Provided by: manpages-zh_1.5.2-1_all bug

NAME

       bash - GNU Bourne-Again SHell (GNU  "Bourne")

(SYNOPSIS)

       bash [options] [file]

(COPYRIGHT)

       Bash is Copyright (C) 1989-2002 by the Free Software Foundation, Inc.

(DESCRIPTION)

       Bash  sh Bash  Korn  C Shell (ksh  csh)

       Bash   IEEE  POSIX  Shell  and  Tools specification (IEEE Working Group
       1003.2 shell )

(OPTIONS)

        set  (option) bash

       -c string  -c string string  (argument) (positional parameter $0 )
       -i         -i shell  ( interactive )
       -l         bash  shell (login shell)  ( (INVOCATION) )
       -r         -r shell  ( restricted ) ( shell(RESTRICTED SHELL) )
       -s         -s  shell
       -D         $  C  POSIX  -n
       [-+]O [shopt_option]
                 shopt_option  shopt   (  shell  (SHELL  BUILTIN  COMMANDS)  )
                 shopt_option-O +O  shopt_optionshopt  +O
       --        -- -- -

       Bash

       --dump-po-strings
               -D GNU gettext po ()
       --dump-strings
               -D
       --help
       --init-file file
       --rcfile file
               shell file ~/.bashrc ( (INVOCATION) )

       --login
               -l

       --noediting
               shell  GNU readline

       --noprofile
                /etc/profile  ~/.bash_profile,  ~/.bash_login, ~/.profile bash
              shell  ( (INVOCATION) )

       --norc  shell / ~/.bashrc  shell sh

       --posix
               POSIX 1003.2  bash  (posix mode)

       --restricted
              shell  ( shell(RESTRICTED SHELL) )

       --rpm-requires
                -n Backticks, [] tests,   evals

       --verbose
               -v

       --version
               bash

(ARGUMENTS)

        -c -s  shell bash $0 Bash Bash 0 shell PATH

(INVOCATION)

       login shell  shell - --login  shell

       interactive  shell -c  ( isatty(3) ) shell -i   shell  bash  PS1  $-  i
       shell

        bash bash  (~,tilde) EXPANSION Tilde Expansion

          bash    shell    shell    --login    /etc/profile   ~/.bash_profile,
       ~/.bash_login,  ~/.profile, --noprofile  shell

        shell bash  ~/.bash_logout

         shell   shell  bash   ~/.bashrc  --norc  --rcfile  file  bash    file
       ~/.bashrc

        bash  shell BASH_ENV Bash
              if [ -n "$BASH_ENV" ]; then . "$BASH_ENV"; fi
        PATH

        bash sh  (mimic) sh  POSIX  shell , --login , /etc/profile ~/.profile,
       .  --noprofile .  sh  shell , bash ENV, , .  sh  shell , --rcfile .  sh
       shell .  sh , bash posix .

        bash posix ,( --posix ), POSIX .  , shell ENV ,.  .

       Bash   shell  ,  rshd  .   bash   rshd  , ~/.bashrc , . sh ,.  --norc ,
       --rcfile , rshd ,  shell.

        shell () id ()  id  ,   -  ,,   shell  .   SHELLOPTS  .  id   id.    -
       ,,  id.

(DEFINITIONS)

       .
       blank   tab .
       word   , shell .  token
       name   ,,.  word identifier.
       metacharacter
              , , . :
              |  & ; ( ) < > space tab
       control operator
               token(), . :
              || & && ; ;; ( ) | <newline>

("RESERVED WORDS")

       Reserved words()  shell .  , ,  ( shell("SHELL GRAMMAR") ), case for :

       !  case  do done elif else esac fi for function if in select then until
       while { } time [[ ]]

shell("SHELL GRAMMAR")

   Simple Commands
       simple command() (), blank() ,  control operator .  ,  0 . .

       simple command ,  128+n,  signal() n .

   Pipelines
       pipeline() | :

              [time [-p]] [ ! ] command [ | command2 ... ]

        command command2 ( REDIRECTION )

        !  shell

        time  -p  POSIX TIMEFORMAT Shell Variables TIMEFORMAT

       ( shell )

   Lists
       list() ;, &, &&, || , ;, &, <newline>.

        && || ; &,

        & , shell  shell shell  0 ; shell

        && ||  AND  OR  AND

              command1 && command2

       command2 command1  0

        OR

              command1 || command2

       command2 command1  0 AND  OR

   Compound Commands
       compound command()

       (list) list  shell  shell

       { list; }
              list  shell  group command() (   {  }  reserved words() (cause a
              word break)

       ((expression))
               expression  (ARITHMETIC EVALUATION)  0 1 let "expression"

       [[ expression ]]
                0   1  expression  CONDITIONAL  EXPRESSIONS (primaries) [[  ]]
              tilde

               ==  != Pattern Matching()  0 1

              ( expression )
                      expression
              ! expression
                      expression
              expression1 && expression2
                      expression1 expression2
              expression1 || expression2
                      expression1 expression2

              &&() ||  expression2  expression1

       for name [ in word ] ; do list ; done
              in  name  list  in word  for (positional parameter PARAMETERS  )
              list  in  0

       for (( expr1 ; expr2 ; expr3 )) ; do list ; done
                expr1  (ARITHMETIC EVALUATION)  expr2  0 expr2  list  expr3  1
              list  false

       select name [ in word ] ; do list ; done
              in  in word  ( PARAMETERS ) PS3  name   EOF  name  REPLY.   list
              break select list  0

       case word in [ [(] pattern [ | pattern ] ... ) list ;; ] ... esac
              case  word,  pattern ( Pathname Expansion )  0

       if list; then list; [ elif list; then list; ] ... [ else list; ] fi
               if list  0then list  elif  0 then list else list  0

       while list; do list; done
       until list; do list; done
              while  do list 0 until  while do list while  until  do list  0

       [ function ] name () { list; }
               name  body  {  }  list  name ( FUNCTIONS )

(COMMENTS)

         shell shopt interactive_comments  shell # interactive_comments  shell
       shell ( shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) )

(QUOTING)

        Quoting

        DEFINITIONS  metacharacters  shell

       history expansion  !

        (escape character),

        (\) escape character  \  \<newline>  ()

        $, `, \ $ ` $, `, ", \, <newline>.

