Provided by: dpkg_1.16.7ubuntu6_i386 bug

NAME

       dpkg - package manager for Debian

SYNOPSIS

       dpkg [option...] action

WARNING

       This  manual is intended for users wishing to understand dpkg's command
       line options and package states in more detail than  that  provided  by
       dpkg --help.

       It  should not be used by package maintainers wishing to understand how
       dpkg will install their packages. The descriptions of  what  dpkg  does
       when installing and removing packages are particularly inadequate.

DESCRIPTION

       dpkg  is  a  tool to install, build, remove and manage Debian packages.
       The primary and more user-friendly front-end for dpkg  is  aptitude(1).
       dpkg  itself  is controlled entirely via command line parameters, which
       consist of exactly one action and zero or  more  options.  The  action-
       parameter tells dpkg what to do and options control the behavior of the
       action in some way.

       dpkg can also be used as a front-end to dpkg-deb(1) and  dpkg-query(1).
       The  list  of  supported  actions  can be found later on in the ACTIONS
       section. If any such action is encountered dpkg just runs  dpkg-deb  or
       dpkg-query with the parameters given to it, but no specific options are
       currently passed to them, to use any such option the back-ends need  to
       be called directly.

INFORMATION ABOUT PACKAGES

       dpkg  maintains  some  usable information about available packages. The
       information is divided in three classes: states, selection  states  and
       flags. These values are intended to be changed mainly with dselect.

   PACKAGE STATES
       not-installed
              The package is not installed on your system.

       config-files
              Only the configuration files of the package exist on the system.

       half-installed
              The  installation  of  the  package  has  been  started, but not
              completed for some reason.

       unpacked
              The package is unpacked, but not configured.

       half-configured
              The package is unpacked and configuration has been started,  but
              not yet completed for some reason.

       triggers-awaited
              The package awaits trigger processing by another package.

       triggers-pending
              The package has been triggered.

       installed
              The package is unpacked and configured OK.

   PACKAGE SELECTION STATES
       install
              The package is selected for installation.

       hold   A  package  marked  to be on hold is not handled by dpkg, unless
              forced to do that with option --force-hold.

       deinstall
              The package is selected for  deinstallation  (i.e.  we  want  to
              remove all files, except configuration files).

       purge  The  package  is  selected  to be purged (i.e. we want to remove
              everything from system directories, even configuration files).

   PACKAGE FLAGS
       reinst-required
              A  package  marked  reinst-required  is  broken   and   requires
              reinstallation.  These packages cannot be removed, unless forced
              with option --force-remove-reinstreq.

ACTIONS

       -i, --install package-file...
              Install the package. If --recursive or -R option  is  specified,
              package-file must refer to a directory instead.

              Installation consists of the following steps:

              1. Extract the control files of the new package.

              2.  If  another version of the same package was installed before
              the new installation, execute prerm script of the old package.

              3. Run preinst script, if provided by the package.

              4. Unpack the new files, and at the same time back  up  the  old
              files, so that if something goes wrong, they can be restored.

              5.  If  another version of the same package was installed before
              the new installation, execute  the  postrm  script  of  the  old
              package.  Note  that  this  script is executed after the preinst
              script of the new package, because new files are written at  the
              same time old files are removed.

              6.   Configure   the   package.  See  --configure  for  detailed
              information about how this is done.

       --unpack package-file...
              Unpack the package, but don't configure it. If --recursive or -R
              option  is  specified,  package-file  must  refer to a directory
              instead.

       --configure package...|-a|--pending
              Configure  a  package  which  has  been  unpacked  but  not  yet
              configured.  If -a or --pending is given instead of package, all
              unpacked but unconfigured packages are configured.

              To reconfigure a package which has already been configured,  try
              the dpkg-reconfigure(8) command instead.

              Configuring consists of the following steps:

              1.  Unpack  the  conffiles, and at the same time back up the old
              conffiles, so that they can be restored if something goes wrong.

              2. Run postinst script, if provided by the package.

       --triggers-only package...|-a|--pending
              Processes only triggers. All pending triggers will be processed.
              If package names are supplied only those packages' triggers will
              be processed, exactly once each where  necessary.  Use  of  this
              option  may  leave packages in the improper triggers-awaited and
              triggers-pending states. This can be  fixed  later  by  running:
              dpkg --configure --pending.

