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NAME

       psql - PostgreSQL

SYNOPSIS

       psql [option...] [dbname [username]]

DESCRIPTION

       psql  PostgreSQL   PostgreSQL   shell

OPTIONS

       -a

       --echo-all
                 ECHO  all

       -A

       --no-align

       -ccommand

       --commandcommand
                psql   command  shell  command  psql  SQL  psql psql echo "\x\
              select * from foo;" | psql

                SQL   BEGIN/COMMIT   psql

       -ddbname

       --dbnamedbname
                dbname

       -e

       --echo-queries
                 ECHO  queries

       -E

       --echo-hidden
               \d   psqlECHO_HIDDEN

       -ffilename

       --filefilename
                filename psql \i

              filename -

                psql < filename   -f    shell

       -Fseparator

       --field-separatorseparator
                separator \pset fieldsep \f

       -hhostname

       --hosthostname
                 Unix

       -H

       --html
               HTML\pset format html \H

       -l

       --list
                \list

       -ofilename

       --outputfilename
                filename\o

       -pport

       --portport
                TCP  Unix  PGPORT 5432

       -Passignment

       --psetassignment
               \pset    LaTeX -P format=latex

       -q

       --quiet
                psql  psql  -c  psql  QUIET

       -Rseparator

       --record-separatorseparator
                separator  \pset recordsep

       -s

       --single-step

       -S

       --single-line

              Note: :    SQL

       -t

       --tuples-only
               \t

       -Ttable_options

       --table-attrtable_options
                HTML table  \pset

       -u
                psql

                 -U  -W

       -Uusername

       --usernameusername
                username

       -vassignment

       --setassignment

       --variableassignment
               \set

       -V

       --version
               psql

       -W

       --password
                psql   \connect

              psql "hack"

       -x

       --expanded
               \x

       -X,

       --no-psqlrc
                ~/.psqlrc

       -?

       --help
               psql

EXIT STATUS

       psql   shell  0 1  2 ON_ERROR_STOP  3

USAGE

   CONNECTING TO A DATABASE
       psql   PostgreSQL      psql   -d   -h-p   -U     psql    Unix      Unix
       PGDATABASE PGHOSTPGPORT  PGUSER

         psql

   ENTERING SQL COMMANDS  SQL
        psql  psql  =>

       $psql testdb
       Welcome to psql 7.4beta5, the PostgreSQL interactive terminal.

       Type: \copyright for distribution terms
             \h for help with SQL commands
             \? for help on internal slash commands
             \g or terminate with semicolon to execute query
             \q to quit

       testdb=>

        SQL

        psql  LISTEN [listen(7)]  NOTIFY [notify(7)]

   META-COMMANDS
         psql '\' psql  psql  psql

         psql

           C \n (new line),\t (tab), \digits, \0digits, \0xdigits

        : psql   ecpg  pl/pgsql

         "backticks" `  shell

          SQL   SQL     FOO"BAR"BAZ  fooBARbaz "A weird"" name"  A weird" name
       name.

          \\  SQL  SQL  psql

       \a
                \pset

       \cd [directory]
                directory

              Tip: :  \!pwd.

       \C [title ]
                \pset titletitle.  "caption" HTML

       \connect (or\c) [dbname [username ] ]
               /  dbname  -

                username

               \connect   psql

               -- psql

       \copytable
                SQL  COPY   SQL COPY  psql   SQL

                SQL COPY  \copy

              Tip: :   SQL COPY  /

              Note: :   stdin  stdout   psql stdin  COPY  -f   stdout \o

       \copyright
                PostgreSQL

       \d [pattern ]
               pattern NOT NULL   ""

              \d+

              Note: :  pattern\d  \dtvs

       \da [pattern ]
                pattern

       \dc [pattern ]
                pattern

       \dC

       \dd [pattern ]
                pattern    ""

              =>\dd version
                                   Object descriptions
                 Schema   |  Name   |  Object  |        Description
              ------------+---------+----------+---------------------------
               pg_catalog | version | function | PostgreSQL version string
              (1 row)

               COMMENT  SQL

       \dD [pattern ]
                pattern

       \df [pattern ]
                pattern\df+

              Note: :  \df  I/O   cstring

       \distvS [pattern ]
                istvS index sequencetableviewsystem table   S  S  +

                pattern

       \dl    \lo_list

       \dn [pattern ]
                pattern

       \do [pattern ]
                 pattern

       \dp [pattern ]
                 pattern

               grant(7) revoke(7) grant(7)

