, you will
               have to use a block returning its value instead:

                   print { $files[$i] } "stuff\n";
                   print { $OK ? STDOUT : STDERR } "stuff\n";

       printf FILEHANDLE FORMAT, LIST
       printf FORMAT, LIST
               Equivalent to "print FILEHANDLE sprintf(FORMAT, LIST)", except that "$\" (the
               output record separator) is not appended.  The first argument of the list will be
               interpreted as the "printf" format. See "sprintf" for an explanation of the format
               argument. If "use locale" is in effect, the character used for the decimal point
               in formatted real numbers is affected by the LC_NUMERIC locale.  See perllocale.

               Don't fall into the trap of using a "printf" when a simple "print" would do.  The
               "print" is more efficient and less error prone.

       prototype FUNCTION
               Returns the prototype of a function as a string (or "undef" if the function has no
               prototype).  FUNCTION is a reference to, or the name of, the function whose
               prototype you want to retrieve.

               If FUNCTION is a string starting with "CORE::", the rest is taken as a name for
               Perl builtin.  If the builtin is not overridable (such as "qw//") or its arguments
               cannot be expressed by a prototype (such as "system") returns "undef" because the
               builtin does not really behave like a Perl function.  Otherwise, the string
               describing the equivalent prototype is returned.

       push ARRAY,LIST
               Treats ARRAY as a stack, and pushes the values of LIST onto the end of ARRAY.  The
               length of ARRAY increases by the length of LIST.  Has the same effect as

                   for $value (LIST) {
                       $ARRAY[++$#ARRAY] = $value;
                   }

               but is more efficient.  Returns the new number of elements in the array.

       q/STRING/
       qq/STRING/
       qr/STRING/
       qx/STRING/
       qw/STRING/
               Generalized quotes.  See "Regexp Quote-Like Operators" in perlop.

       quotemeta EXPR
       quotemeta
               Returns the value of EXPR with all non-"word" characters backslashed.  (That is,
               all characters not matching "/[A-Za-z_0-9]/" will be preceded by a backslash in
               the returned string, regardless of any locale settings.)  This is the internal
               function implementing the "\Q" escape in double-quoted strings.

               If EXPR is omitted, uses $_.

       rand EXPR
       rand    Returns a random fractional number greater than or equal to 0 and less than the
               value of EXPR.  (EXPR should be positive.)  If EXPR is omitted, the value 1 is
               used.  Currently EXPR with the value 0 is also special-cased as 1 - this has not
               been documented before perl 5.8.0 and is subject to change in future versions of
               perl.  Automatically calls "srand" unless "srand" has already been called.  See
               also "srand".

               Apply "int()" to the value returned by "rand()" if you want random integers
               instead of random fractional numbers.  For example,

                   int(rand(10))

               returns a random integer between 0 and 9, inclusive.

               (Note: If your rand function consistently returns numbers that are too large or
               too small, then your version of Perl was probably compiled with the wrong number
               of RANDBITS.)

       read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET
       read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH
               Attempts to read LENGTH characters of data into variable SCALAR from the specified
               FILEHANDLE.  Returns the number of characters actually read, 0 at end of file, or
               undef if there was an error (in the latter case $! is also set).  SCALAR will be
               grown or shrunk so that the last character actually read is the last character of
               the scalar after the read.

               An OFFSET may be specified to place the read data at some place in the string
               other than the beginning.  A negative OFFSET specifies placement at that many
               characters counting backwards from the end of the string.  A positive OFFSET
               greater than the length of SCALAR results in the string being padded to the
               required size with "\0" bytes before the result of the read is appended.

               The call is actually implemented in terms of either Perl's or system's fread()
               call.  To get a true read(2) system call, see "sysread".

               Note the characters: depending on the status of the filehandle, either (8-bit)
               bytes or characters are read.  By default all filehandles operate on bytes, but
               for example if the filehandle has been opened with the ":utf8" I/O layer (see
               "open", and the "open" pragma, open), the I/O will operate on UTF-8 encoded
               Unicode characters, not bytes.  Similarly for the ":encoding" pragma: in that case
               pretty much any characters can be read.

       readdir DIRHANDLE
               Returns the next directory entry for a directory opened by "opendir".  If used in
               list context, returns all the rest of the entries in the directory.  If there are
               no more entries, returns an undefined value in scalar context or a null list in
               list context.

               If you're planning to filetest the return values out of a "readdir", you'd better
               prepend the directory in question.  Otherwise, because we didn't "chdir" there, it
               would have been testing the wrong file.

                   opendir(DIR, $some_dir) ⎪⎪ die "can't opendir $some_dir: $!";
                   @dots = grep { /^\./ && -f "$some_dir/$_" } readdir(DIR);
                   closedir DIR;

       readline EXPR
               Reads from the filehandle whose typeglob is contained in EXPR.  In scalar context,
               each call reads and returns the next line, until end-of-file is reached, whereupon
               the subsequent call returns undef.  In list context, reads until end-of-file is
               reached and returns a list of lines.  Note that the notion of "line" used here is
               however you may have defined it with $/ or $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR).  See "$/" in
               perlvar.

               When $/ is set to "undef", when readline() is in scalar context (i.e. file slurp
               mode), and when an empty file is read, it returns '' the first time, followed by
               "undef" subsequently.

               This is the internal function implementing the "<EXPR>" operator, but you can use
               it directly.  The "<EXPR>" operator is discussed in more detail in "I/O Operators"
               in perlop.

                   $line = <STDIN>;
                   $line = readline(*STDIN);           # same thing

               If readline encounters an operating system error, $! will be set with the
               corresponding error message.  It can be helpful to check $! when you are reading
               from filehandles you don't trust, such as a tty or a socket.  The following
               example uses the operator form of "readline", and takes the necessary steps to
               ensure that "readline" was successful.

                   for (;;) {
                       undef $!;
                       unless (defined( $line = <> )) {
                           die $! if $!;
                           last; # reached EOF
                       }
                       # ...
                   }

       readlink EXPR
       readlink
               Returns the value of a symbolic link, if symbolic links are implemented.  If not,
               gives a fatal error.  If there is some system error, returns the undefined value
               and sets $! (errno).  If EXPR is omitted, uses $_.

       readpipe EXPR
               EXPR is executed as a system command.  The collected standard output of the
               command is returned.  In scalar context, it comes back as a single (potentially
               multi-line) string.  In list context, returns a list of lines (however you've
               defined lines with $/ or $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR).  This is the internal function
               implementing the "qx/EXPR/" operator, but you can use it directly.  The "qx/EXPR/"
               operator is discussed in more detail in "I/O Operators" in perlop.

       recv SOCKET,SCALAR,LENGTH,FLAGS
               Receives a message on a socket.  Attempts to receive LENGTH characters of data
               into variable SCALAR from the specified SOCKET filehandle.  SCALAR will be grown
               or shrunk to the length actually read.  Takes the same flags as the system call of
               the same name.  Returns the address of the sender if SOCKET's protocol supports
               this; returns an empty string otherwise.  If there's an error, returns the
               undefined value.  This call is actually implemented in terms of recvfrom(2) system
               call.  See "UDP: Message Passing" in perlipc for examples.

               Note the characters: depending on the status of the socket, either (8-bit) bytes
               or characters are received.  By default all sockets operate on bytes, but for
               example if the socket has been changed using binmode() to operate with the ":utf8"
               I/O layer (see the "open" pragma, open), the I/O will operate on UTF-8 encoded
               Unicode characters, not bytes.  Similarly for the ":encoding" pragma: in that case
               pretty much any characters can be read.

       redo LABEL
       redo    The "redo" command restarts the loop block without evaluating the conditional
               again.  The "continue" block, if any, is not executed.  If the LABEL is omitted,
               the command refers to the innermost enclosing loop.  This command is normally used
               by programs that want to lie to themselves about what was just input:

                   # a simpleminded Pascal comment stripper
                   # (warning: assumes no { or } in strings)
                   LINE: while (<STDIN>) {
                       while (s⎪({.*}.*){.*}⎪$1 ⎪) {}
                       s⎪{.*}⎪ ⎪;
                       if (s⎪{.*⎪ ⎪) {
                           $front = $_;
                           while (<STDIN>) {
                               if (/}/) {      # end of comment?
                                   s⎪^⎪$front\{⎪;
                                   redo LINE;
                               }
                           }
                       }
                       print;
                   }

               "redo" cannot be used to retry a block which returns a value such as "eval {}",
               "sub {}" or "do {}", and should not be used to exit a grep() or map() operation.

               Note that a block by itself is semantically identical to a loop that executes
               once.  Thus "redo" inside such a block will effectively turn it into a looping
               construct.

               See also "continue" for an illustration of how "last", "next", and "redo" work.

       ref EXPR
       ref     Returns a true value if EXPR is a reference, false otherwise.  If EXPR is not
               specified, $_ will be used.  The value returned depends on the type of thing the
               reference is a reference to.  Builtin types include:

                   SCALAR
                   ARRAY
                   HASH
                   CODE
                   REF
                   GLOB
                   LVALUE

               If the referenced object has been blessed into a package, then that package name
               is returned instead.  You can think of "ref" as a "typeof" operator.

                   if (ref($r) eq "HASH") {
                       print "r is a reference to a hash.\n";
                   }
                   unless (ref($r)) {
                       print "r is not a reference at all.\n";
                   }
                   if (UNIVERSAL::isa($r, "HASH")) {  # for subclassing
                       print "r is a reference to something that isa hash.\n";
                   }

               See also perlref.

       rename OLDNAME,NEWNAME
               Changes the name of a file; an existing file NEWNAME will be clobbered.  Returns
               true for success, false otherwise.

               Behavior of this function varies wildly depending on your system implementation.
               For example, it will usually not work across file system boundaries, even though
               the system mv command sometimes compensates for this.  Other restrictions include
               whether it works on directories, open files, or pre-existing files.  Check
               perlport and either the rename(2) manpage or equivalent system documentation for
               details.

       require VERSION
       require EXPR
       require Demands a version of Perl specified by VERSION, or demands some semantics
               specified by EXPR or by $_ if EXPR is not supplied.

               VERSION may be either a numeric argument such as 5.006, which will be compared to
               $], or a literal of the form v5.6.1, which will be compared to $^V (aka
               $PERL_VERSION).  A fatal error is produced at run time if VERSION is greater than
               the version of the current Perl interpreter.  Compare with "use", which can do a
               similar check at compile time.

               Specifying VERSION as a literal of the form v5.6.1 should generally be avoided,
               because it leads to misleading error messages under earlier versions of Perl which
               do not support this syntax.  The equivalent numeric version should be used
               instead.

                   require v5.6.1;     # run time version check
                   require 5.6.1;      # ditto
                   require 5.006_001;  # ditto; preferred for backwards compatibility

               Otherwise, demands that a library file be included if it hasn't already been
               included.  The file is included via the do-FILE mechanism, which is essentially
               just a variety of "eval".  Has semantics similar to the following subroutine:

                   sub require {
                       my($filename) = @_;
                       return 1 if $INC{$filename};
                       my($realfilename,$result);
                       ITER: {
                           foreach $prefix (@INC) {
                               $realfilename = "$prefix/$filename";
                               if (-f $realfilename) {
                                   $INC{$filename} = $realfilename;
                                   $result = do $realfilename;
                                   last ITER;
                               }
                           }
                           die "Can't find $filename in \@INC";
                       }
                       delete $INC{$filename} if $@ ⎪⎪ !$result;
                       die $@ if $@;
                       die "$filename did not return true value" unless $result;
                       return $result;
                   }

               Note that the file will not be included twice under the same specified name.  The
               file must return true as the last statement to indicate successful execution of
               any initialization code, so it's customary to end such a file with "1;" unless
               you're sure it'll return true otherwise.  But it's better just to put the "1;", in
               case you add more statements.

               If EXPR is a bareword, the require assumes a ".pm" extension and replaces "::"
               with "/" in the filename for you, to make it easy to load standard modules.  This
               form of loading of modules does not risk altering your namespace.

               In other words, if you try this:

                       require Foo::Bar;    # a splendid bareword

               The require function will actually look for the "Foo/Bar.pm" file in the
               directories specified in the @INC array.

               But if you try this:

                       $class = 'Foo::Bar';
                       require $class;      # $class is not a bareword
                   #or
                       require "Foo::Bar";  # not a bareword because of the ""

               The require function will look for the "Foo::Bar" file in the @INC array and will
               complain about not finding "Foo::Bar" there.  In this case you can do:

                       eval "require $class";

               Now that you understand how "require" looks for files in the case of a bareword
               argument, there is a little extra functionality going on behind the scenes.
               Before "require" looks for a ".pm" extension, it will first look for a filename
               with a ".pmc" extension.  A file with this extension is assumed to be Perl
               bytecode generated by B::Bytecode.  If this file is found, and it's modification
               time is newer than a coinciding ".pm" non-compiled file, it will be loaded in
               place of that non-compiled file ending in a ".pm" extension.

               You can also insert hooks into the import facility, by putting directly Perl code
               into the @INC array.  There are three forms of hooks: subroutine references, array
               references and blessed objects.

               Subroutine references are the simplest case.  When the inclusion system walks
               through @INC and encounters a subroutine, this subroutine gets called with two
               parameters, the first being a reference to itself, and the second the name of the
               file to be included (e.g. "Foo/Bar.pm").  The subroutine should return "undef" or
               a filehandle, from which the file to include will be read.  If "undef" is
               returned, "require" will look at the remaining elements of @INC.