        * @ ( PARAMETERS )

        $'string'  string  ANSI C
              \a     alert (bell)
              \b     backspace
              \e     an escape character  Esc
              \f     form feed
              \n     new line
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \'     single quote
              \nnn    nnn ()
              \xHH    HH ()
              \cx     ctrl-x

        $

        $  (locale)  C  POSIX

(PARAMETERS)

         parameter  name,  Special  Parameters   shell  variable  name   value
       attibutes declare ( shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) declare )

        unset ( shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) ).

        variable

              name=[value]

         value  values  (  EXPANSION  )  integer value  $((...))  ( Arithmetic
       Expansion  )  Special  Parameters   "$@"  declare,   typeset,   export,
       readonly, local

   Positional Parameters
        positional parameter  0 shell set  shell ( FUNCTIONS )

        ( EXPANSION )

   Special Parameters
       shell
       *       1 IFS "$*" "$1c$2c..."  c IFS IFS IFS
       @       1 "$@" "$1" "$2" ...  "$@" $@  ()
       #
       ?
       -       set  shell  ( -i )
       $       shell  ID ()  shell  shell  ID  shell
       !       ()
       0       shell  shell  shell bash $0 bash -c $0 bash  0
       _      shell  shell  shell

   Shell Variables
       shell

       BASH    bash
       BASH_VERSINFO
               bash
              BASH_VERSINFO[0]         (release).
              BASH_VERSINFO[1]         (version).
              BASH_VERSINFO[2]
              BASH_VERSINFO[3]
              BASH_VERSINFO[4]         (, beta1).
              BASH_VERSINFO[5]        MACHTYPE

       BASH_VERSION
               bash.

       COMP_CWORD
              ${COMP_WORDS}  ( Programmable Completion )  shell

       COMP_LINE
               shell

       COMP_POINT
                ${#COMP_LINE}  shell

       COMP_WORDS
               ( Arrays())  shell

       DIRSTACK
               dirs pushd popd DIRSTACK

       EUID    ID shell

       FUNCNAME
               shell  shell FUNCNAME FUNCNAME

       GROUPS  GROUPS GROUPS

       HISTCMD
               HISTCMD

       HOSTNAME

       HOSTTYPE
               bash

       LINENO shell ( 1 ) LINENO

       MACHTYPE
               bash  GNU cpu-company-system

       OLDPWD  cd

       OPTARG  getopts  ( shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) )

       OPTIND  getopts  ( shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) )

       OSTYPE  bash

       PIPESTATUS
               ( Arrays )()

       PPID   shell

       PWD     cd

       RANDOM  0  32767 RANDOM RANDOM

       REPLY   read

       SECONDS
               shell SECONDS SECONDS

       SHELLOPTS
               shell set -o SHELLOPTS  set -o on bash

       SHLVL   bash

       UID     ID

        shell bash

       BASH_ENV
               bash  shell  shell ~/.bashrc BASH_ENV PATH
       CDPATH  cd shell cd ".:~:/usr".
       COLUMNS
               select  SIGWINCH
       COMPREPLY
              bash  shell
       FCEDIT  fc
       FIGNORE
               ( READLINE ) ".o:~".
       GLOBIGNORE
               GLOBIGNORE
       HISTCONTROL
               ignorespace, space ignoredups, ignoreboth HISTIGNORE HISTIGNORE
              HISTCONTROL
       HISTFILE
               ( HISTORY ) ~/.bash_history shell
       HISTFILESIZE
                500 shell
       HISTIGNORE
                ( `*') HISTCONTROL  shell `&' `&' HISTIGNORE
       HISTSIZE
               ( HISTORY ) 500
       HOME    cd
       HOSTFILE
               /etc/hosts  shell shell bash HOSTFILE bash /etc/hosts HOSTFILE
       IFS     Internal Field Separator read ``<space><tab><newline>''
       IGNOREEOF
               shell EOF EOF bash  10 EOF
       INPUTRC
              readline ~/.inputrc ( READLINE )
       LANG    LC_
       LC_ALL  LANG  LC_
       LC_COLLATE

       LC_CTYPE

       LC_MESSAGES
               $
       LC_NUMERIC

       LINES   select  SIGWINCH
       MAIL    MAILPATH bash
       MAILCHECK
               bash  60 shell shell
       MAILPATH
                `?'  $_
              MAILPATH='/var/mail/bfox?"You  have  mail":~/shell-mail?"$_  has
              mail!"'
              Bash  (/var/mail/$USER)
       OPTERR  1 bash getopts  ( shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) ) shell  shell
              OPTERR  1
       PATH   shell       (       (COMMAND       EXECUTION)       )       bash
              ``/usr/gnu/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/ucb:/bin:/usr/bin:.''
       POSIXLY_CORRECT
               bash  posix mode --posix  shell bash  posix mode set -o posix
       PROMPT_COMMAND

       PS1     ( PROMPTING ) ``\s-\v\$ ''
       PS2     PS1 ``> ''
       PS3     select  ( SHELL GRAMMAR )
       PS4     PS1 bash PS4  indirection  ``+ ''
       TIMEFORMAT
               time  %
              %%         %
              %[p][l]R
              %[p][l]U  CPU
              %[p][l]S  CPU
              %P        CPU  (%U + %S) / %R

               p  ()  0  p  3  3 p 3

               l  MMmSS.FFs p

              bash $'\nreal\t%3lR\nuser\t%3lU\nsys%3lS'

       TMOUT   0 TMOUT  read  TMOUT select  shell Bash

       auto_resume
               shell name exact substring substring %?   ( JOB CONTROL ) %

       histchars
                (tokenization  HISTORY  EXPANSION  )  history expansion()  `!'
              quick substitution()  `^'  `#'  shell

   Arrays
       Bash declare  0

        name[subscript]=value subscript  0 declare  -a  name  (  shell  (SHELL
       BUILTIN  COMMANDS)  )  declare  -a  name[subscript]   subscript declare
       readonly

        name=(value1 ... valuen) value   [subscript]=stringstring   0  declare
       name[subscript]=value

         ${name[subscript]}  subscript   @   *  name ${name[*]} IFS ${name[@]}
       name  ${name[@]}  *   @   (  Special  Parameters   )${#name[subscript]}
       ${name[subscript]}  subscript  *  @  0

         unset  unset  name[subscript]   subscript  unset  name,   name  unset
       name[subscript], subscript  *  @

        declare, local, readonly -a read -a set declare

(EXPANSION)

         brace  expansion(),  tilde  expansion(),   parameter   and   variable
       expansion(),   command  substitution(),  arithmetic  expansion(),  word
       splitting(), pathname expansion().

       brace  expansion,  tilde  expansion,  parameter,  variable   arithmetic
       expansion command substitution (), word splitting,  pathname expansion.

       process subtitution ()

          brace   expansion,   word   splitting,    pathname   expansion  "$@"
       "${name[@]}" ( PARAMETERS)

   Brace Expansion
       Brace expansion pathname expansion, preamble(), postscript()

         a{d,c,b}e  `ade ace abe'