       \dT [pattern ]
                pattern\dT+

       \du [pattern ]
                pattern

       \edit (or\e) [filename ]
               filename

              psql ""\i

              Tip: :  psql  PSQL_EDITOREDITOR   VISUAL/bin/vi

       \echotext [ ... ]

              =>\echo `date`
              Tue Oct 26 21:40:57 CEST 1999

                -n

              Tip: :  \o \qecho

       \encoding [encoding ]

       \f [string ]
               | \pset

       \g [ {filename | |command } ]
                filename   Unix shell  command \g \g ""\o

       \help (or\h) [command ]
                SQL  command  psql  command  "*" SQL

              Note: :  \help alter table

       \H
                HTML  HTML   \pset

       \ifilename
               filename

              Note: :   ECHO  all

       \l (or\list)
                "+"

       \lo_exportloidfilename
                OID  loid   filename  lo_export  lo_export

              Tip: :  \lo_list  OID OID.

       \lo_importfilename [comment ]
                PostgreSQL

              foo=>\lo_import '/home/peter/pictures/photo.xcf' 'a picture of me'
              lo_import 152801

                152801 \lo_list

                lo_import

       \lo_list
                PostgreSQL

       \lo_unlinkloid
               OIDloid

              Tip: :  \lo_list   OID OID.

       \o [ {filename | |command} ]
                filename   Unix shell  command

              "" \d

              Tip: :  \qecho

       \p

       \psetparameter [value ]
               parameter  value

              format
                       unalignedalignedhtml  latex

                     "Unaligned"   tab  "Aligned"   "HTML"   "LaTeX"      HTML
                     LaTeX

              border
                       HTML border=...  0 1  2

              expanded (or x)
                        ""

              null
                       null   \pset null '(null)'

              fieldsep
                       tab tab  \pset fieldsep '' '|'

              footer
                       (x rows)

              recordsep

              tuples_only ( t)

              title [text ]

              tableattr (or T) [text ]
                       HTML table  cellpadding  bgcolor border \pset border

              pager
                      psql PAGER  more

                        psql \pset pager  always

         "Examples "

              Tip: :  \pset \a,\C,\H, \t,\T, \x

              Note: :  \pset

       \q
                psql

       \qechotext [ ... ]
               \echo \o

       \r

       \s [filename ]
                filename  filename  psql  GNU

              Note: :   GNU   psql

       \set [name [value [ ... ]]]
                name   value  \unset

                 "Variables "

                psql

              Note: :   SQL  SET [set(7)]

       \t
               / \pset tuples_only

       \Ttable_options
               HTML table  \pset tableattr table_options

       \timing
               SQL

       \w {filename ||command}
                filename   Unix  command

       \x
               \pset expanded

       \z [pattern ]
                pattern

               grant(7) revoke(7)  grant(7)

               \dp""

       \! [command ]
                Unix shell  Unix  command shell

       \?

        \d  pattern  * ""  ? "" Unix  shell  [0-9] ""

         \dt foo*.bar* foo  bar

         pattern  \d   *.*

   ADVANCED FEATURES
   VARIABLES
       psql  Unix  shell  /  psql \set

       testdb=>\set foo bar

        "foo"  "bar"

       testdb=>\echo :foo
       bar

              Note:  :  \set   \set  :foo 'something'  Perl PHP"soft links"" "
              \set bar :foo

        \set  \unset

       psql    psql

       AUTOCOMMIT
                on SQL   BEGIN  START TRANSACTION SQL   off SQL   COMMIT   END
              BEGIN   BEGIN

              Note: :   ABORT  ROLLBACK

              Note: :   PostgreSQL   SQL .psqlrc

       DBNAME

       ECHO
                all   -a queries psql   -e

       ECHO_HIDDEN
                 PostgreSQL   "noexec"

       ENCODING

       HISTCONTROL
                ignorespace   ignoredups  ignoreboth

              Note: :  bash

       HISTSIZE
                500

              Note: :  bash

       HOST

       IGNOREEOF
                psql EOF Control+D EOF   10

              Note: :  bash

       LASTOID
               oid INSERT  lo_insert   SQL

       ON_ERROR_STOP
                SQL   psql     psql   -f psql   3 1

       PORT

       PROMPT1

       PROMPT2

       PROMPT3
               psql   "Prompting "

