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NAME

     ssh -- OpenSSH SSH  ()

 (SYNOPSIS)
     ssh [-l login_name] hostname | user@hostname [command]

     ssh [-afgknqstvxACNTX1246] [-b bind_address] [-c cipher_spec]
     [-e escape_char] [-i identity_file] [-l login_name] [-m mac_spec]
     [-o option] [-p port] [-F configfile] [-L port:host:hostport]
     [-R port:host:hostport] [-D port] hostname | user@hostname [command]

 (DESCRIPTION)
     ssh (SSH ) , .   rlogin  rsh, , , , .  X11  TCP/IP (forward).

      ssh hostname , , /:

   SSH
     , /etc/hosts.equiv /etc/ssh/shosts.equiv , , .  ,  (home ) .rhosts
     .shosts, , .  , , .

      rhosts hosts.equiv  RSA .  $HOME/.rhosts, $HOME/.shosts,
     /etc/hosts.equiv, /etc/ssh/shosts.equiv , (host key) ( (FILE)
     /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts ), .   IP , DNS .  [:
     /etc/hosts.equiv, $HOME/.rhosts,  rlogin/rsh , .]

     , ssh  RSA .  : , . RSA .  /.  , .  $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys (). , ssh
     ().  (), , ( ssh ) , . .  , /, ().

     ssh  RSA .  ssh-keygen(1) / RSA .  $HOME/.ssh/identity ,
     $HOME/.ssh/identity.pub . , identity.pub , $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys / (
     authorized_keys $HOME/.rhosts , , ).  . RSA  rhosts .

     RAS (authentication agent) .  ssh-agent(1) .

     , ssh (password), .  , .

   SSH
     , .  PreferredAuthentications , ; ; , , , .

      RAS ,  RAS  DSA :  ( $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa ) (session
     identifier), .  $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys , , .   Diffie-Hellman , .

     , .

     , ssh .

      ( 3DES, Blowfish, CAST128  Arcfour ) (hmac-md5, hmac-sha1).  , .

     , ,  shell.  shell .

     (pseudo-terminal)(),  escape .

     , (transparent), .  , ,  escape ``none'' .

      shell , ,  X11  TCP/IP .  ssh .

   Escape
     , ssh  escape .

      ~~ , , .  escape (newline), .  EscapeChar  escape , -e .

      escape  ( '~') :

     ~.

     ~^Z      ssh

     ~#       (forwarded connection)

     ~&      /X11, ssh

     ~?       escape

     ~C       ( -L -R )

     ~R      (rekeying) (SSH, )

   X11  TCP  (forwarding)
      ForwardX11 ``yes'' ( -X -x ),  X11 ( DISPLAY ),  X11 :  shell  X11 , X .
     DISPLAY.  ,  X11 .

     ssh DISPLAY , . , ssh ``proxy'' X , .

     ssh  Xauthority . : SSH  cookie,  Xauthority .  SSH  cookie, ,  cookie.
     cookie  ( cookie).

      ForwardAgent ``yes'' ( -A -a ), (authentication agent), .

     ,  TCP/IP .  TCP/IP , , , .

     ssh , ().  $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts . , SSH /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts . .  ,
     ssh , , .  , .  StrictHostKeyChecking .

     :

     -a      .

     -A      .  .

             .   ( UNIX  socket), .  , , .

     -b bind_address
             , .

     -c blowfish|3des|des
             .  3des .  3des (triple-des) --, .  blowfish (block cipher), ,
             3des .  des ssh , 3des . , .

     -c cipher_spec
             , , , .  Ciphers.

     -e ch|^ch|none
              pty  escape  (: '~').  escape , escape ('.') ,  control-Z
             (suspend),  escape .  ``none''  escape , .

     -f       ssh .  ssh , .  -n .  X11 ssh -f host xterm .

     -g      .

     -i identity_file
              RSA  DSA ().  $HOME/.ssh/identity $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa
             $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa . .  -i  ().

     -I smartcard_device
             (smartcard). , ssh ,  RSA .

     -k       Kerberos  AFS .  .

     -l login_name
             .  .

     -m mac_spec
             , , , MAC() (message authentication code).  MACs .

     -n       stdin /dev/null ( stdin ).  ssh .  X11 . , ssh -n
             shadows.cs.hut.fi emacs &  shadows.cs.hut.fi  emacs,  X11 .  ssh
             . ( ssh , ; -f .)

     -N      . . ()

     -o option
             , .  .

     -p port
             . .

     -q      . .

     -s      .  SSH2 , ( sftp)SSH. .

     -t      .  (screen-based), , .  -t , ssh .

     -T      .

     -v      .  ssh . , .  -v . .

     -x       X11 .

     -X       X11 . .