               If the hook is an array reference, its first element must be a subroutine
               reference.  This subroutine is called as above, but the first parameter is the
               array reference.  This enables to pass indirectly some arguments to the
               subroutine.

               In other words, you can write:

                   push @INC, \&my_sub;
                   sub my_sub {
                       my ($coderef, $filename) = @_;  # $coderef is \&my_sub
                       ...
                   }

               or:

                   push @INC, [ \&my_sub, $x, $y, ... ];
                   sub my_sub {
                       my ($arrayref, $filename) = @_;
                       # Retrieve $x, $y, ...
                       my @parameters = @$arrayref[1..$#$arrayref];
                       ...
                   }

               If the hook is an object, it must provide an INC method, that will be called as
               above, the first parameter being the object itself.  (Note that you must fully
               qualify the sub's name, as it is always forced into package "main".)  Here is a
               typical code layout:

                   # In Foo.pm
                   package Foo;
                   sub new { ... }
                   sub Foo::INC {
                       my ($self, $filename) = @_;
                       ...
                   }

                   # In the main program
                   push @INC, new Foo(...);

               Note that these hooks are also permitted to set the %INC entry corresponding to
               the files they have loaded. See "%INC" in perlvar.

               For a yet-more-powerful import facility, see "use" and perlmod.

       reset EXPR
       reset   Generally used in a "continue" block at the end of a loop to clear variables and
               reset "??" searches so that they work again.  The expression is interpreted as a
               list of single characters (hyphens allowed for ranges).  All variables and arrays
               beginning with one of those letters are reset to their pristine state.  If the
               expression is omitted, one-match searches ("?pattern?") are reset to match again.
               Resets only variables or searches in the current package.  Always returns 1.
               Examples:

                   reset 'X';          # reset all X variables
                   reset 'a-z';        # reset lower case variables
                   reset;              # just reset ?one-time? searches

               Resetting "A-Z" is not recommended because you'll wipe out your @ARGV and @INC
               arrays and your %ENV hash.  Resets only package variables--lexical variables are
               unaffected, but they clean themselves up on scope exit anyway, so you'll probably
               want to use them instead.  See "my".

       return EXPR
       return  Returns from a subroutine, "eval", or "do FILE" with the value given in EXPR.
               Evaluation of EXPR may be in list, scalar, or void context, depending on how the
               return value will be used, and the context may vary from one execution to the next
               (see "wantarray").  If no EXPR is given, returns an empty list in list context,
               the undefined value in scalar context, and (of course) nothing at all in a void
               context.

               (Note that in the absence of an explicit "return", a subroutine, eval, or do FILE
               will automatically return the value of the last expression evaluated.)

       reverse LIST
               In list context, returns a list value consisting of the elements of LIST in the
               opposite order.  In scalar context, concatenates the elements of LIST and returns
               a string value with all characters in the opposite order.

                   print reverse <>;           # line tac, last line first

                   undef $/;                   # for efficiency of <>
                   print scalar reverse <>;    # character tac, last line tsrif

               This operator is also handy for inverting a hash, although there are some caveats.
               If a value is duplicated in the original hash, only one of those can be
               represented as a key in the inverted hash.  Also, this has to unwind one hash and
               build a whole new one, which may take some time on a large hash, such as from a
               DBM file.

                   %by_name = reverse %by_address;     # Invert the hash

       rewinddir DIRHANDLE
               Sets the current position to the beginning of the directory for the "readdir"
               routine on DIRHANDLE.

       rindex STR,SUBSTR,POSITION
       rindex STR,SUBSTR
               Works just like index() except that it returns the position of the LAST occurrence
               of SUBSTR in STR.  If POSITION is specified, returns the last occurrence at or
               before that position.

       rmdir FILENAME
       rmdir   Deletes the directory specified by FILENAME if that directory is empty.  If it
               succeeds it returns true, otherwise it returns false and sets $! (errno).  If
               FILENAME is omitted, uses $_.

       s///    The substitution operator.  See perlop.

       scalar EXPR
               Forces EXPR to be interpreted in scalar context and returns the value of EXPR.

                   @counts = ( scalar @a, scalar @b, scalar @c );

               There is no equivalent operator to force an expression to be interpolated in list
               context because in practice, this is never needed.  If you really wanted to do so,
               however, you could use the construction "@{[ (some expression) ]}", but usually a
               simple "(some expression)" suffices.

               Because "scalar" is unary operator, if you accidentally use for EXPR a
               parenthesized list, this behaves as a scalar comma expression, evaluating all but
               the last element in void context and returning the final element evaluated in
               scalar context.  This is seldom what you want.

               The following single statement:

                       print uc(scalar(&foo,$bar)),$baz;

               is the moral equivalent of these two:

                       &foo;
                       print(uc($bar),$baz);

               See perlop for more details on unary operators and the comma operator.

       seek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE
               Sets FILEHANDLE's position, just like the "fseek" call of "stdio".  FILEHANDLE may
               be an expression whose value gives the name of the filehandle.  The values for
               WHENCE are 0 to set the new position in bytes to POSITION, 1 to set it to the
               current position plus POSITION, and 2 to set it to EOF plus POSITION (typically
               negative).  For WHENCE you may use the constants "SEEK_SET", "SEEK_CUR", and
               "SEEK_END" (start of the file, current position, end of the file) from the Fcntl
               module.  Returns 1 upon success, 0 otherwise.

               Note the in bytes: even if the filehandle has been set to operate on characters
               (for example by using the ":utf8" open layer), tell() will return byte offsets,
               not character offsets (because implementing that would render seek() and tell()
               rather slow).

               If you want to position file for "sysread" or "syswrite", don't use
               "seek"--buffering makes its effect on the file's system position unpredictable and
               non-portable.  Use "sysseek" instead.

               Due to the rules and rigors of ANSI C, on some systems you have to do a seek
               whenever you switch between reading and writing.  Amongst other things, this may
               have the effect of calling stdio's clearerr(3).  A WHENCE of 1 ("SEEK_CUR") is
               useful for not moving the file position:

                   seek(TEST,0,1);

               This is also useful for applications emulating "tail -f".  Once you hit EOF on
               your read, and then sleep for a while, you might have to stick in a seek() to
               reset things.  The "seek" doesn't change the current position, but it does clear
               the end-of-file condition on the handle, so that the next "<FILE>" makes Perl try
               again to read something.  We hope.

               If that doesn't work (some IO implementations are particularly cantankerous), then
               you may need something more like this:

                   for (;;) {
                       for ($curpos = tell(FILE); $_ = <FILE>;
                            $curpos = tell(FILE)) {
                           # search for some stuff and put it into files
                       }
                       sleep($for_a_while);
                       seek(FILE, $curpos, 0);
                   }

       seekdir DIRHANDLE,POS
               Sets the current position for the "readdir" routine on DIRHANDLE.  POS must be a
               value returned by "telldir".  Has the same caveats about possible directory
               compaction as the corresponding system library routine.

       select FILEHANDLE
       select  Returns the currently selected filehandle.  Sets the current default filehandle
               for output, if FILEHANDLE is supplied.  This has two effects: first, a "write" or
               a "print" without a filehandle will default to this FILEHANDLE.  Second,
               references to variables related to output will refer to this output channel.  For
               example, if you have to set the top of form format for more than one output
               channel, you might do the following:

                   select(REPORT1);
                   $^ = 'report1_top';
                   select(REPORT2);
                   $^ = 'report2_top';

               FILEHANDLE may be an expression whose value gives the name of the actual
               filehandle.  Thus:

                   $oldfh = select(STDERR); $⎪ = 1; select($oldfh);

               Some programmers may prefer to think of filehandles as objects with methods,
               preferring to write the last example as:

                   use IO::Handle;
                   STDERR->autoflush(1);

       select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT
               This calls the select(2) system call with the bit masks specified, which can be
               constructed using "fileno" and "vec", along these lines:

                   $rin = $win = $ein = '';
                   vec($rin,fileno(STDIN),1) = 1;
                   vec($win,fileno(STDOUT),1) = 1;
                   $ein = $rin ⎪ $win;

               If you want to select on many filehandles you might wish to write a subroutine:

                   sub fhbits {
                       my(@fhlist) = split(' ',$_[0]);
                       my($bits);
                       for (@fhlist) {
                           vec($bits,fileno($_),1) = 1;
                       }
                       $bits;
                   }
                   $rin = fhbits('STDIN TTY SOCK');

               The usual idiom is:

                   ($nfound,$timeleft) =
                     select($rout=$rin, $wout=$win, $eout=$ein, $timeout);

               or to block until something becomes ready just do this

                   $nfound = select($rout=$rin, $wout=$win, $eout=$ein, undef);

               Most systems do not bother to return anything useful in $timeleft, so calling
               select() in scalar context just returns $nfound.

               Any of the bit masks can also be undef.  The timeout, if specified, is in seconds,
               which may be fractional.  Note: not all implementations are capable of returning
               the $timeleft.  If not, they always return $timeleft equal to the supplied
               $timeout.

               You can effect a sleep of 250 milliseconds this way:

                   select(undef, undef, undef, 0.25);

               Note that whether "select" gets restarted after signals (say, SIGALRM) is
               implementation-dependent.

               WARNING: One should not attempt to mix buffered I/O (like "read" or <FH>) with
               "select", except as permitted by POSIX, and even then only on POSIX systems.  You
               have to use "sysread" instead.

       semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG
               Calls the System V IPC function "semctl".  You'll probably have to say

                   use IPC::SysV;

               first to get the correct constant definitions.  If CMD is IPC_STAT or GETALL, then
               ARG must be a variable which will hold the returned semid_ds structure or
               semaphore value array.  Returns like "ioctl": the undefined value for error, ""0
               but true"" for zero, or the actual return value otherwise.  The ARG must consist
               of a vector of native short integers, which may be created with
               "pack("s!",(0)x$nsem)".  See also "SysV IPC" in perlipc, "IPC::SysV",
               "IPC::Semaphore" documentation.

       semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS
               Calls the System V IPC function semget.  Returns the semaphore id, or the
               undefined value if there is an error.  See also "SysV IPC" in perlipc,
               "IPC::SysV", "IPC::SysV::Semaphore" documentation.

       semop KEY,OPSTRING
               Calls the System V IPC function semop to perform semaphore operations such as
               signalling and waiting.  OPSTRING must be a packed array of semop structures.
               Each semop structure can be generated with "pack("s!3", $semnum, $semop,
               $semflag)".  The number of semaphore operations is implied by the length of
               OPSTRING.  Returns true if successful, or false if there is an error.  As an
               example, the following code waits on semaphore $semnum of semaphore id $semid:

                   $semop = pack("s!3", $semnum, -1, 0);
                   die "Semaphore trouble: $!\n" unless semop($semid, $semop);

               To signal the semaphore, replace "-1" with 1.  See also "SysV IPC" in perlipc,
               "IPC::SysV", and "IPC::SysV::Semaphore" documentation.

       send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS,TO
       send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS
               Sends a message on a socket.  Attempts to send the scalar MSG to the SOCKET
               filehandle.  Takes the same flags as the system call of the same name.  On
               unconnected sockets you must specify a destination to send TO, in which case it
               does a C "sendto".  Returns the number of characters sent, or the undefined value
               if there is an error.  The C system call sendmsg(2) is currently unimplemented.
               See "UDP: Message Passing" in perlipc for examples.

               Note the characters: depending on the status of the socket, either (8-bit) bytes
               or characters are sent.  By default all sockets operate on bytes, but for example
               if the socket has been changed using binmode() to operate with the ":utf8" I/O
               layer (see "open", or the "open" pragma, open), the I/O will operate on UTF-8
               encoded Unicode characters, not bytes.  Similarly for the ":encoding" pragma: in
               that case pretty much any characters can be sent.

       setpgrp PID,PGRP
               Sets the current process group for the specified PID, 0 for the current process.
               Will produce a fatal error if used on a machine that doesn't implement POSIX
               setpgid(2) or BSD setpgrp(2).  If the arguments are omitted, it defaults to "0,0".
               Note that the BSD 4.2 version of "setpgrp" does not accept any arguments, so only
               "setpgrp(0,0)" is portable.  See also "POSIX::setsid()".

       setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY
               Sets the current priority for a process, a process group, or a user.  (See
               setpriority(2).)  Will produce a fatal error if used on a machine that doesn't
               implement setpriority(2).

       setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL
               Sets the socket option requested.  Returns undefined if there is an error.  OPTVAL
               may be specified as "undef" if you don't want to pass an argument.

       shift ARRAY
       shift   Shifts the first value of the array off and returns it, shortening the array by 1
               and moving everything down.  If there are no elements in the array, returns the
               undefined value.  If ARRAY is omitted, shifts the @_ array within the lexical
               scope of subroutines and formats, and the @ARGV array at file scopes or within the
               lexical scopes established by the "eval ''", "BEGIN {}", "INIT {}", "CHECK {}",
               and "END {}" constructs.