       QUIET
                -q

       SINGLELINE
                -S

       SINGLESTEP
               -s

       USER
                /

       VERBOSITY
                defaultverbose terse

   SQL INTERPOLATION
         psql "" SQL :

       testdb=>\set foo 'my_table'
       testdb=>SELECT * FROM :foo;

        my_table   SQL

         OID

       testdb=>\set content '\'' `cat my_file.txt` '\''
       testdb=>INSERT INTO my_table VALUES (:content);

         my_file.txt    sed

       testdb=>\set content '\'' `sed -e "s/'/\\\\\\'/g" < my_file.txt` '\''

        6 psql  sed -e "s/'/\\\'/g" < my_file.txt shell shell  -e
        s/'/\\'/g  sed sed   Unix   SQL

         SQL   "+"    SQL  ECPG PostgreSQL

   PROMPTING
       psql   PROMPT1PROMPT2  PROMPT3  Prompt 1  psql  Prompt 2  Prompt 3  SQL
       COPY

        %

       %M
                Unix  [local]  Unix  [local:/dir/name]

       %m
                 Unix  [local]

       %>

       %n
                SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION

       %/

       %~      %/ "~"  tilde

       %#
                "#"">" SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION

       %R
                prompt 1  = ^

       %x
                *  ! ?

       %digits
                digits  0x    0

       %:name:
              psqlname "Variables "

       %`command`
              command back-tick

        %% '%/%R%# '  prompts 1  2'>> '  prompt 3

              Note: :  tcsh

   COMMAND-LINE EDITING
       psql  readline   .psql_history   psql   Tab  SQL   tab .inputrc

       $if psql
       set disable-completion on
       $endif

        psql  Readline

ENVIRONMENT

       HOME
               .psqlrc.psql_history

       PAGER
                 more  less \pset

       PGDATABASE

       PGHOST

       PGPORT

       PGUSER

       PSQL_EDITOR

       EDITOR

       VISUAL \e

       SHELL  \!

       TMPDIR
               /tmp

FILES

       o
          psql  $HOME/.psqlrc  \set SET

       o
          $HOME/.psql_history

NOTES

       o
           psql

         testdb=>\foo
         Field separator is "oo".

       o psql

EXAMPLES


       testdb=>CREATE TABLE my_table (
       testdb(> first integer not null default 0,
       testdb(> second text
       testdb->);
       CREATE TABLE

       testdb=>\d my_table
                    Table "my_table"
        Attribute |  Type   |      Modifier
       -----------+---------+--------------------
        first     | integer | not null default 0
        second    | text    |

       testdb=>\set PROMPT1 '%n@%m %~%R%# '
       peter@localhost testdb=>

       peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT * FROM my_table;
        first | second
       -------+--------
            1 | one
            2 | two
            3 | three
            4 | four
       (4 rows)

        \pset

       peter@localhost testdb=>\pset border 2
       Border style is 2.
       peter@localhost testdb=>SELECT * FROM my_table;
       +-------+--------+
       | first | second |
       +-------+--------+
       |     1 | one    |
       |     2 | two    |
       |     3 | three  |
       |     4 | four   |
       +-------+--------+
       (4 rows)

       peter@localhost testdb=>\pset border 0
       Border style is 0.
       peter@localhost testdb=>SELECT * FROM my_table;
       first second
       ----- ------
           1 one
           2 two
           3 three
           4 four
       (4 rows)

       peter@localhost testdb=>\pset border 1
       Border style is 1.
       peter@localhost testdb=>\pset format unaligned
       Output format is unaligned.
       peter@localhost testdb=>\pset fieldsep ","
       Field separator is ",".
       peter@localhost testdb=>\pset tuples_only
       Showing only tuples.
       peter@localhost testdb=>SELECT second, first FROM my_table;
       one,1
       two,2
       three,3
       four,4

       peter@localhost testdb=>\a\t\x
       Output format is aligned.
       Tuples only is off.
       Expanded display is on.
       peter@localhost testdb=>SELECT * FROM my_table;
       -[ RECORD 1 ]-
       first  | 1
       second | one
       -[ RECORD 2 ]-
       first  | 2
       second | two
       -[ RECORD 3 ]-
       first  | 3
       second | three
       -[ RECORD 4 ]-
       first  | 4
       second | four

       Postgresql  <laser@pgsqldb.org>