        Bash

        {  ,  ${

              mkdir /usr/local/src/bash/{old,new,dist,bugs}

              chown root /usr/{ucb/{ex,edit},lib/{ex?.?*,how_ex}}

        sh sh Bash sh  file{1,2} bash file1 file2 .  sh  bash  +B  set  +B   (
       shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) )

   Tilde Expansion
         (`~')   (`/')  ( )  tilde-prefix()  tilde-prefix  login name()  shell
       HOME HOME  shell tilde-prefix

        tilde-prefix  `~+' shell PWD  tilde-prefix  `~-' shell OLDPWD,  tilde-
       prefix  N  `+'  `-' tilde-prefix  tilde-prefix dirs  tilde-prefix  `+'

        : =  tilde-prefix PATH, MAILPATH, CDPATH shell

   Parameter Expansion
        `$'

        `}'

       ${parameter}
               parameter parameter parameter

          parameter   bash    parameter   parameter    indirect   expansion().
       ${!prefix*}

       word bash

       ${parameter:-word}
              Use Default Values() parameter word parameter
       ${parameter:=word}
              Assign Default Values() parameter word parameter.  parameter
       ${parameter:?word}
              Display Error if Null or Unset() parameter word ( word  )  shell
              parameter
       ${parameter:+word}
              Use Alternate Value() parameter word
       ${parameter:offset}
       ${parameter:offset:length}
              Substring   Expansion()   parameter    length    offset   length
              parameter  offset  length   offset  (  ARITHMETIC  EVALUATION  )
              length   0   offset   0   parameter  parameter  @ length  offset
              parameter  @  * length  ${parameter[offset]}  0  1

       ${!prefix*}
               prefix IFS

       ${#parameter}
               parameter  () parameter * @, parameter * @,

       ${parameter#word}
       ${parameter##word}
              word parameter parameter   (``#''  )  (``##'')  parameter  @  *,
              parameter @ *,

       ${parameter%word}
       ${parameter%%word}
              word  parameter  parameter   (``%''  )  (``%%'')  parameter @ *,
              parameter @ *,

       ${parameter/pattern/string}
       ${parameter//pattern/string}
              patterm parameter  pattern  string  pattern  string  pattern   #
              parameter   pattern   %   parameter   string  pattern pattern  /
              parameter @ *, parameter @ *,

   Command Substitution
        (Command substitution)

              $(command)

              `command`

       Bash  command  $(cat file) $(< file)

        ("``") $, `, \.   $(command)

   Arithmetic Expansion

              $((expression))

        expression

         (ARITHMETIC EVALUATION) expression bash

   Process Substitution
       Process substitution ()  (FIFOs)  /dev/fd <(list) >(list)   list   FIFO
       /dev/fd  >(list)  list  <(list)  list

   Word Splitting
       shell word splitting()

       shell IFS IFS <space><tab><newline>, IFS IFS space tab IFS  ( IFS ) IFS
       IFS IFS IFS IFS

        (""  '')

   Pathname Expansion
        -f bash *, ?, [.  pattern()  shell nullglob nullglob nocaseglob  ``.''
       dotglob  shell  ``.''   shell  (SHELL  BUILTIN  COMMANDS)  shopt  shell
       nocaseglob, nullglob, dotglob

        GLOBIGNORE pattern GLOBIGNORE  GLOBIGNORE  ``.''   ``..''   GLOBIGNORE
       GLOBIGNORE  shell dotglob ``.''   ( ``.''  ) ``.*''  GLOBIGNORE dotglob
       GLOBIGNORE

       Pattern Matching

         NUL

       *
       ?
       [...]   (`-') range expression () [ !  ^  LC_COLLATE  () - ]

               [ ] character classes ()  [:class:]  class  POSIX.2 :
              alnum alpha ascii blank cntrl  digit  graph  lower  print  punct
              space upper word xdigit
              word  _

               [ ]  [=c=]  equivalence class () c  (collation weight )

               [ ]  [.symbol.]  (collating symbol) symbol

        shopt  shell  extglob pattern-list  |

              ?(pattern-list)

              *(pattern-list)

              +(pattern-list)

              @(pattern-list)

              !(pattern-list)

   Quote Removal
        \, ',  "

(REDIRECTION)

        redirected ()  shell  shell simple command () command

        <,  ( 0) >,  ( 1)

          brace  expansion,  tilde  expansion,  parameter  expansion,  command
       substitution, arithmetic expansion, quote removal, pathname  expansion,
       word splitting bash

              ls > dirlist 2>&1

        dirlist,

              ls 2>&1 > dirlist

        dirlist, dirlist

        bash

              /dev/fd/fd
                      fd  fd
              /dev/stdin
                      0
              /dev/stdout
                      1
              /dev/stderr
                      2
              /dev/tcp/host/port
                      host  Internet  port bash  socket () TCP
              /dev/udp/host/port
                      host  Internet  port bash  socket () UDP

   Redirecting Input
        word n n  ( 0)

              [n]<word

   Redirecting Output
        word n n  ( 1)

              [n]>word

        > set noclobber  word >|, > set noclobber  word

   Appending Redirected Output ()
        word n n  ( 1)

              [n]>>word

   Redirecting Standard Output and Standard Error
       Bash  ( 1  2) word

       /

              &>word

              >&word

              >word 2>&1

   Here Documents
        shell word  (trailing blanks)

       here-document

              <<[-]word
                      here-document
              delimiter

        word  parameter expansion, command substitution, arithmetic expansion,
       pathname  expansion  word  delimiter  word  here-document   word  here-
       documnet   parameter   expansion,   command  substitution,   arithmetic
       expansion \<newline> \ \, $, `.

        <<-,  tab delimiter  shell  here-document

   Here Strings
       here-document

              <<<word

       word

   Duplicating File Descriptors ()

              [n]<&word

        word n word word -, n n  ( 0)

              [n]>&word

        n  ( 1) word  n word

   Moving File Descriptors

              [n]<&digit-

        digit n,  ( 0) n digit  n

              [n]>&digit-

        digit n,  ( 1) n

   Opening File Descriptors for Reading and Writing

              [n]<>word

        word n n  0

(ALIASES)

       Aliases () shell alias unalias  (  shell  (SHELL  BUILTIN  COMMANDS)  )
       shell metacharacters ()  = ls ls -F bash blank,

        alias unalias

        shell  ( FUNCTIONS () )

        shell shopt expand_aliases

        Bash alias

        shell  (be superseded)

