Provided by: rsync_3.0.9-4_i386 bug

NAME

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

SYNOPSIS

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

DESCRIPTION

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of  its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the  source  files
       and  the  existing  files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred  using  a  "quick  check"
       algorithm  (by  default) that looks for files that have changed in size
       or  in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in  the  other   preserved
       attributes  (as  requested by options) are made on the destination file
       directly when the quick check indicates that the file’s data  does  not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support   for   copying  links,  devices,  owners,  groups,  and
              permissions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS  would
              ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
              mirroring)

GENERAL

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current  host  (it  does  not  support copying files between two remote
       hosts).

       There are two different ways for rsync  to  contact  a  remote  system:
       using  a  remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
       contacting  an  rsync  daemon  directly  via  TCP.   The   remote-shell
       transport  is  used  whenever the source or destination path contains a
       single colon (:) separator after a host specification.   Contacting  an
       rsync  daemon  directly  happens  when  the  source or destination path
       contains a double colon (::) separator after a host  specification,  OR
       when  an  rsync://  URL  is specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON
       FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section  for  an  exception  to
       this latter rule).

       As  a  special  case,  if  a  single  source arg is specified without a
       destination, the files are listed in an output format  similar  to  "ls
       -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote  side  as
       the  "server".  Don’t confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon
       is always a  server,  but  a  server  can  be  either  a  daemon  or  a
       remote-shell spawned process.

SETUP

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,  you  can use rsync to any machine that you can access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode  protocol).   For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it  may  have  been  configured  to  use  a
       different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the  source  and  destination
       machines.

USAGE

       You  use  rsync  in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory  to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the files
       already exist  on  the  remote  system  then  the  rsync  remote-update
       protocol  is  used  to update the file by sending only the differences.
       See the tech report for details.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the  machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine.
       The files  are  transferred  in  "archive"  mode,  which  ensures  that
       symbolic  links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are
       preserved in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be  used  to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating
       an additional directory level at the destination.  You can think  of  a
       trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as opposed to "copy the directory by  name",  but  in  both  cases  the
       attributes   of   the  containing  directory  are  transferred  to  the
       containing directory on the destination.  In other words, each  of  the
       following  commands  copies  the files in the same way, including their
       setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module  references  don’t  require  a  trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory’s contents into "/dest":

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both  the  source  and
       destination  don’t have a ’:’ in the name. In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally, you can list all  the  (listable)  modules  available  from  a
       particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

              rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

       See the following section for more details.

ADVANCED USAGE

       The  syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
       specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the  first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

              rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older  versions  of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like
       these examples:

              rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
              rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest  rsync,  but
       is not as easy to use as the first method.

       If  you  need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you’ll need to escape
       the  whitespace  in  a  way that the remote shell will understand.  For
       instance:

              rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON

       It is also possible  to  use  rsync  without  a  remote  shell  as  the
       transport.   In  this  case you will directly connect to a remote rsync
       daemon, typically using TCP port 873.   (This  obviously  requires  the
       daemon  to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN
       RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section  below  for  information  on
       that.)

       Using  rsync  in  this  way is the same as using it with a remote shell
       except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a  single  colon  to
              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the  remote  daemon  may  print  a  message  of the day when you
              connect.

       o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then  the  list
              of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if  you  specify  no  local  destination  then  a listing of the
              specified files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require  authentication.  If  so,
       you  will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the
       password prompt by setting the environment variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to
       the  password you want to use or using the --password-file option. This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems  environment  variables  are  visible  to  all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You  may  establish  the  connection  via  a  web  proxy by setting the
       environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port  pair  pointing  to
       your  web proxy.  Note that your web proxy’s configuration must support
       proxy connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as  a  proxy
       by  setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands
       you wish to run in place of making a  direct  socket  connection.   The
       string  may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname specified
       in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need  a  single  "%"  in  your
       string).  For example:

         export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
         rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
         rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which forwards  all  data  to  port  873  (the  rsync  daemon)  on  the
       targethost (%H).

USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket  connections
       into   a   system  (other  than  what  is  already  required  to  allow
       remote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting  to  a  host  using  a
       remote  shell  and  then  spawning  a  single-use  "daemon" server that
       expects to read its config file in the home dir  of  the  remote  user.
       This  can  be  useful  if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer’s
       data, but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user,  you
       may  not  be able to use features such as chroot or change the uid used
       by the daemon.  (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider
       using  ssh  to  tunnel a local port to a remote machine and configure a
       normal rsync daemon on that remote host to only allow connections  from
       "localhost".)

       From  the  user’s  perspective,  a  daemon  transfer via a remote-shell
       connection uses  nearly  the  same  command-line  syntax  as  a  normal
       rsync-daemon  transfer,  with  the  only  exception being that you must
       explicitly set the remote shell program on the  command-line  with  the
       --rsh=COMMAND  option.   (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will
       not turn on this functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the  user@  prefix  in  front  of the host is specifying the rsync-user
       value (for a module that  requires  user-based  authentication).   This
       means  that  you  must give the ’-l user’ option to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
       used to log-in to the "module".

STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).   For  full  information  on  how  to  start  a daemon that will
       handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5)  man  page
       --  that  is  the  config file for the daemon, and it contains the full
       details for how to run the  daemon  (including  stand-alone  and  inetd
       configurations).

       If  you’re  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

SORTED TRANSFER ORDER

       Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its  internal  transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of identically
       named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may
       confuse  someone  when  the  files are transferred in a different order
       than what was given on the command-line.