       -r, --remove, -P, --purge package...|-a|--pending
              Remove  an  installed  package. -r or --remove remove everything
              except conffiles. This  may  avoid  having  to  reconfigure  the
              package if it is reinstalled later. (Conffiles are configuration
              files that are listed in the DEBIAN/conffiles control file).  -P
              or  --purge  removes  everything,  including conffiles. If -a or
              --pending is given instead of a package name, then all  packages
              unpacked,   but   marked   to  be  removed  or  purged  in  file
              /var/lib/dpkg/status, are removed or purged, respectively. Note:
              some  configuration  files might be unknown to dpkg because they
              are created and handled  separately  through  the  configuration
              scripts. In that case, dpkg won't remove them by itself, but the
              package's postrm script (which is called by dpkg), has  to  take
              care of their removal during purge. Of course, this only applies
              to files in system directories, not configuration files  written
              to individual users' home directories.

              Removing of a package consists of the following steps:

              1. Run prerm script

              2. Remove the installed files

              3. Run postrm script

       --update-avail, --merge-avail Packages-file
              Update   dpkg's   and  dselect's  idea  of  which  packages  are
              available.  With  action  --merge-avail,  old   information   is
              combined   with  information  from  Packages-file.  With  action
              --update-avail, old information is replaced with the information
              in  the Packages-file. The Packages-file distributed with Debian
              is simply named Packages. dpkg keeps  its  record  of  available
              packages in /var/lib/dpkg/available.

              A  simpler one-shot command to retrieve and update the available
              file is dselect update. Note that this file is mostly useless if
              you don't use dselect but an APT-based frontend: APT has its own
              system to keep track of available packages.

       -A, --record-avail package-file...
              Update dpkg and dselect's idea of which packages  are  available
              with  information  from the package package-file. If --recursive
              or  -R  option  is  specified,  package-file  must  refer  to  a
              directory instead.

       --forget-old-unavail
              Now  obsolete  and  a  no-op  as  dpkg will automatically forget
              uninstalled unavailable packages.

       --clear-avail
              Erase  the  existing  information  about   what   packages   are
              available.

        -C, --audit
              Searches for packages that have been installed only partially on
              your system. dpkg will suggest what to do with them to get  them
              working.

       --get-selections [package-name-pattern...]
              Get  list of package selections, and write it to stdout. Without
              a pattern, non-installed packages (i.e. those  which  have  been
              previously purged) will not be shown.

       --set-selections
              Set  package  selections  using  file read from stdin. This file
              should be in the format 'package state', where state is  one  of
              install, hold, deinstall or purge. Blank lines and comment lines
              beginning with '#' are also permitted.

       --clear-selections
              Set the  requested  state  of  every  non-essential  package  to
              deinstall.   This  is  intended  to  be  used immediately before
              --set-selections, to deinstall any packages not in list given to
              --set-selections.

       --yet-to-unpack
              Searches  for  packages selected for installation, but which for
              some reason still haven't been installed.

       --add-architecture architecture
              Add architecture to the list of architectures for which packages
              can   be   installed  without  using  --force-architecture.  The
              architecture  dpkg  is   built   for   (i.e.   the   output   of
              --print-architecture) is always part of that list.

       --remove-architecture architecture
              Remove  architecture  from  the  list of architectures for which
              packages can be installed without using --force-architecture. If
              the  architecture  is  currently in use in the database then the
              operation will be refused,  except  if  --force-architecture  is
              specified.  The  architecture dpkg is built for (i.e. the output
              of --print-architecture) can never be removed from that list.

       --print-architecture
              Print architecture  of  packages  dpkg  installs  (for  example,
              "i386").

       --print-foreign-architectures
              Print  a  newline-separated list of the extra architectures dpkg
              is configured to allow packages to be installed for.

       --compare-versions ver1 op ver2
              Compare version numbers, where op is  a  binary  operator.  dpkg
              returns  success  (zero  result)  if  the specified condition is
              satisfied, and failure (nonzero result) otherwise. There are two
              groups  of  operators,  which  differ in how they treat an empty
              ver1 or ver2. These treat an empty version as earlier  than  any
              version:  lt  le  eq  ne  ge gt. These treat an empty version as
              later than any version:  lt-nl  le-nl  ge-nl  gt-nl.  These  are
              provided  only  for compatibility with control file syntax: < <<
              <= = >= >> >.