(FUNCTIONS)

         shell SHELL GRAMMAR  shell  shell  ( shell )  (positional parameters)
       #  0 FUNCNAME  shell DEBUG  ( trap shell  (SHELL  BUILTIN  COMMANDS)  )
       trace  ( declare )

        local

        return #

        declare typeset -f declare typeset -F export -f  shell

("ARITHMETIC EVALUATION")

       shell  ( let  Arithmetic Expansion ())  C

       id++ id--
              / ()
       ++id --id
              / ()
       - +    () /
       ! ~
       **
       * / %
       + -
       << >>  /
       <= >= < >

       == !=  /
       &       (AND)
       ^       (exclusive OR)
       |       (OR)
       &&      (AND)
       ||      (OR)
       expr?expr:expr

       = *= /= %= += -= <<= >>= &= ^= |=

       expr1 , expr2

       shell  shell shell

        0  0x  0X  [base#]n base  2  64 n  base# 10  10 @  _  base  36 10  35

("CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS")

          [[   test   [   file   /dev/fd/n   n  file   /dev/stdin  /dev/stdout
       /dev/stderr  01  2

       -a file
               file
       -b file
               file
       -c file
               file
       -d file
               file
       -e file
               file
       -f file
               file
       -g file
               file ID (sgid)
       -h file
               file
       -k file
               file  ``sticky''  ()
       -p file
               file  (FIFO)
       -r file
               file
       -s file
               file
       -t fd   fd
       -u file
               file ID (suid)
       -w file
               file
       -x file
               file
       -O file
               file ID
       -G file
               file ID
       -L file
               file
       -S file
               file
       -N file
               file
       file1 -nt file2
               file1  file2  ()  file1  file2
       file1 -ot file2
               file1  file2  file1  file2
       file1 -ef file2
               file1  file2  inode
       -o optname
               shell optname set -o
       -z string
               string  0
       -n string
       string  string  0
       string1 == string2
              =  ==  POSIX
       string1 != string2

       string1 < string2
               string1  string2
       string1 > string2
               string1  string2
       arg1 OP arg2
              OP -eq, -ne, -lt, -le, -gt, -ge  arg1  arg2 Arg1 arg2 /

("SIMPLE COMMAND EXPANSION")

       shell

       1.      ()

       2.

       3.      REDIRECTION

       4.      =

        shell  shell

        shell

(COMMAND EXECUTION)


       shell  shell FUNCTIONS shell

        shell bash PATH  () Bash  ( shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS)  hash  PATH
       shell  127

       shell  0

          shell  script  () shell (spawn)  shell  shell  shell  shell  ( shell
       (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) hash)

        #!  shell

(COMMAND EXECUTION ENVIRONMENT)

       shell  execution environment ()

       o      shell  exec

       o       cdpushd  popd shell

       o       umask  shell

       o       trap

       o      shell  set

       o      shell

       o       ()  set

       o       shopt

       o       alias  shell

       o      $$  $PPID

        shell  shell

       o      shell

       o

       o

       o       (export)  shell

       o      shell  shell shell

        shell

        shell  shell  shell  shell  shell  shell  shell  shell

        & /dev/null shell

(ENVIRONMENT)

        environment - (name-value) name=value.

       shell shell export () export declare -x  shell  () unset export declare
       -x

        simple command PARAMETERS

        set -k

        bash _

("EXIT STATUS")

        shell  0  0  fatal signal N bash  128+N

        127  126

       shell  0(true) (false)  2

       Bash  exit

(SIGNALS)

         bash  SIGTERM  (  kill  0   shell) SIGINT  ( wait ) bash SIGQUIT bash
       SIGTTIN, SIGTTOU, SIGTSTP.

       bash  shell SIGINT SIGQUIT SIGTTIN, SIGTTOU, SIGTSTP.

        SIGHUP shell  shell SIGHUP shell SIGCONT  SIGHUP.    shell  disown   (
       shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) ) disown -h SIGHUP

        shopt  shell huponexit  shell bash SIGHUP

        bash (trap)  bash  wait  wait  128

("JOB CONTROL")

       Job control ()  (suspend)  (resume) bash

       shell (job) jobs bash (background)

              [1] 25647

        1 ID 15647 Bash (job)

       "" (current terminal process group ID) ( ID  ID ) SIGINT.  foreground()
       Background ()  ID / SIGTTIN (SIGTTOU)

        bash bash suspend  ( ^Z, Control-Z) bash.  delayed suspend  ,   (  ^Y,
       Control-Y) bash.  bg fg kill ^Z  (pending)

         shell  %  n  %n  %ce  ce  bash %?ce, ce bash %% %+  shell current job
       previous job %-  ( jobs ) +, -.

        %1 ``fg %1''  1 ``%1 &''  1 ``bg %1''

       shell bash set -b bash SIGCHLD

        bash shell jobs shell

(PROMPTING)

        bash PS1 PS2 Bash
              \a      ASCII  (07)
              \d      "  " ("Tue May 26")
              \D{format}
                     format  strftime(3)  format
              \e      ASCII  (033)
              \h      `.'
              \H
              \j     shell
              \l     shell
              \n
              \r
              \s     shell $0  ()
              \t      24 HH:MM:SS
              \T      12 HH:MM:SS
              \@      12/ (am/pm)
              \A      24/
              \u      the username of the current user
              \v     bash  (2.00)
              \V     bash  (2.00.0)
              \w
              \W
              \!
              \#
              \$      UID  0 #, $
              \nnn    nnn
              \\
              \[
              \]

          (  HISTORY  )  shell  parameter  expansion,  command   substitution,
       arithmetic  expansion  quote removal,  shell promptvars  ( shell (SHELL
       BUILTIN COMMANDS) shopt )

readline(READLINE)

        shell  shell --noediting  emacs  vi  shell set +o emacs +o vi  ( shell
       (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) )

   Readline Notation
        emacs Ctrl  C-key C-n  Ctrl-N meta  M-key M-x  Meta-x( meta M-x  ESC-x
       Esc x  Esc  meta prefixM-C-x  Esc-Ctrl-x  Esc  Ctrl x )

       readline (arguments) (kill-line)

        (killing) (yanking) kill ring  kill ring

   Readline Initialization
       readline  (inputrc ) INPUTRC ~/.inputrc.   readline readline  #  $

        inputrc

              M-Control-u: universal-argument

              C-Meta-u: universal-argument
        inputrc  M-C-u  readline universal-argument.

        RUBOUT, DEL, ESC, LFD, NEWLINE, RET, RETURN, SPC, SPACE, TAB.

       readline  (macro)

   Readline Key Bindings

       inputrc  Meta-  Control-
        keyname:function-name  macro keyname

              Control-u: universal-argument
              Meta-Rubout: backward-kill-word
              Control-o: "> output"

        C-u universal-argument, M-DEL backward-kill-word, C-o  ( ``>  output''
       )

       "keyseq":function-name  macro keyseq keyname  GNU Emacs

              "\C-u": universal-argument
              "\C-x\C-r": re-read-init-file
              "\e[11~": "Function Key 1"

         C-u  universal-argument.   C-x  C-r  re-read-init-file,  ESC  [ 1 1 ~
       ``Function Key 1''.