               See also "unshift", "push", and "pop".  "shift" and "unshift" do the same thing to
               the left end of an array that "pop" and "push" do to the right end.

       shmctl ID,CMD,ARG
               Calls the System V IPC function shmctl.  You'll probably have to say

                   use IPC::SysV;

               first to get the correct constant definitions.  If CMD is "IPC_STAT", then ARG
               must be a variable which will hold the returned "shmid_ds" structure.  Returns
               like ioctl: the undefined value for error, "0 but true" for zero, or the actual
               return value otherwise.  See also "SysV IPC" in perlipc and "IPC::SysV"
               documentation.

       shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS
               Calls the System V IPC function shmget.  Returns the shared memory segment id, or
               the undefined value if there is an error.  See also "SysV IPC" in perlipc and
               "IPC::SysV" documentation.

       shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE
       shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE
               Reads or writes the System V shared memory segment ID starting at position POS for
               size SIZE by attaching to it, copying in/out, and detaching from it.  When
               reading, VAR must be a variable that will hold the data read.  When writing, if
               STRING is too long, only SIZE bytes are used; if STRING is too short, nulls are
               written to fill out SIZE bytes.  Return true if successful, or false if there is
               an error.  shmread() taints the variable. See also "SysV IPC" in perlipc,
               "IPC::SysV" documentation, and the "IPC::Shareable" module from CPAN.

       shutdown SOCKET,HOW
               Shuts down a socket connection in the manner indicated by HOW, which has the same
               interpretation as in the system call of the same name.

                   shutdown(SOCKET, 0);    # I/we have stopped reading data
                   shutdown(SOCKET, 1);    # I/we have stopped writing data
                   shutdown(SOCKET, 2);    # I/we have stopped using this socket

               This is useful with sockets when you want to tell the other side you're done
               writing but not done reading, or vice versa.  It's also a more insistent form of
               close because it also disables the file descriptor in any forked copies in other
               processes.

       sin EXPR
       sin     Returns the sine of EXPR (expressed in radians).  If EXPR is omitted, returns sine
               of $_.

               For the inverse sine operation, you may use the "Math::Trig::asin" function, or
               use this relation:

                   sub asin { atan2($_[0], sqrt(1 - $_[0] * $_[0])) }

       sleep EXPR
       sleep   Causes the script to sleep for EXPR seconds, or forever if no EXPR.  May be
               interrupted if the process receives a signal such as "SIGALRM".  Returns the
               number of seconds actually slept.  You probably cannot mix "alarm" and "sleep"
               calls, because "sleep" is often implemented using "alarm".

               On some older systems, it may sleep up to a full second less than what you
               requested, depending on how it counts seconds.  Most modern systems always sleep
               the full amount.  They may appear to sleep longer than that, however, because your
               process might not be scheduled right away in a busy multitasking system.

               For delays of finer granularity than one second, you may use Perl's "syscall"
               interface to access setitimer(2) if your system supports it, or else see "select"
               above.  The Time::HiRes module (from CPAN, and starting from Perl 5.8 part of the
               standard distribution) may also help.

               See also the POSIX module's "pause" function.

       socket SOCKET,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL
               Opens a socket of the specified kind and attaches it to filehandle SOCKET.
               DOMAIN, TYPE, and PROTOCOL are specified the same as for the system call of the
               same name.  You should "use Socket" first to get the proper definitions imported.
               See the examples in "Sockets: Client/Server Communication" in perlipc.

               On systems that support a close-on-exec flag on files, the flag will be set for
               the newly opened file descriptor, as determined by the value of $^F.  See "$^F" in
               perlvar.

       socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL
               Creates an unnamed pair of sockets in the specified domain, of the specified type.
               DOMAIN, TYPE, and PROTOCOL are specified the same as for the system call of the
               same name.  If unimplemented, yields a fatal error.  Returns true if successful.

               On systems that support a close-on-exec flag on files, the flag will be set for
               the newly opened file descriptors, as determined by the value of $^F.  See "$^F"
               in perlvar.

               Some systems defined "pipe" in terms of "socketpair", in which a call to
               "pipe(Rdr, Wtr)" is essentially:

                   use Socket;
                   socketpair(Rdr, Wtr, AF_UNIX, SOCK_STREAM, PF_UNSPEC);
                   shutdown(Rdr, 1);        # no more writing for reader
                   shutdown(Wtr, 0);        # no more reading for writer

               See perlipc for an example of socketpair use.  Perl 5.8 and later will emulate
               socketpair using IP sockets to localhost if your system implements sockets but not
               socketpair.

       sort SUBNAME LIST
       sort BLOCK LIST
       sort LIST
               In list context, this sorts the LIST and returns the sorted list value.  In scalar
               context, the behaviour of "sort()" is undefined.

               If SUBNAME or BLOCK is omitted, "sort"s in standard string comparison order.  If
               SUBNAME is specified, it gives the name of a subroutine that returns an integer
               less than, equal to, or greater than 0, depending on how the elements of the list
               are to be ordered.  (The "<=>" and "cmp" operators are extremely useful in such
               routines.)  SUBNAME may be a scalar variable name (unsubscripted), in which case
               the value provides the name of (or a reference to) the actual subroutine to use.
               In place of a SUBNAME, you can provide a BLOCK as an anonymous, in-line sort
               subroutine.

               If the subroutine's prototype is "($$)", the elements to be compared are passed by
               reference in @_, as for a normal subroutine.  This is slower than unprototyped
               subroutines, where the elements to be compared are passed into the subroutine as
               the package global variables $a and $b (see example below).  Note that in the
               latter case, it is usually counter-productive to declare $a and $b as lexicals.

               In either case, the subroutine may not be recursive.  The values to be compared
               are always passed by reference, so don't modify them.

               You also cannot exit out of the sort block or subroutine using any of the loop
               control operators described in perlsyn or with "goto".

               When "use locale" is in effect, "sort LIST" sorts LIST according to the current
               collation locale.  See perllocale.

               Perl 5.6 and earlier used a quicksort algorithm to implement sort.  That algorithm
               was not stable, and could go quadratic.  (A stable sort preserves the input order
               of elements that compare equal.  Although quicksort's run time is O(NlogN) when
               averaged over all arrays of length N, the time can be O(N**2), quadratic behavior,
               for some inputs.)  In 5.7, the quicksort implementation was replaced with a stable
               mergesort algorithm whose worst case behavior is O(NlogN).  But benchmarks
               indicated that for some inputs, on some platforms, the original quicksort was
               faster.  5.8 has a sort pragma for limited control of the sort.  Its rather blunt
               control of the underlying algorithm may not persist into future perls, but the
               ability to characterize the input or output in implementation independent ways
               quite probably will.  See sort.

               Examples:

                   # sort lexically
                   @articles = sort @files;

                   # same thing, but with explicit sort routine
                   @articles = sort {$a cmp $b} @files;

                   # now case-insensitively
                   @articles = sort {uc($a) cmp uc($b)} @files;

                   # same thing in reversed order
                   @articles = sort {$b cmp $a} @files;

                   # sort numerically ascending
                   @articles = sort {$a <=> $b} @files;

                   # sort numerically descending
                   @articles = sort {$b <=> $a} @files;

                   # this sorts the %age hash by value instead of key
                   # using an in-line function
                   @eldest = sort { $age{$b} <=> $age{$a} } keys %age;

                   # sort using explicit subroutine name
                   sub byage {
                       $age{$a} <=> $age{$b};  # presuming numeric
                   }
                   @sortedclass = sort byage @class;

                   sub backwards { $b cmp $a }
                   @harry  = qw(dog cat x Cain Abel);
                   @george = qw(gone chased yz Punished Axed);
                   print sort @harry;
                           # prints AbelCaincatdogx
                   print sort backwards @harry;
                           # prints xdogcatCainAbel
                   print sort @george, 'to', @harry;
                           # prints AbelAxedCainPunishedcatchaseddoggonetoxyz

                   # inefficiently sort by descending numeric compare using
                   # the first integer after the first = sign, or the
                   # whole record case-insensitively otherwise

                   @new = sort {
                       ($b =~ /=(\d+)/)[0] <=> ($a =~ /=(\d+)/)[0]
                                           ⎪⎪
                                   uc($a)  cmp  uc($b)
                   } @old;

                   # same thing, but much more efficiently;
                   # we'll build auxiliary indices instead
                   # for speed
                   @nums = @caps = ();
                   for (@old) {
                       push @nums, /=(\d+)/;
                       push @caps, uc($_);
                   }

                   @new = @old[ sort {
                                       $nums[$b] <=> $nums[$a]
                                                ⎪⎪
                                       $caps[$a] cmp $caps[$b]
                                      } 0..$#old
                              ];

                   # same thing, but without any temps
                   @new = map { $_->[0] }
                          sort { $b->[1] <=> $a->[1]
                                          ⎪⎪
                                 $a->[2] cmp $b->[2]
                          } map { [$_, /=(\d+)/, uc($_)] } @old;

                   # using a prototype allows you to use any comparison subroutine
                   # as a sort subroutine (including other package's subroutines)
                   package other;
                   sub backwards ($$) { $_[1] cmp $_[0]; }     # $a and $b are not set here

                   package main;
                   @new = sort other::backwards @old;

                   # guarantee stability, regardless of algorithm
                   use sort 'stable';
                   @new = sort { substr($a, 3, 5) cmp substr($b, 3, 5) } @old;

                   # force use of mergesort (not portable outside Perl 5.8)
                   use sort '_mergesort';  # note discouraging _
                   @new = sort { substr($a, 3, 5) cmp substr($b, 3, 5) } @old;

               If you're using strict, you must not declare $a and $b as lexicals.  They are
               package globals.  That means if you're in the "main" package and type

                   @articles = sort {$b <=> $a} @files;

               then $a and $b are $main::a and $main::b (or $::a and $::b), but if you're in the
               "FooPack" package, it's the same as typing

                   @articles = sort {$FooPack::b <=> $FooPack::a} @files;

               The comparison function is required to behave.  If it returns inconsistent results
               (sometimes saying $x[1] is less than $x[2] and sometimes saying the opposite, for
               example) the results are not well-defined.

               Because "<=>" returns "undef" when either operand is "NaN" (not-a-number), and
               because "sort" will trigger a fatal error unless the result of a comparison is
               defined, when sorting with a comparison function like "$a <=> $b", be careful
               about lists that might contain a "NaN".  The following example takes advantage of
               the fact that "NaN != NaN" to eliminate any "NaN"s from the input.

                   @result = sort { $a <=> $b } grep { $_ == $_ } @input;

       splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH,LIST
       splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH
       splice ARRAY,OFFSET
       splice ARRAY
               Removes the elements designated by OFFSET and LENGTH from an array, and replaces
               them with the elements of LIST, if any.  In list context, returns the elements
               removed from the array.  In scalar context, returns the last element removed, or
               "undef" if no elements are removed.  The array grows or shrinks as necessary.  If
               OFFSET is negative then it starts that far from the end of the array.  If LENGTH
               is omitted, removes everything from OFFSET onward.  If LENGTH is negative, removes
               the elements from OFFSET onward except for -LENGTH elements at the end of the
               array.  If both OFFSET and LENGTH are omitted, removes everything. If OFFSET is
               past the end of the array, perl issues a warning, and splices at the end of the
               array.

               The following equivalences hold (assuming "$[ == 0 and $#a >= $i" )

                   push(@a,$x,$y)      splice(@a,@a,0,$x,$y)
                   pop(@a)             splice(@a,-1)
                   shift(@a)           splice(@a,0,1)
                   unshift(@a,$x,$y)   splice(@a,0,0,$x,$y)
                   $a[$i] = $y         splice(@a,$i,1,$y)

               Example, assuming array lengths are passed before arrays:

                   sub aeq {   # compare two list values
                       my(@a) = splice(@_,0,shift);
                       my(@b) = splice(@_,0,shift);
                       return 0 unless @a == @b;       # same len?
                       while (@a) {
                           return 0 if pop(@a) ne pop(@b);
                       }
                       return 1;
                   }
                   if (&aeq($len,@foo[1..$len],0+@bar,@bar)) { ... }

       split /PATTERN/,EXPR,LIMIT
       split /PATTERN/,EXPR
       split /PATTERN/
       split   Splits a string into a list of strings and returns that list.  By default, empty
               leading fields are preserved, and empty trailing ones are deleted.

               In scalar context, returns the number of fields found and splits into the @_
               array.  Use of split in scalar context is deprecated, however, because it clobbers
               your subroutine arguments.

               If EXPR is omitted, splits the $_ string.  If PATTERN is also omitted, splits on
               whitespace (after skipping any leading whitespace).  Anything matching PATTERN is
               taken to be a delimiter separating the fields.  (Note that the delimiter may be
               longer than one character.)

               If LIMIT is specified and positive, it represents the maximum number of fields the
               EXPR will be split into, though the actual number of fields returned depends on
               the number of times PATTERN matches within EXPR.  If LIMIT is unspecified or zero,
               trailing null fields are stripped (which potential users of "pop" would do well to
               remember).  If LIMIT is negative, it is treated as if an arbitrarily large LIMIT
               had been specified.  Note that splitting an EXPR that evaluates to the empty
               string always returns the empty list, regardless of the LIMIT specified.

               A pattern matching the null string (not to be confused with a null pattern "//",
               which is just one member of the set of patterns matching a null string) will split
               the value of EXPR into separate characters at each point it matches that way.  For
               example:

                   print join(':', split(/ */, 'hi there'));

               produces the output 'h:i:t:h:e:r:e'.

               Using the empty pattern "//" specifically matches the null string, and is not be
               confused with the use of "//" to mean "the last successful pattern match".

               Empty leading (or trailing) fields are produced when there are positive width
               matches at the beginning (or end) of the string; a zero-width match at the
               beginning (or end) of the string does not produce an empty field.  For example:

                  print join(':', split(/(?=\w)/, 'hi there!'));

               produces the output 'h:i :t:h:e:r:e!'.

               The LIMIT parameter can be used to split a line partially

                   ($login, $passwd, $remainder) = split(/:/, $_, 3);

               When assigning to a list, if LIMIT is omitted, or zero, Perl supplies a LIMIT one
               larger than the number of variables in the list, to avoid unnecessary work.  For
               the list above LIMIT would have been 4 by default.  In time critical applications
               it behooves you not to split into more fields than you really need.

