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NAME

       roff - roff

 DESCRIPTION
       roff troff, nroff, ditroff, groff,  roff  Unix  Unix  roff

         roff  GNU  roff, groff(1).  groff classical  ( 1973 ) groff groff  ()
       roff  roff

        Unix roff Multics runoff HISTORY  troff roff  roff roff system  roff

       roff UNIX (man pages)  roff roff

        roff manual pages ( man pages);

        roff system  roff roff groff(1)  ""  roff

 HISTORY
       roff 60 roff  Unix  CTSS  Multics

    The Predecessor runoff
       roff  "" runoff Jerry Saltzer  CTSS  (Compatible  Time  Sharing  System
       (?)1961) CTTS Multics <http://www.multicians.org>, Unix  1963 runoff

        roff runoff  60  2  (request)  roff  ""  (dot, `.')

       runoff  PL/1  BCPL  C  ""  Multics  runoff  roff  Unix  runoff  Saltzer
       SEE ALSO

    nroff/troff  The Classical nroff/troff System
        70 Multics  (offspring) Unix   MIT  (the  Massachusetts  Institute  of
       Technology),  Unix  PDP-11  Wang (?)  Graphic Systems CAT  runoff Josef
       F. Osanna, (Multics  runoff )

       runoff roff.  Ocsanna roff  roff  Joe Osanna  roff

        roff

       troff  (typesetter roff) CAT

       nroff

       roff    runoff roff  troff/nroff

       Osanna  PDP-11  1973.  Brian Kernighan roff  C C  1975.

       nroff/troff Troff User's Manual [CSTR #54]  1976, Brian Kernighan  1992
       classical troff .  roff

       1977  Osanna    50  Kernighan   troff   troff   "" roff USING ROFF 1979
       [CSTR #97].   troff  troff groff.  troff ditroff(7).  troff  distroff

    Commercialization
        Unix 7  troff  roff Osanna/Kernighan   ("their" system) --

        Unix  troff  20

       Caldera  SCO UNIX (2001).  Caldera SEE ALSO

       (2003 SCO Caldera )

    Free roff
        roff  roff  Unix  80

        (As a counter-measure to the galopping  commercialization)  AT&T  Bell
       Labs   (a  rescue project) Plan 9 that empedes the free development ( )
       Plan 9

        ( remedy) (386BSD, GNU/Linux, .)  80  90  Unix  "XP"  (such  that  the
       old experience is not lost)  21  Unix  --

        roff  GNU  troff  James Clark GNU Public License <http://www.gnu.org/
       copyleft>.  groff (GNU roff).  groff(1)

       groff  troff  roff  --  groff  roff

 USING ROFF
        roff  (man page) roff roff xditview(1x)  X X(7x).   roff

        roff  roff GNU  roff groff(1)  troff grog(1)  groff groffer(1)  groff

    The roff Pipe
       roff  (preprocessor)roff  (postprocessor) piping

       sh# cat file | ... | preproc | ... | troff options | postproc

        roff  roff  (troff)  roff

         (tailor)  roff

        roff  roff  roff  (gory details)

    Preprocessors
        roff  roff roff  roff (they are identified by special roff requests or
       macros)  roff  roff

       / roff  roff

              tbl      (table)
              eqn      (mathematical formulae)
              pic      (diagram)
              refer    (bibliographic references)
              soelim   (macro)

              chem     (chemical formulae)
              grap     (graphical elements)
              grn      gremlin(1)

    Formatter Programs
       A roff formatter  roff  roff intermediate output,

       roff   intermediate  output  format  troff  output.   [CSTR  #97]   GNU
       groff_out(5)  roff

       roff  roff  roff nroff troff

        troff (is used as a general term to refer to both formatters)

     Devices and Postprocessors

        troff roff

       .

        [CSTR #54]

       Postscript post  troff  720 groff ps  72000,  100

roff ROFF PROGRAMMING

       roff  roff roff  roff  roff

    Macro Packages
         roff name.tmac  ( tmac.name).   tmac groff_tmac(5).