       --command-fd n
              Accept a series of commands on input file  descriptor  n.  Note:
              additional  options  set  on  the command line, and through this
              file descriptor, are not reset for subsequent commands  executed
              during the same run.

       -?, --help
              Display a brief help message.

       --force-help
              Give help about the --force-thing options.

       -Dh, --debug=help
              Give help about debugging options.

       --version
              Display dpkg version information.

       dpkg-deb actions
              See   dpkg-deb(1)  for  more  information  about  the  following
              actions.

              -b, --build directory [archive|directory]
                  Build a deb package.
              -c, --contents archive
                  List contents of a deb package.
              -e, --control filename [directory]
                  Extract control-information from a package.
              -x, --extract archive directory
                  Extract the files contained by package.
              -X, --vextract archive directory
                  Extract and display the filenames contained by a
                  package.
              -f, --field  archive [control-field...]
                  Display control field(s) of a package.
              --fsys-tarfile archive
                  Display the filesystem tar-file contained by a
                  Debian package.
              -I, --info archive [control-file...]
                  Show information about a package.

       dpkg-query actions
              See dpkg-query(1)  for  more  information  about  the  following
              actions.

              -l, --list package-name-pattern...
                  List packages matching given pattern.
              -s, --status package-name...
                  Report status of specified package.
              -L, --listfiles package-name...
                  List files installed to your system from package-name.
              -S, --search filename-search-pattern...
                  Search for a filename from installed packages.
              -p, --print-avail package-name...
                  Display details about package-name, as found in
                  /var/lib/dpkg/available. Users of APT-based frontends
                  should use apt-cache show package-name instead.

OPTIONS

       All  options  can be specified both on the command line and in the dpkg
       configuration file /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg or  fragment  files  (with  names
       matching  this  shell  pattern  '[0-9a-zA-Z_-]*')  on the configuration
       directory /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg.d/. Each line in the configuration file is
       either  an  option  (exactly  the  same  as the command line option but
       without leading dashes) or a comment (if it starts with a #).

       --abort-after=number
              Change after how many errors dpkg will abort. The default is 50.

       -B, --auto-deconfigure
              When a package is removed, there is a possibility  that  another
              installed  package  depended  on the removed package. Specifying
              this option will cause automatic deconfiguration of the  package
              which depended on the removed package.

       -Doctal, --debug=octal
              Switch  debugging  on. octal is formed by bitwise-orring desired
              values together from the list below (note that these values  may
              change  in  future  releases). -Dh or --debug=help display these
              debugging values.

                  Number   Description
                       1   Generally helpful progress information
                       2   Invocation and status of maintainer scripts
                      10   Output for each file processed
                     100   Lots of output for each file processed
                      20   Output for each configuration file
                     200   Lots of output for each configuration file
                      40   Dependencies and conflicts
                     400   Lots of dependencies/conflicts output
                   10000   Trigger activation and processing
                   20000   Lots of output regarding triggers
                   40000   Silly amounts of output regarding triggers
                    1000   Lots of drivel about e.g. the dpkg/info dir
                    2000   Insane amounts of drivel

       --force-things, --no-force-things, --refuse-things

              Force or refuse (no-force and refuse mean the same thing) to  do
              some  things.  things  is  a  comma  separated  list  of  things
              specified below.  --force-help  displays  a  message  describing
              them.  Things marked with (*) are forced by default.

              Warning: These options are mostly intended to be used by experts
              only. Using them without fully understanding their  effects  may
              break your whole system.

              all: Turns on (or off) all force options.

              downgrade(*):  Install a package, even if newer version of it is
              already installed.