               If the PATTERN contains parentheses, additional list elements are created from
               each matching substring in the delimiter.

                   split(/([,-])/, "1-10,20", 3);

               produces the list value

                   (1, '-', 10, ',', 20)

               If you had the entire header of a normal Unix email message in $header, you could
               split it up into fields and their values this way:

                   $header =~ s/\n\s+/ /g;  # fix continuation lines
                   %hdrs   =  (UNIX_FROM => split /^(\S*?):\s*/m, $header);

               The pattern "/PATTERN/" may be replaced with an expression to specify patterns
               that vary at runtime.  (To do runtime compilation only once, use "/$variable/o".)

               As a special case, specifying a PATTERN of space (' ') will split on white space
               just as "split" with no arguments does.  Thus, "split(' ')" can be used to emulate
               awk's default behavior, whereas "split(/ /)" will give you as many null initial
               fields as there are leading spaces.  A "split" on "/\s+/" is like a "split(' ')"
               except that any leading whitespace produces a null first field.  A "split" with no
               arguments really does a "split(' ', $_)" internally.

               A PATTERN of "/^/" is treated as if it were "/^/m", since it isn't much use
               otherwise.

               Example:

                   open(PASSWD, '/etc/passwd');
                   while (<PASSWD>) {
                       chomp;
                       ($login, $passwd, $uid, $gid,
                        $gcos, $home, $shell) = split(/:/);
                       #...
                   }

               As with regular pattern matching, any capturing parentheses that are not matched
               in a "split()" will be set to "undef" when returned:

                   @fields = split /(A)⎪B/, "1A2B3";
                   # @fields is (1, 'A', 2, undef, 3)

       sprintf FORMAT, LIST
               Returns a string formatted by the usual "printf" conventions of the C library
               function "sprintf".  See below for more details and see sprintf(3) or printf(3) on
               your system for an explanation of the general principles.

               For example:

                       # Format number with up to 8 leading zeroes
                       $result = sprintf("%08d", $number);

                       # Round number to 3 digits after decimal point
                       $rounded = sprintf("%.3f", $number);

               Perl does its own "sprintf" formatting--it emulates the C function "sprintf", but
               it doesn't use it (except for floating-point numbers, and even then only the
               standard modifiers are allowed).  As a result, any non-standard extensions in your
               local "sprintf" are not available from Perl.

               Unlike "printf", "sprintf" does not do what you probably mean when you pass it an
               array as your first argument. The array is given scalar context, and instead of
               using the 0th element of the array as the format, Perl will use the count of
               elements in the array as the format, which is almost never useful.

               Perl's "sprintf" permits the following universally-known conversions:

                  %%   a percent sign
                  %c   a character with the given number
                  %s   a string
                  %d   a signed integer, in decimal
                  %u   an unsigned integer, in decimal
                  %o   an unsigned integer, in octal
                  %x   an unsigned integer, in hexadecimal
                  %e   a floating-point number, in scientific notation
                  %f   a floating-point number, in fixed decimal notation
                  %g   a floating-point number, in %e or %f notation

               In addition, Perl permits the following widely-supported conversions:

                  %X   like %x, but using upper-case letters
                  %E   like %e, but using an upper-case "E"
                  %G   like %g, but with an upper-case "E" (if applicable)
                  %b   an unsigned integer, in binary
                  %p   a pointer (outputs the Perl value's address in hexadecimal)
                  %n   special: *stores* the number of characters output so far
                       into the next variable in the parameter list

               Finally, for backward (and we do mean "backward") compatibility, Perl permits
               these unnecessary but widely-supported conversions:

                  %i   a synonym for %d
                  %D   a synonym for %ld
                  %U   a synonym for %lu
                  %O   a synonym for %lo
                  %F   a synonym for %f

               Note that the number of exponent digits in the scientific notation produced by %e,
               %E, %g and %G for numbers with the modulus of the exponent less than 100 is
               system-dependent: it may be three or less (zero-padded as necessary).  In other
               words, 1.23 times ten to the 99th may be either "1.23e99" or "1.23e099".

               Between the "%" and the format letter, you may specify a number of additional
               attributes controlling the interpretation of the format.  In order, these are:

               format parameter index
                   An explicit format parameter index, such as "2$". By default sprintf will
                   format the next unused argument in the list, but this allows you to take the
                   arguments out of order. Eg:

                     printf '%2$d %1$d', 12, 34;      # prints "34 12"
                     printf '%3$d %d %1$d', 1, 2, 3;  # prints "3 1 1"

               flags
                   one or more of:
                      space   prefix positive number with a space
                      +       prefix positive number with a plus sign
                      -       left-justify within the field
                      0       use zeros, not spaces, to right-justify
                      #       prefix non-zero octal with "0", non-zero hex with "0x",
                              non-zero binary with "0b"

                   For example:

                     printf '<% d>', 12;   # prints "< 12>"
                     printf '<%+d>', 12;   # prints "<+12>"
                     printf '<%6s>', 12;   # prints "<    12>"
                     printf '<%-6s>', 12;  # prints "<12    >"
                     printf '<%06s>', 12;  # prints "<000012>"
                     printf '<%#x>', 12;   # prints "<0xc>"

               vector flag
                   The vector flag "v", optionally specifying the join string to use.  This flag
                   tells perl to interpret the supplied string as a vector of integers, one for
                   each character in the string, separated by a given string (a dot "." by
                   default). This can be useful for displaying ordinal values of characters in
                   arbitrary strings:

                     printf "version is v%vd\n", $^V;     # Perl's version

                   Put an asterisk "*" before the "v" to override the string to use to separate
                   the numbers:

                     printf "address is %*vX\n", ":", $addr;   # IPv6 address
                     printf "bits are %0*v8b\n", " ", $bits;   # random bitstring

                   You can also explicitly specify the argument number to use for the join string
                   using eg "*2$v":

                     printf '%*4$vX %*4$vX %*4$vX', @addr[1..3], ":";   # 3 IPv6 addresses

               (minimum) width
                   Arguments are usually formatted to be only as wide as required to display the
                   given value. You can override the width by putting a number here, or get the
                   width from the next argument (with "*") or from a specified argument (with eg
                   "*2$"):

                     printf '<%s>', "a";       # prints "<a>"
                     printf '<%6s>', "a";      # prints "<     a>"
                     printf '<%*s>', 6, "a";   # prints "<     a>"
                     printf '<%*2$s>', "a", 6; # prints "<     a>"
                     printf '<%2s>', "long";   # prints "<long>" (does not truncate)

                   If a field width obtained through "*" is negative, it has the same effect as
                   the "-" flag: left-justification.

               precision, or maximum width
                   You can specify a precision (for numeric conversions) or a maximum width (for
                   string conversions) by specifying a "." followed by a number.  For floating
                   point formats, with the exception of 'g' and 'G', this specifies the number of
                   decimal places to show (the default being 6), eg:

                     # these examples are subject to system-specific variation
                     printf '<%f>', 1;    # prints "<1.000000>"
                     printf '<%.1f>', 1;  # prints "<1.0>"
                     printf '<%.0f>', 1;  # prints "<1>"
                     printf '<%e>', 10;   # prints "<1.000000e+01>"
                     printf '<%.1e>', 10; # prints "<1.0e+01>"

                   For 'g' and 'G', this specifies the maximum number of digits to show,
                   including prior to the decimal point as well as after it, eg:

                     # these examples are subject to system-specific variation
                     printf '<%g>', 1;        # prints "<1>"
                     printf '<%.10g>', 1;     # prints "<1>"
                     printf '<%g>', 100;      # prints "<100>"
                     printf '<%.1g>', 100;    # prints "<1e+02>"
                     printf '<%.2g>', 100.01; # prints "<1e+02>"
                     printf '<%.5g>', 100.01; # prints "<100.01>"
                     printf '<%.4g>', 100.01; # prints "<100>"

                   For integer conversions, specifying a precision implies that the output of the
                   number itself should be zero-padded to this width:

                     printf '<%.6x>', 1;      # prints "<000001>"
                     printf '<%#.6x>', 1;     # prints "<0x000001>"
                     printf '<%-10.6x>', 1;   # prints "<000001    >"

                   For string conversions, specifying a precision truncates the string to fit in
                   the specified width:

                     printf '<%.5s>', "truncated";   # prints "<trunc>"
                     printf '<%10.5s>', "truncated"; # prints "<     trunc>"

                   You can also get the precision from the next argument using ".*":

                     printf '<%.6x>', 1;       # prints "<000001>"
                     printf '<%.*x>', 6, 1;    # prints "<000001>"

                   You cannot currently get the precision from a specified number, but it is
                   intended that this will be possible in the future using eg ".*2$":

                     printf '<%.*2$x>', 1, 6;   # INVALID, but in future will print "<000001>"

               size
                   For numeric conversions, you can specify the size to interpret the number as
                   using "l", "h", "V", "q", "L", or "ll". For integer conversions ("d u o x X b
                   i D U O"), numbers are usually assumed to be whatever the default integer size
                   is on your platform (usually 32 or 64 bits), but you can override this to use
                   instead one of the standard C types, as supported by the compiler used to
                   build Perl:

                      l           interpret integer as C type "long" or "unsigned long"
                      h           interpret integer as C type "short" or "unsigned short"
                      q, L or ll  interpret integer as C type "long long", "unsigned long long".
                                  or "quads" (typically 64-bit integers)

                   The last will produce errors if Perl does not understand "quads" in your
                   installation. (This requires that either the platform natively supports quads
                   or Perl was specifically compiled to support quads.) You can find out whether
                   your Perl supports quads via Config:

                           use Config;
                           ($Config{use64bitint} eq 'define' ⎪⎪ $Config{longsize} >= 8) &&
                                   print "quads\n";

                   For floating point conversions ("e f g E F G"), numbers are usually assumed to
                   be the default floating point size on your platform (double or long double),
                   but you can force 'long double' with "q", "L", or "ll" if your platform
                   supports them. You can find out whether your Perl supports long doubles via
                   Config:

                           use Config;
                           $Config{d_longdbl} eq 'define' && print "long doubles\n";

                   You can find out whether Perl considers 'long double' to be the default
                   floating point size to use on your platform via Config:

                           use Config;
                           ($Config{uselongdouble} eq 'define') &&
                                   print "long doubles by default\n";

                   It can also be the case that long doubles and doubles are the same thing:

                           use Config;
                           ($Config{doublesize} == $Config{longdblsize}) &&
                                   print "doubles are long doubles\n";

                   The size specifier "V" has no effect for Perl code, but it is supported for
                   compatibility with XS code; it means 'use the standard size for a Perl integer
                   (or floating-point number)', which is already the default for Perl code.

               order of arguments
                   Normally, sprintf takes the next unused argument as the value to format for
                   each format specification. If the format specification uses "*" to require
                   additional arguments, these are consumed from the argument list in the order
                   in which they appear in the format specification before the value to format.
                   Where an argument is specified using an explicit index, this does not affect
                   the normal order for the arguments (even when the explicitly specified index
                   would have been the next argument in any case).

                   So:

                     printf '<%*.*s>', $a, $b, $c;

                   would use $a for the width, $b for the precision and $c as the value to
                   format, while:

                     print '<%*1$.*s>', $a, $b;

                   would use $a for the width and the precision, and $b as the value to format.

                   Here are some more examples - beware that when using an explicit index, the
                   "$" may need to be escaped:

                     printf "%2\$d %d\n",    12, 34;               # will print "34 12\n"
                     printf "%2\$d %d %d\n", 12, 34;               # will print "34 12 34\n"
                     printf "%3\$d %d %d\n", 12, 34, 56;           # will print "56 12 34\n"
                     printf "%2\$*3\$d %d\n", 12, 34, 3;           # will print " 34 12\n"

               If "use locale" is in effect, the character used for the decimal point in
               formatted real numbers is affected by the LC_NUMERIC locale.  See perllocale.

       sqrt EXPR
       sqrt    Return the square root of EXPR.  If EXPR is omitted, returns square root of $_.
               Only works on non-negative operands, unless you've loaded the standard
               Math::Complex module.

                   use Math::Complex;
                   print sqrt(-2);    # prints 1.4142135623731i

       srand EXPR
       srand   Sets the random number seed for the "rand" operator.

               The point of the function is to "seed" the "rand" function so that "rand" can
               produce a different sequence each time you run your program.

               If srand() is not called explicitly, it is called implicitly at the first use of
               the "rand" operator.  However, this was not the case in versions of Perl before
               5.004, so if your script will run under older Perl versions, it should call
               "srand".

               Most programs won't even call srand() at all, except those that need a
               cryptographically-strong starting point rather than the generally acceptable
               default, which is based on time of day, process ID, and memory allocation, or the
               /dev/urandom device, if available.

               You can call srand($seed) with the same $seed to reproduce the same sequence from
               rand(), but this is usually reserved for generating predictable results for
               testing or debugging.  Otherwise, don't call srand() more than once in your
               program.

               Do not call srand() (i.e. without an argument) more than once in a script.  The
               internal state of the random number generator should contain more entropy than can
               be provided by any seed, so calling srand() again actually loses randomness.

               Most implementations of "srand" take an integer and will silently truncate decimal
               numbers.  This means "srand(42)" will usually produce the same results as
               "srand(42.1)".  To be safe, always pass "srand" an integer.

               In versions of Perl prior to 5.004 the default seed was just the current "time".
               This isn't a particularly good seed, so many old programs supply their own seed
               value (often "time ^ $$" or "time ^ ($$ + ($$ << 15))"), but that isn't necessary
               any more.