       GNU Emacs
              \C-    Ctrl
              \M-    Meta
              \e      Esc
              \\
              \"      "
              \'      '

        GNU Emacs
              \a
              \b
              \d
              \f
              \n
              \r
              \t
              \v
              \nnn    nnn ()
              \xHH    HH ()

         "  '

       Bash bind  readline set -o  ( shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) )

   Readline Variables
       readline inputrc

              set variable-name value

       readline On Off

       bell-style (audible)
               readline  none readline  visiblereadline  audiblereadline
       comment-begin (``#'')
               readline insert-comment  emacs M-#  vi #
       completion-ignore-case (Off)
               Onreadline
       completion-query-items (100)
               possible-completions  0
       convert-meta (On)
               Onreadline  ASCII  ( Esc  meta prefix)
       disable-completion (Off)
               Onreadline  self-insert
       editing-mode (emacs)
               readline  emacs  vi editing-mode emacs vi
       enable-keypad (Off)
               On readline
       expand-tilde (Off)
               Onreadline
       history-preserve-point
               On previous-history  next-history
       horizontal-scroll-mode (Off)
               On readline
       input-meta (Off)
               Onreadline  () meta-flag
       isearch-terminators (``C-[C-J'')
                Esc  C-J
       keymap (emacs)
               readline emacs,  emacs-standard,  emacs-meta,  emacs-ctlx,  vi,
              vi-command vi-insert vi  vi-command; emacs emacs-standard emacs;
              editing-mode
       mark-directories (On)
               On
       mark-modified-lines (Off)
               On (*)
       mark-symlinked-directories (Off)
               On ( mark-directories )
       match-hidden-files (On)
               On readline  `.'  ()  `.'
       output-meta (Off)
               Onreadline  meta
       page-completions (On)
               Onreadline  more
       print-completions-horizontally (Off)
               Onreadline
       show-all-if-ambiguous (Off)
               on,
       visible-stats (Off)
               On  stat(2)

   Readline Conditional Constructs
       readline  C

       $if    $if  readline

              mode   $if    mode=    readline    emacs    vi     set    keymap
                     emacs-standard  emacs-ctlx  readline  emacs

              term   term= =  - sun sun sun-cmd

              application
                     application  readline  application name  bash

                     $if Bash
                     # Quote the current or previous word
                     "\C-xq": "\eb\"\ef\""
                     $endif

       $endif  $if

       $else  $if

       $include
                /etc/inputrc

              $include  /etc/inputrc

   Searching
       readline  ( HISTORY ) incremental non-incremental.

        readline isearch-terminators Esc  Ctrl-J Ctrl-G

        Ctrl-S  Ctrl-R /  readline newline

       readline  Ctrl-R

   Readline Command Names
         (point)  (mark)  set-mark point  mark  (region)

   Commands for Moving
       beginning-of-line (C-a)

       end-of-line (C-e)

       forward-char (C-f)

       backward-char (C-b)

       forward-word (M-f)
               ()
       backward-word (M-b)

       clear-screen (C-l)

       redraw-current-line

   Commands for Manipulating the History
       accept-line (Newline, Return)
               HISTCONTROL
       previous-history (C-p)

       next-history (C-n)

       beginning-of-history (M-<)

       end-of-history (M->)

       reverse-search-history (C-r)
              ""
       forward-search-history (C-s)
              ""
       non-incremental-reverse-search-history (M-p)

       non-incremental-forward-search-history (M-n)

       history-search-forward
               point
       history-search-backward
               point
       yank-nth-arg (M-C-y)
               ()  point n  n  ( 0 )  point  n
       yank-last-arg (M-., M-_)
               ()  yank-nth-arg yank-last-arg
       shell-expand-line (M-C-e)
               shell  shell HISTORY EXPANSION
       history-expand-line (M-^)
               HISTORY EXPANSION
       magic-space
               HISTORY EXPANSION
       alias-expand-line
               ALIASES
       history-and-alias-expand-line

       insert-last-argument (M-., M-_)
               yank-last-arg
       operate-and-get-next (C-o)

       edit-and-execute-command (C-xC-e)
               shell Bash $FCEDIT, $EDITOR,  emacs

   Commands for Changing Text
       delete-char (C-d)
               point  point  delete-char EOF.
       backward-delete-char (Rubout)
               kill ring
       forward-backward-delete-char

       quoted-insert (C-q, C-v)
               C-q
       tab-insert (C-v TAB)

       self-insert (a, b, A, 1, !, ...)

       transpose-chars (C-t)
               point  point  point  point  point
       transpose-words (M-t)
               point  point  point  point
       upcase-word (M-u)
               ()  point
       downcase-word (M-l)
               ()  point
       capitalize-word (M-c)
               ()  point
       overwrite-mode
              /       emacs     vi      readline()      self-insert      point
              backward-delete-char  point

   Killing and Yanking
       kill-line (C-k)
               point
       backward-kill-line (C-x Rubout)

       unix-line-discard (C-u)
               backward-kill-line  kill-ring
       kill-whole-line
               point
       kill-word (M-d)
               point  point
       backward-kill-word (M-Rubout)
               point  backward-word
       unix-word-rubout (C-w)
               point  kill-ring
       delete-horizontal-space (M-\)
               point
       kill-region
               region
       copy-region-as-kill
               region
       copy-backward-word
               point  backward-word
       copy-forward-word
               point  backward-word
       yank (C-y)
               kill-ring  point
       yank-pop (M-y)
               kill-ring yank yank-pop

   Numeric Arguments
       digit-argument (M-0, M-1, ..., M--)
               (already accumulating) M--
       universal-argument
               universal-argument  4  1 4  16

   Completing
       complete (TAB)
               point Bash  ( $ ) ( ~ ) ( @ ) ()
       possible-completions (M-?)
               point
       insert-completions (M-*)
               possible-completions  point
       menu-complete
               complete  menu-complete  ( bell-style )  n  n  TAB
       delete-char-or-list
               ( delete-char)  possible-completions
       complete-filename (M-/)
               point
       possible-filename-completions (C-x /)
               point
       complete-username (M-~)
               point
       possible-username-completions (C-x ~)
               point
       complete-variable (M-$)
               point  shell
       possible-variable-completions (C-x $)
               point  shell
       complete-hostname (M-@)
               point
       possible-hostname-completions (C-x @)
               point
       complete-command (M-!)
               point shell shell
       possible-command-completions (C-x !)
               point
       dynamic-complete-history (M-TAB)
               point
       complete-into-braces (M-{)
               shell ( Brace Expansion )

