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NAME

       grep, egrep, fgrep -

 SYNOPSIS
       grep [options] PATTERN [FILE...]
       grep [options] [-e PATTERN | -f FILE] [FILE...]

 DESCRIPTION
       Grep FILE  ( - ) PATTERN grep

        egrep fgrep Egrep grep -E Fgrep grep -F

 OPTIONS
       -A NUM, --after-context=NUM
               NUM --

       -a, --text
               --binary-files=text

       -B NUM, --before-context=NUM
               NUM --

       -C NUM, --context=NUM
               NUM --

       -b, --byte-offset

       --binary-files=TYPE
               TYPE TYPE binary grep TYPE without-match grep -I TYPE text grep
              -a  grep --binary-files=text

       --colour[=WHEN], --color[=WHEN]
               GREP_COLOR WHEN  `never', `always',  `auto'

       -c, --count
               -v, --invert-match  ()

       -D ACTION, --devices=ACTION
              FIFO  (socket) ACTION ACTION read ACTION skip

       -d ACTION, --directories=ACTION
               ACTION ACTION read ACTION skip ACTION recurse grep -r

       -E, --extended-regexp
               PATTERN  ()

       -e PATTERN, --regexp=PATTERN
               PATTERN -

       -F, --fixed-strings
               PATTERN  (newlines)

       -P, --perl-regexp
               PATTERN  Perl

       -f FILE, --file=FILE
               FILE 0

       -G, --basic-regexp
               PATTERN  ()

       -H, --with-filename

       -h, --no-filename

       --help

       -I      --binary-files=without-match

       -i, --ignore-case
               PATTERN

       -L, --files-without-match

       -l, --files-with-matches

       -m NUM, --max-count=NUM
               NUM NUM grep grep NUM -c --count  grep  NUM  -v  --invert-match
              grep NUM

       --mmap  mmap(2) read(2) --mmap grep  I/O --mmap  (core dumps)

       -n, --line-number

       -o, --only-matching
               PATTERN

       --label=LABEL
               LABEL  zgrep gzip -cd foo.gz |grep --label=foo something

       --line-buffering
              it can be a performance penality.

       -q, --quiet, --silent
               0 -s --no-messages

       -R, -r, --recursive
               -d recurse

         --include=PATTERN
               PATTERN

         --exclude=PATTERN
               PATTERN

       -s, --no-messages
                 GNU grep grep  POSIX.2 grep -q -s  GNU grep -q grep  shell -q
              -s  /dev/null

       -U, --binary
               MS-DOS  MS-Windows grep  32kB grep  CR  ( ^ $ ) -U  CR/LF   MS-
              DOS  MS-Windows

       -u, --unix-byte-offsets
               Unix grep  Unix  CR  Unix grep -b  MS-DOS  MS-Windows

       -V, --version
               grep  bug  ()

       -v, --invert-match

       -w, --word-regexp

       -x, --line-regexp

       -y     -i

       -Z, --null
               (ASCII NUL ) grep -lZ find -print0, perl -0, sort -z, xargs -0

 REGULAR EXPRESSIONS

       Grep "basic"  "extended" GNU grep  (basic)  (extended)

       (may be quoted by preceding it with a backslash.)

        (bracket) [ ]  (caret) ^  [0123456789]

           (range)  (hyphen) (that sorts between the two characters,inclusive,
       using the locale's collating sequence and  character  set.)   C  locale
       [a-d] [abcd]  locale  locale [a-d] [abcd] [aBbCcDd] LC_ALL C  locale C

          [:alnum:](),  [:alpha:](),  [:cntrl:](),  [:digit:](),  [:graph:](),
       [:lower:](),  [:print:](),   [:punct:](),   [:space:](),   [:upper:](),
       [:xdigit:] [[:alnum:]] [0-9A-Za-z]  locale C ASCII  locale ()

        (literal) ]  (literal) ^  (literal) -

        (period) .  \w [[:alnum:]] \W [^[:alnum]]

        (caret) ^  (dollar) $ \< \> \b  (edge) \B

       ?
       *
       +
       {n}     n
       {n,}    n
       {n,m}   n m

        |

        (parentheses) (to override these precedence rules.)

        \n n n

        ?, +, {, |, (, )  (backslash) \?, \+, \{, \|, \(, \)

        egrep { egrep \{ egrep { [{]  (literal) {

       GNU  egrep  {   an  invalid  interval specification shell egrep '{1' {1
       POSIX.2

 ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       Grep

        locale LC_foo LC_ALL, LC_foo, LANG,  locale LC_ALL  LC_MESSAGES  pt_BR
       (Brazilian  Portuguese)  LC_MESSAGES  locale   locale  grep   (national
       language support (NLS))  locale C

       GREP_OPTIONS
               GREP_OPTIONS '--binary-files=without-match  --directories=skip'
              grep       --binary-files=without-match       --directories=skip
              (whitespace)  (backslash)  (escape)

       GREP_COLOR

       LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LANG
               locale LC_COLLATE [a-z]  (collating sequence)

       LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG
               locale LC_CTYPE  (whitespace)

       LC_ALL, LC_MESSAGES, LANG
               locale LC_MESSAGES grep  locale C

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
               grep  POSIX.2 grep  GNU POSIX.2  POSIX.2  "illegal"  (diagnose)
              "invalid" POSIXLY_CORRECT  _N_GNU_nonoption_argv_flags_

       _N_GNU_nonoption_argv_flags_
              ( N grep's ID) i 1 grep i shell  GNU C POSIXLY_CORRECT

 DIAGNOSTICS
       012 -q --quiet --silent

BUGS

       bug bug-gnu-utils@gnu.org "Subject:" "grep"

        {n,m} grep grep

        (backreferences)

[]

        <bbbush@163.com>

[]

       2003.11.03

linuxman:

       http://cmpp.linuxforum.net

                                  GNU Project                          GREP(1)