        -m , troff(1),  roff  "" groff(7).

        man mdoc  BSD me ( Eric Allman  ),  ms  (  Manuscript  Macros),  mm  (
       Memorandum Macros).

   roff  The roff Formatting Language
         roff  troff Troff User's Manual [CSTR #54] .  roff  (request) (escape
       sequence)  (number or size registers)

       Requests ""  shell  ""  roff  ""  "" macros.   (dot, `.')

       Escape sequences ""  (backslash, `\'.  )  roff \(  ASCII \f \" \\,

       Strings "" .ds \*

       Registers "" .nr \n

 FILE NAME EXTENSIONS
        roff.7,   7

        file.me me file.mm mm, file.ms ms, file.pic pic

        roff file.tr troff file  roff

        less(1)  shell LESSOPEN.

       sh# LESSOPEN='|lesspipe %s'

       lesspipe

 EDITING ROFF
        roff  Emacs emacs(1).  nroff  roff ""

        Emacs `M-x nroff-mode' M-x Meta  ( Alt) x

       o

         .\" Local Variables:
         .\" mode: nroff
         .\" End:

       o  nroff

       o

         .\" -*- nroff -*-

          emacs  nroff man

        roff

       o  roff "" () .\" ()

       o   roff

       o

       o  Emacs  auto-fill  roff  ()

        roff

               roff .
              .
              .
              .

               `cf.'
              "".
              .
              (.)
              .
              (""
               `.' )

        Emacs nroff vim(1), vi(1)

BUGS

       UNIX(R)  Open Group  Caldera  2001  SCO UNIX

       ( 2003  SCO  M$ ?)

 SEE ALSO
        roff  troff groff

   Internet sites
       troff.org
              " troff" <http://www.troff.org>  roff  roff

       Multics
              "Multics "  <http://www.multicians.org>   MIT  CTSSMultics  Unix
              runoff;

       Unix Archive
              " Unix " <http://www.tuhs.org/Archive/>  Unix ( troff )  Caldera
              2001  Unix  7  PDP-11 Unix V7 site <http://www.tuhs.org/Archive/
              PDP-11/Trees/V7>.

       Developers at AT&T Bell Labs
              "" <http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/index.html>

       Plan 9 "Plan 9 " <http://plan9.bell-labs.com> AT&T Bell Labs

       runoff "Jerry Saltzer " <http://web.mit.edu/Saltzer/www/publications/
              pubs.html>  runoff

       CSTR Papers
              " CSTR " <http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/cstr.html>  troff  (CSTR
              #54, #97, #114, #116, #122)

       GNU roff
              "groff " <http://www.gnu.org/software/groff>   roff groff roff

    Historical roff Documentation
        troff

       [CSTR #54]
              J. F. Osanna, Nroff/Troff User's Manual <http://
              cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/54.ps>; () Bell Labs,  1976;  revised  by
              Brian Kernighan, 1992.

       [CSTR #97]
              Brian Kernighan, A Typesetter-independent TROFF <http://
              cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/97.ps>, ( troff) Bell Labs, 1981, revised
              March 1982.

        roff ""("little language")

       [CSTR #114]
              Jon L. Bentley and Brian W. Kernighan, GRAP -- A Language for
              Typesetting    Graphs    <http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/114.ps>;
              (grap: ) Bell Labs, August 1984.

       [CSTR #116]
              Brian W. Kernighan, PIC -- A Graphics Language for Typesetting
              <http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/116.ps>;  (pic:  )   Bell   Labs,
              December 1984.

       [CSTR #122]
              J. L. Bentley, L. W. Jelinski, and B. W. Kernighan, CHEM -- A
              Program for Typesetting Chemical Structure Diagrams, Computers
              and  Chemistry  <http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/122.ps>; (chem: )
              Bell Labs, April 1986.

    Manual Pages
        roff  roff  roff

        groff groff(1)  groff

        troff(1)

 AUTHORS
       Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the  terms  of  the  FDL  (GNU  Free
       Documentation  License) version 1.1 or later.  You should have received
       a copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the
       GNU copyleft site <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>.

         groff,  GNU  roff  Bernd  Warken  <bwarken@mayn.de>;  Werner  Lemberg
       <wl@gnu.org>.

[]

       bbbush <bbbush@163.com>

[]

       2003.11.28

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       http://cmpp.linuxforum.net