   Keyboard Macros
       start-kbd-macro (C-x ()

       end-kbd-macro (C-x ))

       call-last-kbd-macro (C-x e)

   Miscellaneous
       re-read-init-file (C-x C-r)
               inputrc
       abort (C-g)
               ( bell-style )
       do-uppercase-version (M-a, M-b, M-x, ...)
               Meta  x
       prefix-meta (ESC)
               Meta ESC f Meta-f.
       undo (C-_, C-x C-u)

       revert-line (M-r)
               undo
       tilde-expand (M-&)

       set-mark (C-@, M-<space>)
               point  mark
       exchange-point-and-mark (C-x C-x)
               point  mark mark
       character-search (C-])
              point
       character-search-backward (M-C-])
              point
       insert-comment (M-#)
              readline     comment-begin      comment-begin      comment-begin
              comment-begin  shell  shell
       glob-complete-word (M-g)
              point
       glob-expand-word (C-x *)
              point
       glob-list-expansions (C-x g)
               glob-expand-word
       dump-functions
               readline  inputrc
       dump-variables
               readline  readline  inputrc
       dump-macros
               readline  readline  inputrc
       display-shell-version (C-x C-v)
               bash

   Programmable Completion
        complete  ( compspec) ( shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) )

        Completing  bash

        -f -d shell FIGNORE

       -G shell GLOBIGNORE FIGNORE

         -W  IFS  shell  EXPANSION brace expansion, tilde expansion, parameter
       variable  expansion,  command   substitution,   arithmetic   expansion,
       pathname expansion  Word Splitting

         -F   -C shell COMP_LINE COMP_POINT  Shell Variables  shell COMP_WORDS
       COMP_CWORD

        -F  shell  compgen COMPREPLY

        -C

        -X  &  &  !

       B-P  -S  readline

        compspec complete  -o dirname

         bash readline  complete -o default  readline

              readline        readline       mark-directories         readline
       mark-symlinked-directories

(HISTORY)

         set  -o history shell  command history HISTSIZE HISTSIZE  (500) shell
       ( EXPANSION ) shell HISTIGNORE HISTCONTROL

        HISTFILE  ( ~/.bash_history) HISTFILE  HISTFILESIZE   shell  $HISTSIZE
       $HISTFILE   shell  histappend  ( shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) shopt )
       HISTFILE HISTFILESIZE HISTFILESIZE

        fc ( shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) ) history

       shell HISTCONTROL HISTIGNORE  shell shell cmdhist  shell shell  lithist
       shell shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) shopt  shell

("HISTORY EXPANSION")

       shell csh  shell set -H  ( shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) ) shell

        shell  event words  modifiers  metacharacter  ! (\)

         shopt   shell histverify  ( shopt ) readline  shell readline readline
       shell histreedit readline history -p history -s

       shell  ( Shell Variables histchars )

   Event Designators
        (event designator)

       !       blank, newline, =  (.
       !n      n.
       !-n     n.
       !!      `!-1'
       !string
               string
       !?string[?]
               string  ?  string
       ^string1^string2^
               string1 string2.  ``!!:s/string1/string2/'' (  (Modifiers))
       !#

   Word Designators
        (word designator)  event :  event  word ^, $, *, -, %  0

       0 (zero)
               0  shell
       n       n
       ^       1
       $
       %       `?string?'
       x-y    `-y'  `0-y'
       *       0  `1-$'  event *
       x*     x-$
       x-     -$  x*

        word  event  event

    (Modifiers)
        word  modifiers  `:'

       h
       t
       r       .xxx
       e
       p
       q
       x       q, blanks
       s/old/new/
               old new  / old new  & new old  & old old !?string[?]  string
       &
       g       `:s'  `:&' (`:gs/old/new/')  `:s'  /

shell (SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS)

        - --
       : [arguments]
               arguments 0

        .  filename [arguments]
       source filename [arguments]
               shell filename filename filename  (slash)  PATH  filename  PATH
              bash   posix mode PATH shopt sourcepath PATH  arguments filename
              (positional parameters) 0 filename false

       alias [-p] [name[=value] ...]
              Alias -p alias name=value  value  name value  name  value  Alias
              true  name

       bg [jobspec]
               jobspec &  jobspecshell current job bg jobspec 0  jobspec

       bind [-m keymap] [-lpsvPSV]
       bind [-m keymap] [-q function] [-u function] [-r keyseq]
       bind [-m keymap] -f filename
       bind [-m keymap] -x keyseq:shell-command
       bind [-m keymap] keyseq:function-name
       bind readline-command
                  readline    readline    readline    .inputrc    '"\C-x\C-r":
              re-read-init-file'
              -m keymap
                      keymap keymap keymap emacs, emacs-standard,  emacs-meta,
                     emacs-ctlx,   vi,   vi-move,   vi-command   vi-insert  vi
                     vi-command ; emacs  emacs-standard
              -l      readline
              -p      readline
              -P      readline
              -v      readline
              -V      readline
              -s      readline
              -S      readline
              -f filename
                      filename
              -q function
                     function
              -u function
                      function
              -r keyseq
                      keyseq
              -x keyseq:shell-command
                      shell-command  keyseq

              0

       break [n]
               for, while, until, select  n  n n  >= 1 n 0 break  shell

       builtin shell-builtin [arguments]
               shell arguments  shell cd  false shell-builtin  shell

       cd [-L|-P] [dir]
               dir HOME CDPATH dir CDPATH  (:)  CDPATH   ``.''.      (/,slash)
              CDPATH -P ( set -P ); -L - $OLDPWD  true  false

       command [-pVv] command [arg ...]
                command  args   shell  PATH  -p  command PATH -V -v command -v
              command -V -V -v command 01 command 127 command command

       compgen [option] [word]
               option  word option complete  -p  -r  -F  -C shell

                word word

       complete [-abcdefgjksuv] [-o comp-option] [-A action] [-G globpat]  [-W
       wordlist] [-P prefix] [-S suffix]
              [-X filterpat] [-F function] [-C command] name [name ...]
       complete -pr [name ...]
               name  -p -r  name  name

               Programmable Completion()