              Warning: At present dpkg does not do any dependency checking  on
              downgrades  and  therefore  will  not  warn you if the downgrade
              breaks the dependency of  some  other  package.  This  can  have
              serious  side  effects,  downgrading essential system components
              can even make your whole system unusable. Use with care.

              configure-any: Configure  also  any  unpacked  but  unconfigured
              packages on which the current package depends.

              hold: Process packages even when marked "hold".

              remove-reinstreq:  Remove  a  package,  even  if it's broken and
              marked to require reinstallation. This may, for  example,  cause
              parts of the package to remain on the system, which will then be
              forgotten by dpkg.

              remove-essential: Remove, even  if  the  package  is  considered
              essential.  Essential  packages  contain  mostly very basic Unix
              commands. Removing them might cause the  whole  system  to  stop
              working, so use with caution.

              depends: Turn all dependency problems into warnings.

              depends-version:   Don't   care  about  versions  when  checking
              dependencies.

              breaks: Install, even if this would break another package.

              conflicts: Install, even if it conflicts with  another  package.
              This is dangerous, for it will usually cause overwriting of some
              files.

              confmiss: If a conffile  is  missing  and  the  version  in  the
              package  did change, always install the missing conffile without
              prompting. This is dangerous, since it means  not  preserving  a
              change (removing) made to the file.

              confnew:  If a conffile has been modified and the version in the
              package did change,  always  install  the  new  version  without
              prompting,  unless  the  --force-confdef  is  also specified, in
              which case the default action is preferred.

              confold: If a conffile has been modified and the version in  the
              package   did  change,  always  keep  the  old  version  without
              prompting, unless the  --force-confdef  is  also  specified,  in
              which case the default action is preferred.

              confdef:  If a conffile has been modified and the version in the
              package did change, always choose  the  default  action  without
              prompting. If there is no default action it will stop to ask the
              user unless --force-confnew  or  --force-confold  is  also  been
              given,  in  which  case  it  will  use  that to decide the final
              action.

              confask: If a conffile has been modified always offer to replace
              it  with  the version in the package, even if the version in the
              package  did   not   change.   If   any   of   --force-confmiss,
              --force-confnew,  --force-confold,  or  --force-confdef  is also
              given, it will be used to decide the final action.

              overwrite: Overwrite one package's file with another's file.

              overwrite-dir Overwrite one package's directory  with  another's
              file.

              overwrite-diverted: Overwrite a diverted file with an undiverted
              version.

              unsafe-io: Do not perform safe I/O  operations  when  unpacking.
              Currently  this  implies not performing file system syncs before
              file renames, which is known to  cause  substantial  performance
              degradation  on  some  file systems, unfortunately the ones that
              require the safe I/O on the first place due to their  unreliable
              behaviour causing zero-length files on abrupt system crashes.

              Note:  For  ext4,  the main offender, consider using instead the
              mount option nodelalloc, which will  fix  both  the  performance
              degradation and the data safety issues, the latter by making the
              file system not  produce  zero-length  files  on  abrupt  system
              crashes with any software not doing syncs before atomic renames.

              Warning: Using this option might improve performance at the cost
              of losing data, use with care.

              architecture:  Process  even   packages   with   wrong   or   no
              architecture.

              bad-version: Process even packages with wrong versions.

              bad-path:  PATH  is  missing important programs, so problems are
              likely.

              not-root: Try to (de)install things even when not root.

              bad-verify: Install a package  even  if  it  fails  authenticity
              check.

       --ignore-depends=package,...
              Ignore  dependency-checking  for  specified  packages (actually,
              checking is performed, but only  warnings  about  conflicts  are
              given, nothing else).

       --no-act, --dry-run, --simulate
              Do  everything which is supposed to be done, but don't write any
              changes. This  is  used  to  see  what  would  happen  with  the
              specified action, without actually modifying anything.

              Be  sure  to  give  --no-act before the action-parameter, or you
              might end up with undesirable results. (e.g.  dpkg  --purge  foo
              --no-act  will  first  purge  package  foo and then try to purge
              package --no-act,  even  though  you  probably  expected  it  to
              actually do nothing)

       -R, --recursive
              Recursively  handle  all  regular  files  matching pattern *.deb
              found at specified directories and all  of  its  subdirectories.
              This  can  be  used with -i, -A, --install, --unpack and --avail
              actions.

       -G     Don't install a package if a newer version of the  same  package
              is already installed. This is an alias of --refuse-downgrade.