               Note that you need something much more random than the default seed for
               cryptographic purposes.  Checksumming the compressed output of one or more rapidly
               changing operating system status programs is the usual method.  For example:

                   srand (time ^ $$ ^ unpack "%L*", `ps axww ⎪ gzip`);

               If you're particularly concerned with this, see the "Math::TrulyRandom" module in
               CPAN.

               Frequently called programs (like CGI scripts) that simply use

                   time ^ $$

               for a seed can fall prey to the mathematical property that

                   a^b == (a+1)^(b+1)

               one-third of the time.  So don't do that.

       stat FILEHANDLE
       stat EXPR
       stat    Returns a 13-element list giving the status info for a file, either the file
               opened via FILEHANDLE, or named by EXPR.  If EXPR is omitted, it stats $_.
               Returns a null list if the stat fails.  Typically used as follows:

                   ($dev,$ino,$mode,$nlink,$uid,$gid,$rdev,$size,
                      $atime,$mtime,$ctime,$blksize,$blocks)
                          = stat($filename);

               Not all fields are supported on all filesystem types.  Here are the meaning of the
               fields:

                 0 dev      device number of filesystem
                 1 ino      inode number
                 2 mode     file mode  (type and permissions)
                 3 nlink    number of (hard) links to the file
                 4 uid      numeric user ID of file's owner
                 5 gid      numeric group ID of file's owner
                 6 rdev     the device identifier (special files only)
                 7 size     total size of file, in bytes
                 8 atime    last access time in seconds since the epoch
                 9 mtime    last modify time in seconds since the epoch
                10 ctime    inode change time in seconds since the epoch (*)
                11 blksize  preferred block size for file system I/O
                12 blocks   actual number of blocks allocated

               (The epoch was at 00:00 January 1, 1970 GMT.)

               (*) The ctime field is non-portable, in particular you cannot expect it to be a
               "creation time", see "Files and Filesystems" in perlport for details.

               If stat is passed the special filehandle consisting of an underline, no stat is
               done, but the current contents of the stat structure from the last stat or
               filetest are returned.  Example:

                   if (-x $file && (($d) = stat(_)) && $d < 0) {
                       print "$file is executable NFS file\n";
                   }

               (This works on machines only for which the device number is negative under NFS.)

               Because the mode contains both the file type and its permissions, you should mask
               off the file type portion and (s)printf using a "%o" if you want to see the real
               permissions.

                   $mode = (stat($filename))[2];
                   printf "Permissions are %04o\n", $mode & 07777;

               In scalar context, "stat" returns a boolean value indicating success or failure,
               and, if successful, sets the information associated with the special filehandle
               "_".

               The File::stat module provides a convenient, by-name access mechanism:

                   use File::stat;
                   $sb = stat($filename);
                   printf "File is %s, size is %s, perm %04o, mtime %s\n",
                       $filename, $sb->size, $sb->mode & 07777,
                       scalar localtime $sb->mtime;

               You can import symbolic mode constants ("S_IF*") and functions ("S_IS*") from the
               Fcntl module:

                   use Fcntl ':mode';

                   $mode = (stat($filename))[2];

                   $user_rwx      = ($mode & S_IRWXU) >> 6;
                   $group_read    = ($mode & S_IRGRP) >> 3;
                   $other_execute =  $mode & S_IXOTH;

                   printf "Permissions are %04o\n", S_IMODE($mode), "\n";

                   $is_setuid     =  $mode & S_ISUID;
                   $is_setgid     =  S_ISDIR($mode);

               You could write the last two using the "-u" and "-d" operators.  The commonly
               available S_IF* constants are

                   # Permissions: read, write, execute, for user, group, others.

                   S_IRWXU S_IRUSR S_IWUSR S_IXUSR
                   S_IRWXG S_IRGRP S_IWGRP S_IXGRP
                   S_IRWXO S_IROTH S_IWOTH S_IXOTH

                   # Setuid/Setgid/Stickiness/SaveText.
                   # Note that the exact meaning of these is system dependent.

                   S_ISUID S_ISGID S_ISVTX S_ISTXT

                   # File types.  Not necessarily all are available on your system.

                   S_IFREG S_IFDIR S_IFLNK S_IFBLK S_ISCHR S_IFIFO S_IFSOCK S_IFWHT S_ENFMT

                   # The following are compatibility aliases for S_IRUSR, S_IWUSR, S_IXUSR.

                   S_IREAD S_IWRITE S_IEXEC

               and the S_IF* functions are

                   S_IMODE($mode)      the part of $mode containing the permission bits
                                       and the setuid/setgid/sticky bits

                   S_IFMT($mode)       the part of $mode containing the file type
                                       which can be bit-anded with e.g. S_IFREG
                                       or with the following functions

                   # The operators -f, -d, -l, -b, -c, -p, and -s.

                   S_ISREG($mode) S_ISDIR($mode) S_ISLNK($mode)
                   S_ISBLK($mode) S_ISCHR($mode) S_ISFIFO($mode) S_ISSOCK($mode)

                   # No direct -X operator counterpart, but for the first one
                   # the -g operator is often equivalent.  The ENFMT stands for
                   # record flocking enforcement, a platform-dependent feature.

                   S_ISENFMT($mode) S_ISWHT($mode)

               See your native chmod(2) and stat(2) documentation for more details about the S_*
               constants.

               To get status info for a symbolic link instead of the target file behind the link,
               use the "lstat" function, see "stat".

       study SCALAR
       study   Takes extra time to study SCALAR ($_ if unspecified) in anticipation of doing many
               pattern matches on the string before it is next modified.  This may or may not
               save time, depending on the nature and number of patterns you are searching on,
               and on the distribution of character frequencies in the string to be searched--you
               probably want to compare run times with and without it to see which runs faster.
               Those loops which scan for many short constant strings (including the constant
               parts of more complex patterns) will benefit most.  You may have only one "study"
               active at a time--if you study a different scalar the first is "unstudied".  (The
               way "study" works is this: a linked list of every character in the string to be
               searched is made, so we know, for example, where all the 'k' characters are.  From
               each search string, the rarest character is selected, based on some static
               frequency tables constructed from some C programs and English text.  Only those
               places that contain this "rarest" character are examined.)

               For example, here is a loop that inserts index producing entries before any line
               containing a certain pattern:

                   while (<>) {
                       study;
                       print ".IX foo\n"       if /\bfoo\b/;
                       print ".IX bar\n"       if /\bbar\b/;
                       print ".IX blurfl\n"    if /\bblurfl\b/;
                       # ...
                       print;
                   }

               In searching for "/\bfoo\b/", only those locations in $_ that contain "f" will be
               looked at, because "f" is rarer than "o".  In general, this is a big win except in
               pathological cases.  The only question is whether it saves you more time than it
               took to build the linked list in the first place.

               Note that if you have to look for strings that you don't know till runtime, you
               can build an entire loop as a string and "eval" that to avoid recompiling all your
               patterns all the time.  Together with undefining $/ to input entire files as one
               record, this can be very fast, often faster than specialized programs like
               fgrep(1).  The following scans a list of files (@files) for a list of words
               (@words), and prints out the names of those files that contain a match:

                   $search = 'while (<>) { study;';
                   foreach $word (@words) {
                       $search .= "++\$seen{\$ARGV} if /\\b$word\\b/;\n";
                   }
                   $search .= "}";
                   @ARGV = @files;
                   undef $/;
                   eval $search;               # this screams
                   $/ = "\n";          # put back to normal input delimiter
                   foreach $file (sort keys(%seen)) {
                       print $file, "\n";
                   }

       sub NAME BLOCK
       sub NAME (PROTO) BLOCK
       sub NAME : ATTRS BLOCK
       sub NAME (PROTO) : ATTRS BLOCK
               This is subroutine definition, not a real function per se.  Without a BLOCK it's
               just a forward declaration.  Without a NAME, it's an anonymous function
               declaration, and does actually return a value: the CODE ref of the closure you
               just created.

               See perlsub and perlref for details about subroutines and references, and
               attributes and Attribute::Handlers for more information about attributes.

       substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH,REPLACEMENT
       substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH
       substr EXPR,OFFSET
               Extracts a substring out of EXPR and returns it.  First character is at offset 0,
               or whatever you've set $[ to (but don't do that).  If OFFSET is negative (or more
               precisely, less than $[), starts that far from the end of the string.  If LENGTH
               is omitted, returns everything to the end of the string.  If LENGTH is negative,
               leaves that many characters off the end of the string.

               You can use the substr() function as an lvalue, in which case EXPR must itself be
               an lvalue.  If you assign something shorter than LENGTH, the string will shrink,
               and if you assign something longer than LENGTH, the string will grow to
               accommodate it.  To keep the string the same length you may need to pad or chop
               your value using "sprintf".

               If OFFSET and LENGTH specify a substring that is partly outside the string, only
               the part within the string is returned.  If the substring is beyond either end of
               the string, substr() returns the undefined value and produces a warning.  When
               used as an lvalue, specifying a substring that is entirely outside the string is a
               fatal error.  Here's an example showing the behavior for boundary cases:

                   my $name = 'fred';
                   substr($name, 4) = 'dy';            # $name is now 'freddy'
                   my $null = substr $name, 6, 2;      # returns '' (no warning)
                   my $oops = substr $name, 7;         # returns undef, with warning
                   substr($name, 7) = 'gap';           # fatal error

               An alternative to using substr() as an lvalue is to specify the replacement string
               as the 4th argument.  This allows you to replace parts of the EXPR and return what
               was there before in one operation, just as you can with splice().

               If the lvalue returned by substr is used after the EXPR is changed in any way, the
               behaviour may not be as expected and is subject to change.  This caveat includes
               code such as "print(substr($foo,$a,$b)=$bar)" or "(substr($foo,$a,$b)=$bar)=$fud"
               (where $foo is changed via the substring assignment, and then the substr is used
               again), or where a substr() is aliased via a "foreach" loop or passed as a
               parameter or a reference to it is taken and then the alias, parameter, or deref'd
               reference either is used after the original EXPR has been changed or is assigned
               to and then used a second time.

       symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE
               Creates a new filename symbolically linked to the old filename.  Returns 1 for
               success, 0 otherwise.  On systems that don't support symbolic links, produces a
               fatal error at run time.  To check for that, use eval:

                   $symlink_exists = eval { symlink("",""); 1 };

       syscall NUMBER, LIST
               Calls the system call specified as the first element of the list, passing the
               remaining elements as arguments to the system call.  If unimplemented, produces a
               fatal error.  The arguments are interpreted as follows: if a given argument is
               numeric, the argument is passed as an int.  If not, the pointer to the string
               value is passed.  You are responsible to make sure a string is pre-extended long
               enough to receive any result that might be written into a string.  You can't use a
               string literal (or other read-only string) as an argument to "syscall" because
               Perl has to assume that any string pointer might be written through.  If your
               integer arguments are not literals and have never been interpreted in a numeric
               context, you may need to add 0 to them to force them to look like numbers.  This
               emulates the "syswrite" function (or vice versa):

                   require 'syscall.ph';               # may need to run h2ph
                   $s = "hi there\n";
                   syscall(&SYS_write, fileno(STDOUT), $s, length $s);

               Note that Perl supports passing of up to only 14 arguments to your system call,
               which in practice should usually suffice.

               Syscall returns whatever value returned by the system call it calls.  If the
               system call fails, "syscall" returns "-1" and sets $! (errno).  Note that some
               system calls can legitimately return "-1".  The proper way to handle such calls is
               to assign "$!=0;" before the call and check the value of $! if syscall returns
               "-1".

               There's a problem with "syscall(&SYS_pipe)": it returns the file number of the
               read end of the pipe it creates.  There is no way to retrieve the file number of
               the other end.  You can avoid this problem by using "pipe" instead.

       sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE
       sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS
               Opens the file whose filename is given by FILENAME, and associates it with
               FILEHANDLE.  If FILEHANDLE is an expression, its value is used as the name of the
               real filehandle wanted.  This function calls the underlying operating system's
               "open" function with the parameters FILENAME, MODE, PERMS.

               The possible values and flag bits of the MODE parameter are system-dependent; they
               are available via the standard module "Fcntl".  See the documentation of your
               operating system's "open" to see which values and flag bits are available.  You
               may combine several flags using the "⎪"-operator.

               Some of the most common values are "O_RDONLY" for opening the file in read-only
               mode, "O_WRONLY" for opening the file in write-only mode, and "O_RDWR" for opening
               the file in read-write mode, and.

               For historical reasons, some values work on almost every system supported by perl:
               zero means read-only, one means write-only, and two means read/write.  We know
               that these values do not work under OS/390 & VM/ESA Unix and on the Macintosh; you
               probably don't want to use them in new code.

               If the file named by FILENAME does not exist and the "open" call creates it
               (typically because MODE includes the "O_CREAT" flag), then the value of PERMS
               specifies the permissions of the newly created file.  If you omit the PERMS
               argument to "sysopen", Perl uses the octal value 0666.  These permission values
               need to be in octal, and are modified by your process's current "umask".

               In many systems the "O_EXCL" flag is available for opening files in exclusive
               mode.  This is not locking: exclusiveness means here that if the file already
               exists, sysopen() fails.  The "O_EXCL" wins "O_TRUNC".

               Sometimes you may want to truncate an already-existing file: "O_TRUNC".

               You should seldom if ever use 0644 as argument to "sysopen", because that takes
               away the user's option to have a more permissive umask.  Better to omit it.  See
               the perlfunc(1) entry on "umask" for more on this.