              -G, -W,  -X  ( -P  -S ) complete
              -o comp-option
                      comp-option  compspec comp-option
                      default  readline  compspec
                      dirnames
                               compspec
                      filenames
                               readlinecompspec () shell
                      nospace  readline  ()
              -A action
                      action
                      alias    -a
                      arrayvar

                      binding Readline
                      builtin shell  -b
                      command  -c
                      directory
                               -d
                      disabled

                      enabled
                      export   shell  -e
                      file     -f
                      function
                              shell
                      group    -g
                      helptopic
                               help
                      hostname
                               HOSTFILE
                      job      -j
                      keyword shell  -k
                      running
                      service  -s
                      setopt   set  -o
                      shopt    shopt  shell
                      signal
                      stopped
                      user     -u
                      variable
                              shell  -v
              -G globpat
                       globpat
              -W wordlist
                      wordlist IFS
              -C command
                      command  shell
              -F function
                      shell  function  shell COMPREPLY
              -X filterpat
                      filterpat  filterpat  filterpat  !   filterpat
              -P prefix
                      prefix
              -S suffix
                      suffix

               -p  -r  name  name

       continue [n]
                for, while, until, select n  n n  >= 1 n  (``top-level'' loop)
              0 continue shell

       declare [-afFirtx] [-p] [name[=value]]
       typeset [-afFirtx] [-p] [name[=value]]
              / name -p name -p -F -F -f.
              -a      name  ( Arrays )
              -f
              -i      (  (ARITHMETIC EVALUATION) )
              -r      name
              -t      name  trace()  shell  DEBUG trace
              -x      name

               `+'  `-'  +a  name local  0  ``-f  foo=bar''   (  Arrays  )name
              shell  -f

       dirs [-clpv] [+n] [-n]
               pushd popd
              +n      dirs  n  0
              -n      dirs  n  0
              -c
              -l
              -p
              -v

               0 n

       disown [-ar] [-h] [jobspec ...]
               jobspec  - jobspec  shell SIGHUP SIGHUP jobspec -a -r  (current
              job) jobspec -a -r jobspec  0 jobspec

       echo [-neE] [arg ...]
               arg 0  -n -e -E shell  xpg_echo  echo echo -- echo
              \a     alert (bell)
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress trailing newline
              \e     an escape character  Esc
              \f     form feed
              \n     new line
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0nnn   nnn ()
              \nnn    nnn ()
              \xHH    HH ()

       enable [-adnps] [-f filename] [name ...]
               shell  shell  -n   name  name  PATH  test   shell  ``enable  -n
              test''.  -f filename name -d -f  name -p  shell  shell -n -a  -s
              POSIX special  0 name  shell

       eval [arg ...]
              arg  shell eval args eval  0

       exec [-cl] [-a name] [command [arguments]]
                command   shell  arguments   command  -l  shell   command    0
              (dash,`-')  login(1)  -c  command -a shell name  0 as the zeroth
              argument to the executed  command.   If  command   shell   shell
              execfail  shell command  shell  0 1

       exit [n]
               shell  n n  shell EXIT

       export [-fn] [name[=word]] ...
       export -p
               names -f names names -p  shell -n export  0name  shell -f name

       fc [-e ename] [-nlr] [first] [last]
       fc -s [pat=rep] [cmd]
                first  last  First  last   ()  ( ) last  ( ``fc -l -10''  10 )
              first first  -16

               -n -r -l ename ename FCEDIT FCEDIT EDITOR vi

              command  pat  rep ``r=fc -s'', ``r cc'' ``cc'' ``r''

               0 first last -e cmd fc

       fg [jobspec]
               jobspec jobspec  shell  current job jobspec jobspec

       getopts optstring name [args]
              getopts  shell optstring getopts  shell name name OPTIND   shell
              shell OPTIND  1 getopts OPTARG shell OPTIND  shell getopts

              getopts  0 OPTIND name  ?

              getopts args getopts

              getopts optstring silent OPTERR  0 optstring

               getopts name  ?  OPTARG getopts OPTARG

               getopts name  (?) OPTARG getopts name  (:) OPTARG

              getopts /

       hash [-lr] [-p filename] [-dt] [name]
               name, $PATH -p filename -r  shell -d  shell  name -t  name name
              -t name -l  -l name

       help [-s] [pattern]
               pattern () help pattern  shell  -s  0 pattern

       history [n]
       history -c
       history -d offset
       history -anrw [filename]
       history -p arg [arg ...]
       history -s arg [arg ...]
               * n n  filename HISTFILE
              -c
              -d offset
                      offset
              -a      ``''  ( bash )
              -n      bash
              -r
              -w
              -p      args  args
              -s      args args

               0/ -d  offset -p

       jobs [-lnprs] [ jobspec ... ]
       jobs -x command [ args ... ]

              -l     ID
              -p      leader ID
              -n
              -r
              -s

               jobspec  0 jobspec

               -x jobs command args jobspec ID command args

       kill [-s sigspec | -n signum | -sigspec] [pid | jobspec] ...
       kill -l [sigspec | exit_status]
               pid jobspec sigspec signum sigspec SIGKILL signum  sigspec  SIG
              sigspec SIGTERM -l -l  0 -l  exit_status kill

       let arg [arg ...]
               arg  (  (ARITHMETIC EVALUATION) ) arg  0 let  1 0

       local [option] [name[=value] ...]
               name value option  declare local name local local  0 local name
              name

       logout  shell

       popd [-n] [+n] [-n]
               cd
              +n      dirs  n  ( 0 ) ``popd +0'' ``popd +1''
              -n      dirs  n  ( 0 ) ``popd -0'' ``popd -1''
              -n

               popd dirs  0 popd

       printf format [arguments]
                format   arguments  format   argument   printf(1)  %b   printf
              arguments %q  printf  argument  shell

              format  arguments  format  arguments  0  0 0

       pushd [-n] [dir]
       pushd [-n] [+n] [-n]
                0
              +n      dirs  n  ( 0 )
              -n      dirs  n  ( 0 )
              -n
              dir     dir

               pushd dirs pushd  0 cd dir pushd  0

       pwd [-LP]
               -P set -o physical -L  0

       read [-ers] [-u fd] [-t timeout] [-a aname] [-p prompt] [-n nchars] [-d
       delim] [name ...]
               -u  fd name, name, name.  IFS  (\)
              -a aname
                      aname  0 aname  name
              -d delim
                     delim
              -e      readline ( READLINE )
              -n nchars
                     read  nchars
              -p prompt
                      prompt
              -r     -
              -s
              -t timeout
                      read  timeout  read
              -u fd   fd

               names REPLY  0 EOFreadP  -u

       readonly [-apf] [name ...]
               name names -f names -a name -p -p  0 names  shell -f name

       return [n]
               n n .  (source)  shell n .