       --admindir=dir
              Change  default  administrative  directory,  which contains many
              files  that  give  information  about  status  of  installed  or
              uninstalled packages, etc.  (Defaults to /var/lib/dpkg)

       --instdir=dir
              Change  default  installation  directory  which  refers  to  the
              directory where packages are to be installed.  instdir  is  also
              the  directory  passed  to  chroot(2)  before  running package's
              installation scripts, which means that the scripts  see  instdir
              as a root directory.  (Defaults to /)

       --root=dir
              Changing   root   changes   instdir   to  dir  and  admindir  to
              dir/var/lib/dpkg.

       -O, --selected-only
              Only process the packages that are  selected  for  installation.
              The  actual  marking  is  done  with dselect or by dpkg, when it
              handles packages. For example, when a  package  is  removed,  it
              will be marked selected for deinstallation.

       -E, --skip-same-version
              Don't  install the package if the same version of the package is
              already installed.

       --pre-invoke=command
       --post-invoke=command
              Set an invoke hook command to be run via “sh -c” before or after
              the  dpkg run for the unpack, configure, install, triggers-only,
              remove and purge dpkg actions.  This  option  can  be  specified
              multiple   times.   The  order  the  options  are  specified  is
              preserved, with the ones from  the  configuration  files  taking
              precedence.   The  environment  variable DPKG_HOOK_ACTION is set
              for the hooks to the current dpkg action. Note: front-ends might
              call  dpkg  several  times  per  invocation, which might run the
              hooks more times than expected.

       --path-exclude=glob-pattern
       --path-include=glob-pattern
              Set glob-pattern as a path filter, either by  excluding  or  re-
              including  previously  excluded  paths  matching  the  specified
              patterns during install.

              Warning: take into account that depending on the excluded  paths
              you might completely break your system, use with caution.

              The glob patterns use the same wildcards used in the shell, were
              '*' matches any sequence  of  characters,  including  the  empty
              string   and  also  '/'.  For  example,  '/usr/*/READ*'  matches
              '/usr/share/doc/package/README'.   As  usual,  '?'  matches  any
              single  character  (again,  including  '/').  And  '['  starts a
              character class, which can contain a list of characters,  ranges
              and complementations. See glob(7) for detailed information about
              globbing. Note: the current implementation might re-include more
              directories and symlinks than needed, to be on the safe side and
              avoid possible unpack failures, future work might fix this.

              This can be used to remove  all  paths  except  some  particular
              ones; a typical case is:

              --path-exclude=/usr/share/doc/*
              --path-include=/usr/share/doc/*/copyright

              to remove all documentation files except the copyright files.

              These   two   options  can  be  specified  multiple  times,  and
              interleaved with each other. Both are  processed  in  the  given
              order,  with  the  last rule that matches a file name making the
              decision.

       --status-fd n
              Send machine-readable package status and progress information to
              file  descriptor n. This option can be specified multiple times.
              The information is generally one record per line, in one of  the
              following forms:

              status: package: status
                     Package status changed; status is as in the status file.

              status: package : error : extended-error-message
                     An  error  occurred.  Any  possible newlines in extended-
                     error-message will be converted to spaces before output.

              status:  file  :   conffile-prompt   :   'real-old'   'real-new'
              useredited distedited
                     User is being asked a conffile question.

              processing: stage: package
                     Sent  just before a processing stage starts. stage is one
                     of  upgrade,  install  (both  sent   before   unpacking),
                     configure, trigproc, disappear, remove, purge.

       --status-logger=command
              Send machine-readable package status and progress information to
              the shell command's standard input. This option can be specified
              multiple  times.  The  output  format  used  is  the  same as in
              --status-fd.

       --log=filename
              Log status change updates and actions to  filename,  instead  of
              the  default /var/log/dpkg.log. If this option is given multiple
              times, the last filename is used. Log messages are of  the  form
              `YYYY-MM-DD  HH:MM:SS  status  state  pkg installed-version' for
              status  change  updates;   `YYYY-MM-DD   HH:MM:SS   action   pkg
              installed-version available-version' for actions where action is
              one of install, upgrade, remove, purge; and `YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS
              conffile  filename decision' for conffile changes where decision
              is either install or keep.

       --no-debsig
              Do not try to verify package signatures.

       --no-triggers
              Do not run any triggers in this run (activations will  still  be
              recorded).   If used with --configure package or --triggers-only
              package then the named package postinst will still be  run  even
              if  only  a triggers run is needed. Use of this option may leave
              packages in the improper triggers-awaited  and  triggers-pending
              states.  This  can  be  fixed later by running: dpkg --configure
              --pending.