               Note that "sysopen" depends on the fdopen() C library function.  On many UNIX
               systems, fdopen() is known to fail when file descriptors exceed a certain value,
               typically 255. If you need more file descriptors than that, consider rebuilding
               Perl to use the "sfio" library, or perhaps using the POSIX::open() function.

               See perlopentut for a kinder, gentler explanation of opening files.

       sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET
       sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH
               Attempts to read LENGTH bytes of data into variable SCALAR from the specified
               FILEHANDLE, using the system call read(2).  It bypasses buffered IO, so mixing
               this with other kinds of reads, "print", "write", "seek", "tell", or "eof" can
               cause confusion because the perlio or stdio layers usually buffers data.  Returns
               the number of bytes actually read, 0 at end of file, or undef if there was an
               error (in the latter case $! is also set).  SCALAR will be grown or shrunk so that
               the last byte actually read is the last byte of the scalar after the read.

               An OFFSET may be specified to place the read data at some place in the string
               other than the beginning.  A negative OFFSET specifies placement at that many
               characters counting backwards from the end of the string.  A positive OFFSET
               greater than the length of SCALAR results in the string being padded to the
               required size with "\0" bytes before the result of the read is appended.

               There is no syseof() function, which is ok, since eof() doesn't work very well on
               device files (like ttys) anyway.  Use sysread() and check for a return value for 0
               to decide whether you're done.

               Note that if the filehandle has been marked as ":utf8" Unicode characters are read
               instead of bytes (the LENGTH, OFFSET, and the return value of sysread() are in
               Unicode characters).  The ":encoding(...)" layer implicitly introduces the ":utf8"
               layer.  See "binmode", "open", and the "open" pragma, open.

       sysseek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE
               Sets FILEHANDLE's system position in bytes using the system call lseek(2).
               FILEHANDLE may be an expression whose value gives the name of the filehandle.  The
               values for WHENCE are 0 to set the new position to POSITION, 1 to set the it to
               the current position plus POSITION, and 2 to set it to EOF plus POSITION
               (typically negative).

               Note the in bytes: even if the filehandle has been set to operate on characters
               (for example by using the ":utf8" I/O layer), tell() will return byte offsets, not
               character offsets (because implementing that would render sysseek() very slow).

               sysseek() bypasses normal buffered IO, so mixing this with reads (other than
               "sysread", for example &gt;&lt or read()) "print", "write", "seek", "tell", or
               "eof" may cause confusion.

               For WHENCE, you may also use the constants "SEEK_SET", "SEEK_CUR", and "SEEK_END"
               (start of the file, current position, end of the file) from the Fcntl module.  Use
               of the constants is also more portable than relying on 0, 1, and 2.  For example
               to define a "systell" function:

                       use Fcntl 'SEEK_CUR';
                       sub systell { sysseek($_[0], 0, SEEK_CUR) }

               Returns the new position, or the undefined value on failure.  A position of zero
               is returned as the string "0 but true"; thus "sysseek" returns true on success and
               false on failure, yet you can still easily determine the new position.

       system LIST
       system PROGRAM LIST
               Does exactly the same thing as "exec LIST", except that a fork is done first, and
               the parent process waits for the child process to complete.  Note that argument
               processing varies depending on the number of arguments.  If there is more than one
               argument in LIST, or if LIST is an array with more than one value, starts the
               program given by the first element of the list with arguments given by the rest of
               the list.  If there is only one scalar argument, the argument is checked for shell
               metacharacters, and if there are any, the entire argument is passed to the
               system's command shell for parsing (this is "/bin/sh -c" on Unix platforms, but
               varies on other platforms).  If there are no shell metacharacters in the argument,
               it is split into words and passed directly to "execvp", which is more efficient.

               Beginning with v5.6.0, Perl will attempt to flush all files opened for output
               before any operation that may do a fork, but this may not be supported on some
               platforms (see perlport).  To be safe, you may need to set $⎪ ($AUTOFLUSH in
               English) or call the "autoflush()" method of "IO::Handle" on any open handles.

               The return value is the exit status of the program as returned by the "wait" call.
               To get the actual exit value shift right by eight (see below).  See also "exec".
               This is not what you want to use to capture the output from a command, for that
               you should use merely backticks or "qx//", as described in "`STRING`" in perlop.
               Return value of -1 indicates a failure to start the program (inspect $! for the
               reason).

               Like "exec", "system" allows you to lie to a program about its name if you use the
               "system PROGRAM LIST" syntax.  Again, see "exec".

               Because "system" and backticks block "SIGINT" and "SIGQUIT", killing the program
               they're running doesn't actually interrupt your program.

                   @args = ("command", "arg1", "arg2");
                   system(@args) == 0
                        or die "system @args failed: $?"

               You can check all the failure possibilities by inspecting $? like this:

                   if ($? == -1) {
                       print "failed to execute: $!\n";
                   }
                   elsif ($? & 127) {
                       printf "child died with signal %d, %s coredump\n",
                           ($? & 127),  ($? & 128) ? 'with' : 'without';
                   }
                   else {
                       printf "child exited with value %d\n", $? >> 8;
                   }

               or more portably by using the W*() calls of the POSIX extension; see perlport for
               more information.

               When the arguments get executed via the system shell, results and return codes
               will be subject to its quirks and capabilities.  See "`STRING`" in perlop and
               "exec" for details.

       syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET
       syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH
       syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR
               Attempts to write LENGTH bytes of data from variable SCALAR to the specified
               FILEHANDLE, using the system call write(2).  If LENGTH is not specified, writes
               whole SCALAR.  It bypasses buffered IO, so mixing this with reads (other than
               sysread()), "print", "write", "seek", "tell", or "eof" may cause confusion because
               the perlio and stdio layers usually buffers data.  Returns the number of bytes
               actually written, or "undef" if there was an error (in this case the errno
               variable $! is also set).  If the LENGTH is greater than the available data in the
               SCALAR after the OFFSET, only as much data as is available will be written.

               An OFFSET may be specified to write the data from some part of the string other
               than the beginning.  A negative OFFSET specifies writing that many characters
               counting backwards from the end of the string.  In the case the SCALAR is empty
               you can use OFFSET but only zero offset.

               Note that if the filehandle has been marked as ":utf8", Unicode characters are
               written instead of bytes (the LENGTH, OFFSET, and the return value of syswrite()
               are in UTF-8 encoded Unicode characters).  The ":encoding(...)" layer implicitly
               introduces the ":utf8" layer.  See "binmode", "open", and the "open" pragma, open.

       tell FILEHANDLE
       tell    Returns the current position in bytes for FILEHANDLE, or -1 on error.  FILEHANDLE
               may be an expression whose value gives the name of the actual filehandle.  If
               FILEHANDLE is omitted, assumes the file last read.

               Note the in bytes: even if the filehandle has been set to operate on characters
               (for example by using the ":utf8" open layer), tell() will return byte offsets,
               not character offsets (because that would render seek() and tell() rather slow).

               The return value of tell() for the standard streams like the STDIN depends on the
               operating system: it may return -1 or something else.  tell() on pipes, fifos, and
               sockets usually returns -1.

               There is no "systell" function.  Use "sysseek(FH, 0, 1)" for that.

               Do not use tell() on a filehandle that has been opened using sysopen(), use
               sysseek() for that as described above.  Why?  Because sysopen() creates
               unbuffered, "raw", filehandles, while open() creates buffered filehandles.
               sysseek() make sense only on the first kind, tell() only makes sense on the second
               kind.

       telldir DIRHANDLE
               Returns the current position of the "readdir" routines on DIRHANDLE.  Value may be
               given to "seekdir" to access a particular location in a directory.  Has the same
               caveats about possible directory compaction as the corresponding system library
               routine.

       tie VARIABLE,CLASSNAME,LIST
               This function binds a variable to a package class that will provide the
               implementation for the variable.  VARIABLE is the name of the variable to be
               enchanted.  CLASSNAME is the name of a class implementing objects of correct type.
               Any additional arguments are passed to the "new" method of the class (meaning
               "TIESCALAR", "TIEHANDLE", "TIEARRAY", or "TIEHASH").  Typically these are
               arguments such as might be passed to the "dbm_open()" function of C.  The object
               returned by the "new" method is also returned by the "tie" function, which would
               be useful if you want to access other methods in CLASSNAME.

               Note that functions such as "keys" and "values" may return huge lists when used on
               large objects, like DBM files.  You may prefer to use the "each" function to
               iterate over such.  Example:

                   # print out history file offsets
                   use NDBM_File;
                   tie(%HIST, 'NDBM_File', '/usr/lib/news/history', 1, 0);
                   while (($key,$val) = each %HIST) {
                       print $key, ' = ', unpack('L',$val), "\n";
                   }
                   untie(%HIST);

               A class implementing a hash should have the following methods:

                   TIEHASH classname, LIST
                   FETCH this, key
                   STORE this, key, value
                   DELETE this, key
                   CLEAR this
                   EXISTS this, key
                   FIRSTKEY this
                   NEXTKEY this, lastkey
                   DESTROY this
                   UNTIE this

               A class implementing an ordinary array should have the following methods:

                   TIEARRAY classname, LIST
                   FETCH this, key
                   STORE this, key, value
                   FETCHSIZE this
                   STORESIZE this, count
                   CLEAR this
                   PUSH this, LIST
                   POP this
                   SHIFT this
                   UNSHIFT this, LIST
                   SPLICE this, offset, length, LIST
                   EXTEND this, count
                   DESTROY this
                   UNTIE this

               A class implementing a file handle should have the following methods:

                   TIEHANDLE classname, LIST
                   READ this, scalar, length, offset
                   READLINE this
                   GETC this
                   WRITE this, scalar, length, offset
                   PRINT this, LIST
                   PRINTF this, format, LIST
                   BINMODE this
                   EOF this
                   FILENO this
                   SEEK this, position, whence
                   TELL this
                   OPEN this, mode, LIST
                   CLOSE this
                   DESTROY this
                   UNTIE this

               A class implementing a scalar should have the following methods:

                   TIESCALAR classname, LIST
                   FETCH this,
                   STORE this, value
                   DESTROY this
                   UNTIE this

               Not all methods indicated above need be implemented.  See perltie, Tie::Hash,
               Tie::Array, Tie::Scalar, and Tie::Handle.

               Unlike "dbmopen", the "tie" function will not use or require a module for you--you
               need to do that explicitly yourself.  See DB_File or the Config module for
               interesting "tie" implementations.

               For further details see perltie, "tied VARIABLE".

       tied VARIABLE
               Returns a reference to the object underlying VARIABLE (the same value that was
               originally returned by the "tie" call that bound the variable to a package.)
               Returns the undefined value if VARIABLE isn't tied to a package.

       time    Returns the number of non-leap seconds since whatever time the system considers to
               be the epoch (that's 00:00:00, January 1, 1904 for Mac OS, and 00:00:00 UTC,
               January 1, 1970 for most other systems).  Suitable for feeding to "gmtime" and
               "localtime".

               For measuring time in better granularity than one second, you may use either the
               Time::HiRes module (from CPAN, and starting from Perl 5.8 part of the standard
               distribution), or if you have gettimeofday(2), you may be able to use the
               "syscall" interface of Perl.  See perlfaq8 for details.

       times   Returns a four-element list giving the user and system times, in seconds, for this
               process and the children of this process.

                   ($user,$system,$cuser,$csystem) = times;

               In scalar context, "times" returns $user.

       tr///   The transliteration operator.  Same as "y///".  See perlop.

       truncate FILEHANDLE,LENGTH
       truncate EXPR,LENGTH
               Truncates the file opened on FILEHANDLE, or named by EXPR, to the specified
               length.  Produces a fatal error if truncate isn't implemented on your system.
               Returns true if successful, the undefined value otherwise.

               The behavior is undefined if LENGTH is greater than the length of the file.

       uc EXPR
       uc      Returns an uppercased version of EXPR.  This is the internal function implementing
               the "\U" escape in double-quoted strings.  Respects current LC_CTYPE locale if
               "use locale" in force.  See perllocale and perlunicode for more details about
               locale and Unicode support.  It does not attempt to do titlecase mapping on
               initial letters.  See "ucfirst" for that.

               If EXPR is omitted, uses $_.

       ucfirst EXPR
       ucfirst Returns the value of EXPR with the first character in uppercase (titlecase in
               Unicode).  This is the internal function implementing the "\u" escape in double-
               quoted strings.  Respects current LC_CTYPE locale if "use locale" in force.  See
               perllocale and perlunicode for more details about locale and Unicode support.

               If EXPR is omitted, uses $_.

       umask EXPR
       umask   Sets the umask for the process to EXPR and returns the previous value.  If EXPR is
               omitted, merely returns the current umask.

               The Unix permission "rwxr-x---" is represented as three sets of three bits, or
               three octal digits: 0750 (the leading 0 indicates octal and isn't one of the
               digits).  The "umask" value is such a number representing disabled permissions
               bits.  The permission (or "mode") values you pass "mkdir" or "sysopen" are
               modified by your umask, so even if you tell "sysopen" to create a file with
               permissions 0777, if your umask is 0022 then the file will actually be created
               with permissions 0755.  If your "umask" were 0027 (group can't write; others can't
               read, write, or execute), then passing "sysopen" 0666 would create a file with
               mode 0640 ("0666 &~ 027" is 0640).

               Here's some advice: supply a creation mode of 0666 for regular files (in
               "sysopen") and one of 0777 for directories (in "mkdir") and executable files.
               This gives users the freedom of choice: if they want protected files, they might
               choose process umasks of 022, 027, or even the particularly antisocial mask of
               077.  Programs should rarely if ever make policy decisions better left to the
               user.  The exception to this is when writing files that should be kept private:
               mail files, web browser cookies, .rhosts files, and so on.