              X11 .  (X),  X11 .  , .

     -C       ( stdin, stdout, stderr  X11  TCP/IP ).  gzip(1) , , ``level''
             CompressionLevel .  modem , . .  Compression .

     -F configfile
             . , (/etc/ssh/ssh_config) .  $HOME/.ssh/config.

     -L port:host:hostport
             ().  ,  socket port , , , host hostport . .  root .  IPv6 :
             port/host/hostport

     -R port:host:hostport
             ().  ,  socket port , , , host hostport . .  root . IPv6 :
             port/host/hostport

     -D port
              ``'' . ,  socket port , , , .  SOCKS4 , ssh  SOCKS4 .  root .  .

     -1       ssh .

     -2       ssh .

     -4       ssh  IPv4 .

     -6       ssh  IPv6 .

 (CONFIGURATION FILES)
     ssh .  ssh_config(5).

 (ENVIRONMENT)
     ssh :

     DISPLAY
              DISPLAY  X11 .  ssh , ``hostname:n'' ,  hostname  shell ,  n  1
             .  ssh ,  X11 .  DISPLAY ,  X11  ( cookie).

     HOME    .

     LOGNAME
              USER; .

     MAIL    .

     PATH     PATH, ssh .

     SSH_ASKPASS
              ssh (passphrase), , .  ssh , DISPLAY SSH_ASKPASS , ssh
             SSH_ASKPASS ,  X11 .  .Xsession  script ssh , . (, /dev/null .)

     SSH_AUTH_SOCK
              UNIX  socket , .

     SSH_CONNECTION
             . : IP, , IP, .

     SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND
             , . .

     SSH_TTY
              shell ().  , .

     TZ      (daemon), , (, ).

     USER    .

     , , $HOME/.ssh/environment , ssh , ``VARNAME=value'' .  sshd_config(5)
     PermitUserEnvironment .

 (FILES)
     $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts
             , , /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts .  sshd(8).

     $HOME/.ssh/identity, $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa, $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa
             .  RSA,  DSA,  RSA. , , (//). , , ssh . (passphrase), 3DES .

     $HOME/.ssh/identity.pub, $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.pub, $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
              ().   RSA , $HOME/.ssh/identity.pub $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys .
             DSA/RSA , $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.pub $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
             $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys . , ().  ssh , ; .

     $HOME/.ssh/config
             .  ssh_config(5) .

     $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys
              RSA/DSA , .  sshd(8) .  .pub .  , , .

     /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts
             . , . . , (): , , . , ().  sshd(8) .

             , sshd(8) (); , ssh , .

     /etc/ssh/ssh_config
             .  ssh_config(5) .

     /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key, /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key,
             /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
             , RhostsRSAAuthentication HostbasedAuthentication.
             RhostsRSAAuthentication , ssh  setuid root,  root .
             HostbasedAuthentication , ssh ssh-keysign(8) .  ssh setuid root .
             ssh  setuid root.

     $HOME/.rhosts
              .rhosts , /.  ( rlogin  rsh , ) (), , . ,  NFS , , sshd(8)  root
             . , , .  , , .

             , sshd(8) ,  .rhosts , sshd(8)  RSA .  /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts ,
             $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts .  ssh ; $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts.

     $HOME/.shosts
              .rhosts .  ssh  rhosts rlogin rsh(1) .

     /etc/hosts.equiv
             .rhosts  . , ( sshd(8) ). , , .  ,  RSA .  root .

     /etc/ssh/shosts.equiv
              /etc/hosts.equiv .  ssh ,  rsh/rlogin .

     /etc/ssh/sshrc
             ,  shell (), ssh .  sshd(8) .

     $HOME/.ssh/rc
             ,  shell (), ssh .  sshd(8) .

     $HOME/.ssh/environment
             , ENVIRONMENT .

 (DIAGNOSTICS)
     ssh , 255.

 (AUTHORS)
     OpenSSH  Tatu Ylonen  ssh 1.2.12.  Aaron Campbell, Bob Beck, Markus
     Friedl, Niels Provos, Theo de Raadt  Dug Song  BUGS, ,  OpenSSH.  Markus
     Friedl  SSH 1.52.0.

 (SEE ALSO)
     rsh(1), scp(1), sftp(1), ssh-add(1), ssh-agent(1), ssh-keygen(1),
     telnet(1), ssh_config(5), ssh-keysign(8), sshd(8) T. Ylonen, T. Kivinen,
     M. Saarinen, T. Rinne, and S. Lehtinen, SSH Protocol Architecture, draft-
     ietf-secsh-architecture-12.txt, January 2002, work in progress material.

[]

      <xuming@users.sourceforge.net>

[]

     2004/06/11

Linuxman

     http://cmpp.linuxforum.net