       --triggers
              Cancels a previous --no-triggers.

FILES

       /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg.d/[0-9a-zA-Z_-]*
              Configuration fragment files.

       /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg
              Configuration file with default options.

       /var/log/dpkg.log
              Default log file (see /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg(5) and option --log).

       The other files listed below are  in  their  default  directories,  see
       option --admindir to see how to change locations of these files.

       /var/lib/dpkg/available
              List of available packages.

       /var/lib/dpkg/status
              Statuses  of  available packages. This file contains information
              about whether a package is marked for removing or  not,  whether
              it  is  installed  or  not,  etc.  See section INFORMATION ABOUT
              PACKAGES for more info.

              The status file is backed up daily in /var/backups.  It  can  be
              useful if it's lost or corrupted due to filesystems troubles.

       The  following files are components of a binary package. See deb(5) for
       more information about them:

       control

       conffiles

       preinst

       postinst

       prerm

       postrm

ENVIRONMENT

       HOME   If set, dpkg will use it as the directory from which to read the
              user specific configuration file.

       TMPDIR If  set,  dpkg  will  use it as the directory in which to create
              temporary files and directories.

       PAGER  The program dpkg will execute when displaying the conffiles.

       SHELL  The program dpkg will execute when starting a new shell.

       COLUMNS
              Sets the number of  columns  dpkg  should  use  when  displaying
              formatted text. Currently only used by -l.

       DPKG_SHELL_REASON
              Defined  by  dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile prompt to
              examine the situation. Current valid value: conffile-prompt.

       DPKG_CONFFILE_OLD
              Defined by dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile  prompt  to
              examine the situation. Contains the path to the old conffile.

       DPKG_CONFFILE_NEW
              Defined  by  dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile prompt to
              examine the situation. Contains the path to the new conffile.

       DPKG_RUNNING_VERSION
              Defined by dpkg on the  maintainer  script  environment  to  the
              version of the currently running dpkg instance.

       DPKG_MAINTSCRIPT_PACKAGE
              Defined  by  dpkg  on  the  maintainer script environment to the
              package name being handled.

       DPKG_MAINTSCRIPT_ARCH
              Defined by dpkg on the  maintainer  script  environment  to  the
              architecture the package got built for.

       DPKG_MAINTSCRIPT_NAME
              Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the name
              of the script running (preinst, postinst, prerm, postrm).

EXAMPLES

       To list installed packages related  to  the  editor  vi(1)  (note  that
       dpkg-query does not load the available file anymore by default, and the
       dpkg-query --load-avail option should be used instead for that):
            dpkg -l '*vi*'

       To see the entries in /var/lib/dpkg/available of two packages:
            dpkg --print-avail elvis vim | less

       To search the listing of packages yourself:
            less /var/lib/dpkg/available

       To remove an installed elvis package:
            dpkg -r elvis

       To install a package, you first need to find it in an archive or CDROM.
       The  "available"  file  shows  that  the  vim  package  is  in  section
       "editors":
            cd /media/cdrom/pool/main/v/vim
            dpkg -i vim_4.5-3.deb

       To make a local copy of the package selection states:
            dpkg --get-selections >myselections

       You might transfer this file to another computer, and install it  there
       with:
            dpkg --clear-selections
            dpkg --set-selections <myselections

       Note  that  this will not actually install or remove anything, but just
       set the selection state on the requested packages. You will  need  some
       other  application  to  actually  download  and  install  the requested
       packages. For example, run apt-get dselect-upgrade.

       Ordinarily, you will find that dselect(1) provides  a  more  convenient
       way to modify the package selection states.

ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONALITY

       Additional  functionality  can  be  gained  by  installing  any  of the
       following packages: apt, aptitude and debsums.

SEE ALSO

       aptitude(1), apt(1), dselect(1),  dpkg-deb(1),  dpkg-query(1),  deb(5),
       deb-control(5), dpkg.cfg(5), and dpkg-reconfigure(8).

BUGS

       --no-act usually gives less information than might be helpful.

AUTHORS

       See   /usr/share/doc/dpkg/THANKS  for  the  list  of  people  who  have
       contributed to dpkg.