               If umask(2) is not implemented on your system and you are trying to restrict
               access for yourself (i.e., (EXPR & 0700) > 0), produces a fatal error at run time.
               If umask(2) is not implemented and you are not trying to restrict access for
               yourself, returns "undef".

               Remember that a umask is a number, usually given in octal; it is not a string of
               octal digits.  See also "oct", if all you have is a string.

       undef EXPR
       undef   Undefines the value of EXPR, which must be an lvalue.  Use only on a scalar value,
               an array (using "@"), a hash (using "%"), a subroutine (using "&"), or a typeglob
               (using "*").  (Saying "undef $hash{$key}" will probably not do what you expect on
               most predefined variables or DBM list values, so don't do that; see delete.)
               Always returns the undefined value.  You can omit the EXPR, in which case nothing
               is undefined, but you still get an undefined value that you could, for instance,
               return from a subroutine, assign to a variable or pass as a parameter.  Examples:

                   undef $foo;
                   undef $bar{'blurfl'};      # Compare to: delete $bar{'blurfl'};
                   undef @ary;
                   undef %hash;
                   undef &mysub;
                   undef *xyz;       # destroys $xyz, @xyz, %xyz, &xyz, etc.
                   return (wantarray ? (undef, $errmsg) : undef) if $they_blew_it;
                   select undef, undef, undef, 0.25;
                   ($a, $b, undef, $c) = &foo;       # Ignore third value returned

               Note that this is a unary operator, not a list operator.

       unlink LIST
       unlink  Deletes a list of files.  Returns the number of files successfully deleted.

                   $cnt = unlink 'a', 'b', 'c';
                   unlink @goners;
                   unlink <*.bak>;

               Note: "unlink" will not delete directories unless you are superuser and the -U
               flag is supplied to Perl.  Even if these conditions are met, be warned that
               unlinking a directory can inflict damage on your filesystem.  Use "rmdir" instead.

               If LIST is omitted, uses $_.

       unpack TEMPLATE,EXPR
               "unpack" does the reverse of "pack": it takes a string and expands it out into a
               list of values.  (In scalar context, it returns merely the first value produced.)

               The string is broken into chunks described by the TEMPLATE.  Each chunk is
               converted separately to a value.  Typically, either the string is a result of
               "pack", or the bytes of the string represent a C structure of some kind.

               The TEMPLATE has the same format as in the "pack" function.  Here's a subroutine
               that does substring:

                   sub substr {
                       my($what,$where,$howmuch) = @_;
                       unpack("x$where a$howmuch", $what);
                   }

               and then there's

                   sub ordinal { unpack("c",$_[0]); } # same as ord()

               In addition to fields allowed in pack(), you may prefix a field with a %<number>
               to indicate that you want a <number>-bit checksum of the items instead of the
               items themselves.  Default is a 16-bit checksum.  Checksum is calculated by
               summing numeric values of expanded values (for string fields the sum of
               "ord($char)" is taken, for bit fields the sum of zeroes and ones).

               For example, the following computes the same number as the System V sum program:

                   $checksum = do {
                       local $/;  # slurp!
                       unpack("%32C*",<>) % 65535;
                   };

               The following efficiently counts the number of set bits in a bit vector:

                   $setbits = unpack("%32b*", $selectmask);

               The "p" and "P" formats should be used with care.  Since Perl has no way of
               checking whether the value passed to "unpack()" corresponds to a valid memory
               location, passing a pointer value that's not known to be valid is likely to have
               disastrous consequences.

               If there are more pack codes or if the repeat count of a field or a group is
               larger than what the remainder of the input string allows, the result is not well
               defined: in some cases, the repeat count is decreased, or "unpack()" will produce
               null strings or zeroes, or terminate with an error. If the input string is longer
               than one described by the TEMPLATE, the rest is ignored.

               See "pack" for more examples and notes.

       untie VARIABLE
               Breaks the binding between a variable and a package.  (See "tie".)  Has no effect
               if the variable is not tied.

       unshift ARRAY,LIST
               Does the opposite of a "shift".  Or the opposite of a "push", depending on how you
               look at it.  Prepends list to the front of the array, and returns the new number
               of elements in the array.

                   unshift(@ARGV, '-e') unless $ARGV[0] =~ /^-/;

               Note the LIST is prepended whole, not one element at a time, so the prepended
               elements stay in the same order.  Use "reverse" to do the reverse.

       use Module VERSION LIST
       use Module VERSION
       use Module LIST
       use Module
       use VERSION
               Imports some semantics into the current package from the named module, generally
               by aliasing certain subroutine or variable names into your package.  It is exactly
               equivalent to

                   BEGIN { require Module; import Module LIST; }

               except that Module must be a bareword.

               VERSION may be either a numeric argument such as 5.006, which will be compared to
               $], or a literal of the form v5.6.1, which will be compared to $^V (aka
               $PERL_VERSION.  A fatal error is produced if VERSION is greater than the version
               of the current Perl interpreter; Perl will not attempt to parse the rest of the
               file.  Compare with "require", which can do a similar check at run time.

               Specifying VERSION as a literal of the form v5.6.1 should generally be avoided,
               because it leads to misleading error messages under earlier versions of Perl which
               do not support this syntax.  The equivalent numeric version should be used
               instead.

                   use v5.6.1;         # compile time version check
                   use 5.6.1;          # ditto
                   use 5.006_001;      # ditto; preferred for backwards compatibility

               This is often useful if you need to check the current Perl version before "use"ing
               library modules that have changed in incompatible ways from older versions of
               Perl.  (We try not to do this more than we have to.)

               The "BEGIN" forces the "require" and "import" to happen at compile time.  The
               "require" makes sure the module is loaded into memory if it hasn't been yet.  The
               "import" is not a builtin--it's just an ordinary static method call into the
               "Module" package to tell the module to import the list of features back into the
               current package.  The module can implement its "import" method any way it likes,
               though most modules just choose to derive their "import" method via inheritance
               from the "Exporter" class that is defined in the "Exporter" module.  See Exporter.
               If no "import" method can be found then the call is skipped.

               If you do not want to call the package's "import" method (for instance, to stop
               your namespace from being altered), explicitly supply the empty list:

                   use Module ();

               That is exactly equivalent to

                   BEGIN { require Module }

               If the VERSION argument is present between Module and LIST, then the "use" will
               call the VERSION method in class Module with the given version as an argument.
               The default VERSION method, inherited from the UNIVERSAL class, croaks if the
               given version is larger than the value of the variable $Module::VERSION.

               Again, there is a distinction between omitting LIST ("import" called with no
               arguments) and an explicit empty LIST "()" ("import" not called).  Note that there
               is no comma after VERSION!

               Because this is a wide-open interface, pragmas (compiler directives) are also
               implemented this way.  Currently implemented pragmas are:

                   use constant;
                   use diagnostics;
                   use integer;
                   use sigtrap  qw(SEGV BUS);
                   use strict   qw(subs vars refs);
                   use subs     qw(afunc blurfl);
                   use warnings qw(all);
                   use sort     qw(stable _quicksort _mergesort);

               Some of these pseudo-modules import semantics into the current block scope (like
               "strict" or "integer", unlike ordinary modules, which import symbols into the
               current package (which are effective through the end of the file).

               There's a corresponding "no" command that unimports meanings imported by "use",
               i.e., it calls "unimport Module LIST" instead of "import".

                   no integer;
                   no strict 'refs';
                   no warnings;

               See perlmodlib for a list of standard modules and pragmas.  See perlrun for the
               "-M" and "-m" command-line options to perl that give "use" functionality from the
               command-line.

       utime LIST
               Changes the access and modification times on each file of a list of files.  The
               first two elements of the list must be the NUMERICAL access and modification
               times, in that order.  Returns the number of files successfully changed.  The
               inode change time of each file is set to the current time.  For example, this code
               has the same effect as the Unix touch(1) command when the files already exist.

                   #!/usr/bin/perl
                   $now = time;
                   utime $now, $now, @ARGV;

               Note:  Under NFS, touch(1) uses the time of the NFS server, not the time of the
               local machine.  If there is a time synchronization problem, the NFS server and
               local machine will have different times.

               Since perl 5.7.2, if the first two elements of the list are "undef", then the
               utime(2) function in the C library will be called with a null second argument. On
               most systems, this will set the file's access and modification times to the
               current time (i.e. equivalent to the example above.)

                   utime undef, undef, @ARGV;

       values HASH
               Returns a list consisting of all the values of the named hash.  (In a scalar
               context, returns the number of values.)

               The values are returned in an apparently random order.  The actual random order is
               subject to change in future versions of perl, but it is guaranteed to be the same
               order as either the "keys" or "each" function would produce on the same
               (unmodified) hash.  Since Perl 5.8.1 the ordering is different even between
               different runs of Perl for security reasons (see "Algorithmic Complexity Attacks"
               in perlsec).

               As a side effect, calling values() resets the HASH's internal iterator, see
               "each".

               Note that the values are not copied, which means modifying them will modify the
               contents of the hash:

                   for (values %hash)      { s/foo/bar/g }   # modifies %hash values
                   for (@hash{keys %hash}) { s/foo/bar/g }   # same

               See also "keys", "each", and "sort".

       vec EXPR,OFFSET,BITS
               Treats the string in EXPR as a bit vector made up of elements of width BITS, and
               returns the value of the element specified by OFFSET as an unsigned integer.  BITS
               therefore specifies the number of bits that are reserved for each element in the
               bit vector.  This must be a power of two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform
               supports that).

               If BITS is 8, "elements" coincide with bytes of the input string.

               If BITS is 16 or more, bytes of the input string are grouped into chunks of size
               BITS/8, and each group is converted to a number as with pack()/unpack() with big-
               endian formats "n"/"N" (and analogously for BITS==64).  See "pack" for details.

               If bits is 4 or less, the string is broken into bytes, then the bits of each byte
               are broken into 8/BITS groups.  Bits of a byte are numbered in a little-endian-ish
               way, as in 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80.  For example, breaking
               the single input byte "chr(0x36)" into two groups gives a list "(0x6, 0x3)";
               breaking it into 4 groups gives "(0x2, 0x1, 0x3, 0x0)".

               "vec" may also be assigned to, in which case parentheses are needed to give the
               expression the correct precedence as in

                   vec($image, $max_x * $x + $y, 8) = 3;

               If the selected element is outside the string, the value 0 is returned.  If an
               element off the end of the string is written to, Perl will first extend the string
               with sufficiently many zero bytes.   It is an error to try to write off the
               beginning of the string (i.e. negative OFFSET).

               The string should not contain any character with the value > 255 (which can only
               happen if you're using UTF-8 encoding).  If it does, it will be treated as
               something which is not UTF-8 encoded.  When the "vec" was assigned to, other parts
               of your program will also no longer consider the string to be UTF-8 encoded.  In
               other words, if you do have such characters in your string, vec() will operate on
               the actual byte string, and not the conceptual character string.

               Strings created with "vec" can also be manipulated with the logical operators "⎪",
               "&", "^", and "~".  These operators will assume a bit vector operation is desired
               when both operands are strings.  See "Bitwise String Operators" in perlop.

               The following code will build up an ASCII string saying 'PerlPerlPerl'.  The
               comments show the string after each step.  Note that this code works in the same
               way on big-endian or little-endian machines.

                   my $foo = '';
                   vec($foo,  0, 32) = 0x5065726C;     # 'Perl'

                   # $foo eq "Perl" eq "\x50\x65\x72\x6C", 32 bits
                   print vec($foo, 0, 8);              # prints 80 == 0x50 == ord('P')

                   vec($foo,  2, 16) = 0x5065;         # 'PerlPe'
                   vec($foo,  3, 16) = 0x726C;         # 'PerlPerl'
                   vec($foo,  8,  8) = 0x50;           # 'PerlPerlP'
                   vec($foo,  9,  8) = 0x65;           # 'PerlPerlPe'
                   vec($foo, 20,  4) = 2;              # 'PerlPerlPe'   . "\x02"
                   vec($foo, 21,  4) = 7;              # 'PerlPerlPer'
                                                       # 'r' is "\x72"
                   vec($foo, 45,  2) = 3;              # 'PerlPerlPer'  . "\x0c"
                   vec($foo, 93,  1) = 1;              # 'PerlPerlPer'  . "\x2c"
                   vec($foo, 94,  1) = 1;              # 'PerlPerlPerl'
                                                       # 'l' is "\x6c"

               To transform a bit vector into a string or list of 0's and 1's, use these:

                   $bits = unpack("b*", $vector);
                   @bits = split(//, unpack("b*", $vector));

               If you know the exact length in bits, it can be used in place of the "*".