       set [--abefhkmnptuvxBCHP] [-o option] [arg ...]
              shell  shell $1, $2, ...  $n.
              -a
              -b
              -e       simple command ( SHELL GRAMMAR ) shell until  while  if
                      && || !   ERR  shell
              -f
              -h
              -k
              -m       shell  ( JOB CONTROL )
              -n       shell  shell
              -o option-name
                      option-name
                      allexport
                               -a
                      braceexpand
                               -B
                      emacs    emacs  shell  shell --noediting
                      errexit  -e
                      hashall  -h
                      histexpand
                               -H
                      history  HISTORY  shell
                      ignoreeof
                               shell ``IGNOREEOF=10''  ( Shell Variables )
                      keyword  -k
                      monitor  -m
                      noclobber
                               -C
                      noexec   -n
                      noglob   -f nolog
                      notify   -b
                      nounset  -u
                      onecmd   -t
                      physical
                               -P
                      posix    POSIX 1003.2 bash  (posix mode)
                      privileged
                               -p
                      verbose  -v
                      vi       vi
                      xtrace   -x
                       option-name -o  option-name +o set
              -p        privileged  mode  ()  $ENV  $BASH_ENV  shell SHELLOPTS
                      shell () ID () ID  -p  ID  ID -p  ID  ID  ID
              -t
              -u      shell ;  shellshell
              -v
              -x       PS4
              -B      shell  ( Brace Expansion)
              -C       bash >, >&, <> >| >
              -H       Enable !   shell
              -P      shell cd bash
              --       arg -
              -        arg -x -v  arg

               +  -  shell $-

       shift [n]
               n+1 ...  $1 ....   $#  $#-n+1 n  $# n  0 n  1 n  $#  0 n $#   0
              0

       shopt [-pqsu] [-o] [optname ...]
               shell -p -p
              -s     ()  optname
              -u     ()  optname
              -q      () optname -q  optname  optname  0
              -o      optname set -o

               -s -u  optname shopt ()

               0 optname  0 optname  shell

              shopt

              cdable_vars
                       cd
              cdspell  cd  shell
              checkhash
                      bash
              checkwinsize
                      bash LINES COLUMNS
              cmdhist  bash
              dotglob  bash  `.'
              execfail
                       shell exec  shell exec
              expand_aliases
                       ALIASES  shell
              extglob  Pathname Expansion
              histappend
                       shell HISTFILE
              histreedit
                       readline
              histverify
                       readline  shell readline
              hostcomplete
                       readline bash ( READLINE Completing )
              huponexit
                       shell  bash SIGHUP
              interactive_comments
                       shell #  ( COMMENTS )
              lithist  cmdhist
              login_shell
                       shell  shell  ( (INVOCATION) )
              mailwarn
                       bash  ``The mail in mailfile has been read''(mailfile )
              no_empty_cmd_completion
                       readline bash  PATH
              nocaseglob
                       bash ( Pathname Expansion )
              nullglob
                       bash ( Pathname Expansion )
              progcomp
                       ( Programmable Completion)
              promptvars
                       PROMPTING
              restricted_shell
                      shell  ( shell(RESTRICTED SHELL) )  shell
              shift_verbose
                       shift
              sourcepath
                       source (.)  PATH
              xpg_echo
                       echo
       suspend [-f]
               shell SIGCONT -f  shell 0 shell  shell -f
       test expr
       [ expr ]
               0  1 expr  (CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS)

              ! expr  expr
              ( expr )
                      expr
              expr1 -a expr2
                      expr1 expr2
              expr1 -o expr2
                      expr1 expr2

              test  [

              0 arguments

              1 argument

              2 arguments
                      !   (CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS)
              3 arguments
                       (CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS)  !   ( )  -a  -o
              4 arguments
                      !
              5  arguments

       times   shell  shell  0

       trap [-lp] [arg] [sigspec ...]
                shell  sigspec arg arg -,  ( shell ) arg sigspec  shell arg -p
              sigspec -p trap sigspec  <signal.h> sigspec EXIT (0) arg   shell
              sigspec  DEBUG, arg  (simple command SHELL GRAMMAR) sigspec ERR,
              arg until while if && || !  ERR -l  shell shell sigspec trap

       type [-aftpP] name [name ...]
               name -t type alias, keyword, function, builtin, file name shell
              name  -p  type name ``type -t name'' file.  -P  name PATH ``type
              -t name'' file.  -p -P  PATH  -a  type  name  -p  -a  -f   shell
              command type

       ulimit [-SHacdflmnpstuv [limit]]
               shell  -H  -S  -H  -S limit hard, soft, unlimited limit  -H
              -a
              -c     core
              -d
              -f     shell
              -l
              -m
              -n      ()
              -p      512  ()
              -s
              -t     cpu
              -u
              -v     shell

               limit  ( -a ) -f  1024 -t -p  512 -n -u  0

       umask [-p] [-S] [mode]
               mode.  mode chmod(1) mode -S -p mode  0 mode

       unalias [-a] [name ...]
               name -a name

       unset [-fv] [name ...]
                name  -v  name   shell -f name  shell RANDOM, SECONDS, LINENO,
              HISTCMD, FUNCNAME, GROUPS, DIRSTACK name

       wait [n]
               n  ID n  0 n  127

shell(RESTRICTED SHELL)

        bash rbash -r  shell  shell  shell bash  (disallowed)  (not performed)

       o       cd

       o       SHELL, PATH, ENV, BASH_ENV

       o       /

       o       / .

       o       (slash) -p hash

       o       shell  (import)

       o       shell  SHELLOPTS

       o       >, >|, <>, >&, &>,  >>

       o       exec  shell

       o       enable -f -d

       o       enable  shell

       o       command -p

       o       set +r  set +o restricted

        shell  ( (COMMAND EXECUTION) ) rbash  (spawn)  shell

("SEE ALSO")

       Bash Reference Manual, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       The Gnu Readline Library, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       The Gnu History Library, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       Portable  Operating  System  Interface  (POSIX)  Part  2:   Shell   and
       Utilities, IEEE
       sh(1), ksh(1), csh(1)
       emacs(1), vi(1)
       readline(3)

(FILES)

       /bin/bash
              bash
       /etc/profile
               shell
       ~/.bash_profile
               shell
       ~/.bashrc
               shell
       ~/.bash_logout
               shell  shell
       ~/.inputrc
               readline

(AUTHORS)

       Brian Fox, Free Software Foundation
       bfox@gnu.org

       Chet Ramey, Case Western Reserve University
       chet@ins.CWRU.Edu

BUGS (BUG REPORTS)

        bash  bug  bug bash

         bug  bashbug   bash "" (`philosophical')  "" bug-bash@gnu.org  Usenet
       gnu.bash.bug

       bash

        bug
        bug  "" (recipe)

       bashbug

        chet@ins.CWRU.Edu.

BUGS


       bash sh POSIX

       Shell /

        `a ; b ; c' shell  shell

        $(...)

        (export)

[]

        <bbbush@163.com>

[]

       2004.03.05

linuxman:

       http://cmpp.linuxforum.net