               Here is an example to illustrate how the bits actually fall in place:

                   #!/usr/bin/perl -wl

                   print <<'EOT';
                                                     0         1         2         3
                                      unpack("V",$_) 01234567890123456789012345678901
                   ------------------------------------------------------------------
                   EOT

                   for $w (0..3) {
                       $width = 2**$w;
                       for ($shift=0; $shift < $width; ++$shift) {
                           for ($off=0; $off < 32/$width; ++$off) {
                               $str = pack("B*", "0"x32);
                               $bits = (1<<$shift);
                               vec($str, $off, $width) = $bits;
                               $res = unpack("b*",$str);
                               $val = unpack("V", $str);
                               write;
                           }
                       }
                   }

                   format STDOUT =
                   vec($_,@#,@#) = @<< == @######### @>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
                   $off, $width, $bits, $val, $res
                   .
                   __END__

               Regardless of the machine architecture on which it is run, the above example
               should print the following table:

                                                     0         1         2         3
                                      unpack("V",$_) 01234567890123456789012345678901
                   ------------------------------------------------------------------
                   vec($_, 0, 1) = 1   ==          1 10000000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 1) = 1   ==          2 01000000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 1) = 1   ==          4 00100000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 3, 1) = 1   ==          8 00010000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 4, 1) = 1   ==         16 00001000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 5, 1) = 1   ==         32 00000100000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 6, 1) = 1   ==         64 00000010000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 7, 1) = 1   ==        128 00000001000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 8, 1) = 1   ==        256 00000000100000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 9, 1) = 1   ==        512 00000000010000000000000000000000
                   vec($_,10, 1) = 1   ==       1024 00000000001000000000000000000000
                   vec($_,11, 1) = 1   ==       2048 00000000000100000000000000000000
                   vec($_,12, 1) = 1   ==       4096 00000000000010000000000000000000
                   vec($_,13, 1) = 1   ==       8192 00000000000001000000000000000000
                   vec($_,14, 1) = 1   ==      16384 00000000000000100000000000000000
                   vec($_,15, 1) = 1   ==      32768 00000000000000010000000000000000
                   vec($_,16, 1) = 1   ==      65536 00000000000000001000000000000000
                   vec($_,17, 1) = 1   ==     131072 00000000000000000100000000000000
                   vec($_,18, 1) = 1   ==     262144 00000000000000000010000000000000
                   vec($_,19, 1) = 1   ==     524288 00000000000000000001000000000000
                   vec($_,20, 1) = 1   ==    1048576 00000000000000000000100000000000
                   vec($_,21, 1) = 1   ==    2097152 00000000000000000000010000000000
                   vec($_,22, 1) = 1   ==    4194304 00000000000000000000001000000000
                   vec($_,23, 1) = 1   ==    8388608 00000000000000000000000100000000
                   vec($_,24, 1) = 1   ==   16777216 00000000000000000000000010000000
                   vec($_,25, 1) = 1   ==   33554432 00000000000000000000000001000000
                   vec($_,26, 1) = 1   ==   67108864 00000000000000000000000000100000
                   vec($_,27, 1) = 1   ==  134217728 00000000000000000000000000010000
                   vec($_,28, 1) = 1   ==  268435456 00000000000000000000000000001000
                   vec($_,29, 1) = 1   ==  536870912 00000000000000000000000000000100
                   vec($_,30, 1) = 1   == 1073741824 00000000000000000000000000000010
                   vec($_,31, 1) = 1   == 2147483648 00000000000000000000000000000001
                   vec($_, 0, 2) = 1   ==          1 10000000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 2) = 1   ==          4 00100000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 2) = 1   ==         16 00001000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 3, 2) = 1   ==         64 00000010000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 4, 2) = 1   ==        256 00000000100000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 5, 2) = 1   ==       1024 00000000001000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 6, 2) = 1   ==       4096 00000000000010000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 7, 2) = 1   ==      16384 00000000000000100000000000000000
                   vec($_, 8, 2) = 1   ==      65536 00000000000000001000000000000000
                   vec($_, 9, 2) = 1   ==     262144 00000000000000000010000000000000
                   vec($_,10, 2) = 1   ==    1048576 00000000000000000000100000000000
                   vec($_,11, 2) = 1   ==    4194304 00000000000000000000001000000000
                   vec($_,12, 2) = 1   ==   16777216 00000000000000000000000010000000
                   vec($_,13, 2) = 1   ==   67108864 00000000000000000000000000100000
                   vec($_,14, 2) = 1   ==  268435456 00000000000000000000000000001000
                   vec($_,15, 2) = 1   == 1073741824 00000000000000000000000000000010
                   vec($_, 0, 2) = 2   ==          2 01000000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 2) = 2   ==          8 00010000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 2) = 2   ==         32 00000100000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 3, 2) = 2   ==        128 00000001000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 4, 2) = 2   ==        512 00000000010000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 5, 2) = 2   ==       2048 00000000000100000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 6, 2) = 2   ==       8192 00000000000001000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 7, 2) = 2   ==      32768 00000000000000010000000000000000
                   vec($_, 8, 2) = 2   ==     131072 00000000000000000100000000000000
                   vec($_, 9, 2) = 2   ==     524288 00000000000000000001000000000000
                   vec($_,10, 2) = 2   ==    2097152 00000000000000000000010000000000
                   vec($_,11, 2) = 2   ==    8388608 00000000000000000000000100000000
                   vec($_,12, 2) = 2   ==   33554432 00000000000000000000000001000000
                   vec($_,13, 2) = 2   ==  134217728 00000000000000000000000000010000
                   vec($_,14, 2) = 2   ==  536870912 00000000000000000000000000000100
                   vec($_,15, 2) = 2   == 2147483648 00000000000000000000000000000001
                   vec($_, 0, 4) = 1   ==          1 10000000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 4) = 1   ==         16 00001000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 4) = 1   ==        256 00000000100000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 3, 4) = 1   ==       4096 00000000000010000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 4, 4) = 1   ==      65536 00000000000000001000000000000000
                   vec($_, 5, 4) = 1   ==    1048576 00000000000000000000100000000000
                   vec($_, 6, 4) = 1   ==   16777216 00000000000000000000000010000000
                   vec($_, 7, 4) = 1   ==  268435456 00000000000000000000000000001000
                   vec($_, 0, 4) = 2   ==          2 01000000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 4) = 2   ==         32 00000100000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 4) = 2   ==        512 00000000010000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 3, 4) = 2   ==       8192 00000000000001000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 4, 4) = 2   ==     131072 00000000000000000100000000000000
                   vec($_, 5, 4) = 2   ==    2097152 00000000000000000000010000000000
                   vec($_, 6, 4) = 2   ==   33554432 00000000000000000000000001000000
                   vec($_, 7, 4) = 2   ==  536870912 00000000000000000000000000000100
                   vec($_, 0, 4) = 4   ==          4 00100000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 4) = 4   ==         64 00000010000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 4) = 4   ==       1024 00000000001000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 3, 4) = 4   ==      16384 00000000000000100000000000000000
                   vec($_, 4, 4) = 4   ==     262144 00000000000000000010000000000000
                   vec($_, 5, 4) = 4   ==    4194304 00000000000000000000001000000000
                   vec($_, 6, 4) = 4   ==   67108864 00000000000000000000000000100000
                   vec($_, 7, 4) = 4   == 1073741824 00000000000000000000000000000010
                   vec($_, 0, 4) = 8   ==          8 00010000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 4) = 8   ==        128 00000001000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 4) = 8   ==       2048 00000000000100000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 3, 4) = 8   ==      32768 00000000000000010000000000000000
                   vec($_, 4, 4) = 8   ==     524288 00000000000000000001000000000000
                   vec($_, 5, 4) = 8   ==    8388608 00000000000000000000000100000000
                   vec($_, 6, 4) = 8   ==  134217728 00000000000000000000000000010000
                   vec($_, 7, 4) = 8   == 2147483648 00000000000000000000000000000001
                   vec($_, 0, 8) = 1   ==          1 10000000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 8) = 1   ==        256 00000000100000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 8) = 1   ==      65536 00000000000000001000000000000000
                   vec($_, 3, 8) = 1   ==   16777216 00000000000000000000000010000000
                   vec($_, 0, 8) = 2   ==          2 01000000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 8) = 2   ==        512 00000000010000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 8) = 2   ==     131072 00000000000000000100000000000000
                   vec($_, 3, 8) = 2   ==   33554432 00000000000000000000000001000000
                   vec($_, 0, 8) = 4   ==          4 00100000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 8) = 4   ==       1024 00000000001000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 8) = 4   ==     262144 00000000000000000010000000000000
                   vec($_, 3, 8) = 4   ==   67108864 00000000000000000000000000100000
                   vec($_, 0, 8) = 8   ==          8 00010000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 8) = 8   ==       2048 00000000000100000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 8) = 8   ==     524288 00000000000000000001000000000000
                   vec($_, 3, 8) = 8   ==  134217728 00000000000000000000000000010000
                   vec($_, 0, 8) = 16  ==         16 00001000000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 8) = 16  ==       4096 00000000000010000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 8) = 16  ==    1048576 00000000000000000000100000000000
                   vec($_, 3, 8) = 16  ==  268435456 00000000000000000000000000001000
                   vec($_, 0, 8) = 32  ==         32 00000100000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 8) = 32  ==       8192 00000000000001000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 8) = 32  ==    2097152 00000000000000000000010000000000
                   vec($_, 3, 8) = 32  ==  536870912 00000000000000000000000000000100
                   vec($_, 0, 8) = 64  ==         64 00000010000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 8) = 64  ==      16384 00000000000000100000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 8) = 64  ==    4194304 00000000000000000000001000000000
                   vec($_, 3, 8) = 64  == 1073741824 00000000000000000000000000000010
                   vec($_, 0, 8) = 128 ==        128 00000001000000000000000000000000
                   vec($_, 1, 8) = 128 ==      32768 00000000000000010000000000000000
                   vec($_, 2, 8) = 128 ==    8388608 00000000000000000000000100000000
                   vec($_, 3, 8) = 128 == 2147483648 00000000000000000000000000000001

       wait    Behaves like the wait(2) system call on your system: it waits for a child process
               to terminate and returns the pid of the deceased process, or "-1" if there are no
               child processes.  The status is returned in $?.  Note that a return value of "-1"
               could mean that child processes are being automatically reaped, as described in
               perlipc.

       waitpid PID,FLAGS
               Waits for a particular child process to terminate and returns the pid of the
               deceased process, or "-1" if there is no such child process.  On some systems, a
               value of 0 indicates that there are processes still running.  The status is
               returned in $?.  If you say

                   use POSIX ":sys_wait_h";
                   #...
                   do {
                       $kid = waitpid(-1, WNOHANG);
                   } until $kid > 0;

               then you can do a non-blocking wait for all pending zombie processes.  Non-
               blocking wait is available on machines supporting either the waitpid(2) or
               wait4(2) system calls.  However, waiting for a particular pid with FLAGS of 0 is
               implemented everywhere.  (Perl emulates the system call by remembering the status
               values of processes that have exited but have not been harvested by the Perl
               script yet.)

               Note that on some systems, a return value of "-1" could mean that child processes
               are being automatically reaped.  See perlipc for details, and for other examples.

       wantarray
               Returns true if the context of the currently executing subroutine is looking for a
               list value.  Returns false if the context is looking for a scalar.  Returns the
               undefined value if the context is looking for no value (void context).

                   return unless defined wantarray;    # don't bother doing more
                   my @a = complex_calculation();
                   return wantarray ? @a : "@a";

               This function should have been named wantlist() instead.

       warn LIST
               Produces a message on STDERR just like "die", but doesn't exit or throw an
               exception.

               If LIST is empty and $@ already contains a value (typically from a previous eval)
               that value is used after appending "\t...caught" to $@.  This is useful for
               staying almost, but not entirely similar to "die".

               If $@ is empty then the string "Warning: Something's wrong" is used.

               No message is printed if there is a $SIG{__WARN__} handler installed.  It is the
               handler's responsibility to deal with the message as it sees fit (like, for
               instance, converting it into a "die").  Most handlers must therefore make
               arrangements to actually display the warnings that they are not prepared to deal
               with, by calling "warn" again in the handler.  Note that this is quite safe and
               will not produce an endless loop, since "__WARN__" hooks are not called from
               inside one.

               You will find this behavior is slightly different from that of $SIG{__DIE__}
               handlers (which don't suppress the error text, but can instead call "die" again to
               change it).

               Using a "__WARN__" handler provides a powerful way to silence all warnings (even
               the so-called mandatory ones).  An example:

                   # wipe out *all* compile-time warnings
                   BEGIN { $SIG{'__WARN__'} = sub { warn $_[0] if $DOWARN } }
                   my $foo = 10;
                   my $foo = 20;          # no warning about duplicate my $foo,
                                          # but hey, you asked for it!
                   # no compile-time or run-time warnings before here
                   $DOWARN = 1;

                   # run-time warnings enabled after here
                   warn "\$foo is alive and $foo!";     # does show up

               See perlvar for details on setting %SIG entries, and for more examples.  See the
               Carp module for other kinds of warnings using its carp() and cluck() functions.

       write FILEHANDLE
       write EXPR
       write   Writes a formatted record (possibly multi-line) to the specified FILEHANDLE, using
               the format associated with that file.  By default the format for a file is the one
               having the same name as the filehandle, but the format for the current output
               channel (see the "select" function) may be set explicitly by assigning the name of
               the format to the $~ variable.

               Top of form processing is handled automatically:  if there is insufficient room on
               the current page for the formatted record, the page is advanced by writing a form
               feed, a special top-of-page format is used to format the new page header, and then
               the record is written.  By default the top-of-page format is the name of the
               filehandle with "_TOP" appended, but it may be dynamically set to the format of
               your choice by assigning the name to the $^ variable while the filehandle is
               selected.  The number of lines remaining on the current page is in variable "$-",
               which can be set to 0 to force a new page.

               If FILEHANDLE is unspecified, output goes to the current default output channel,
               which starts out as STDOUT but may be changed by the "select" operator.  If the
               FILEHANDLE is an EXPR, then the expression is evaluated and the resulting string
               is used to look up the name of the FILEHANDLE at run time.  For more on formats,
               see perlform.

               Note that write is not the opposite of "read".  Unfortunately.

       y///    The transliteration operator.  Same as "tr///".  See perlop.