       If you need a particular file  to  be  transferred  prior  to  another,
       either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using
       --delay-updates (which doesn’t affect the sorted  transfer  order,  but
       does make the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).

EXAMPLES

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife’s  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine
       "arvidsjaur".

       To  synchronize  my  samba  source  trees  I use the following Makefile
       targets:

           get:
                   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
           put:
                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the  other  end  of  the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn’t very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and  "new"  ftp  sites  with  the
       command:

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

OPTIONS SUMMARY

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
            --append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
        -E, --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
        -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --specials              preserve special files
        -D                          same as --devices --specials
        -t, --times                 preserve modification times
        -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
            --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
            --fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
        -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
        -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
        -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
        -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before xfer, not during
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
            --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
            --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
            --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
        -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
            --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
            --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following  options
       are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)

OPTIONS

       Rsync  accepts  both long (double-dash + word) and short (single-dash +
       letter) options.  The full list of the available options are  described
       below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices
       are comma-separated.  Some options only have  a  long  variant,  not  a
       short.   If  the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed
       after the long variant, even though it must also be specified  for  the
       short.   When  specifying  a  parameter,  you  can  either use the form
       --option=param or replace the ’=’ with whitespace.  The  parameter  may
       need  to  be  quoted  in  some  manner  for  it  to survive the shell’s
       command-line parsing.  Keep in mind that  a  leading  tilde  (~)  in  a
       filename  is  substituted  by  your  shell,  so --option=~/foo will not
       change the tilde into your home directory (remove the ’=’ for that).

       --help Print a short help page  describing  the  options  available  in
              rsync  and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older versions
              of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h  option
              without any other args.

       --version
              print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              This  option  increases  the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
              -v  will  give  you  information  about  what  files  are  being
              transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options  will
              give  you  information  on  what  files  are  being  skipped and
              slightly more information at the end. More than two  -v  options
              should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

              Note that the names of the transferred files that are output are
              done using a default --out-format of  "%n%L",  which  tells  you
              just  the  name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it
              points.  At the single -v level  of  verbosity,  this  does  not
              mention when a file gets its attributes changed.  If you ask for
              an itemized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes
              or  adding "%i" to the --out-format setting), the output (on the
              client) increases to mention all items that are changed  in  any
              way.  See the --out-format option for more details.

       -q, --quiet
              This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer, notably  suppressing  information  messages
              from  the  remote  server.  This  option is useful when invoking
              rsync from cron.

       --no-motd
              This option affects the information that is output by the client
              at  the  start  of  a  daemon  transfer.   This  suppresses  the
              message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list  of
              modules  that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
              request (due to a limitation in the  rsync  protocol),  so  omit
              this  option if you want to request the list of modules from the
              daemon.

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
              size  and  have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This option
              turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files  to  be
              updated.

       --size-only
              This  modifies rsync’s "quick check" algorithm for finding files
              that need to be transferred, changing it  from  the  default  of
              transferring  files  with  either  a  changed  size or a changed
              last-modified time to just looking for files that  have  changed
              in  size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after using
              another mirroring  system  which  may  not  preserve  timestamps
              exactly.

       --modify-window
              When  comparing  two  timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
              being equal if they differ by no  more  than  the  modify-window
              value.   This  is  normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
              find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
              In  particular,  when  transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT
              filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second  resolution),
              --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1
              second).

       -c, --checksum
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
              and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
              a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file’s size and
              time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
              This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
              file  that  has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means
              that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O  reading  all  the
              data  in  the  files  in  the transfer (and this is prior to any
              reading that will be done to transfer changed  files),  so  this
              can slow things down significantly.

              The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
              file-system scan that builds the list of  the  available  files.
              The  receiver  generates  its  checksums when it is scanning for
              changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
              as the corresponding sender’s file:  files with either a changed
              size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was
              correctly  reconstructed  on  the  receiving  side by checking a
              whole-file  checksum  that  is  generated   as   the   file   is
              transferred,  but that automatic after-the-transfer verification
              has nothing to do with this option’s  before-the-transfer  "Does
              this file need to be updated?" check.

              For  protocol  30  and  beyond  (first  supported in 3.0.0), the
              checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is
              MD4.

       -a, --archive
              This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
              want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
              being  a  notable  omission).   The  only exception to the above
              equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case  -r
              is not implied.

              Note  that  -a  does  not  preserve  hardlinks,  because finding
              multiply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify
              -H.

       --no-OPTION
              You  may  turn  off one or more implied options by prefixing the
              option name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with  a
              "no-":  only  options  that  are  implied by other options (e.g.
              --no-D,  --no-perms)  or  have  different  defaults  in  various
              circumstances     (e.g.    --no-whole-file,    --no-blocking-io,
              --no-dirs).  You may specify either the short or the long option
              name  after  the  "no-"  prefix  (e.g.  --no-R  is  the  same as
              --no-relative).

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don’t want -o
              (--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important:  if  you  specify  --no-r
              -a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
              -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
              option  are  NOT  positional, as it affects the default state of
              several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
              --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories recursively.  See also
              --dirs (-d).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is  now
              an  incremental  scan that uses much less memory than before and
              begins  the  transfer  after  the  scanning  of  the  first  few
              directories  have  been  completed.   This incremental scan only
              affects  our  recursion  algorithm,  and  does  not   change   a
              non-recursive transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends
              of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.

              Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so  these
              options  disable the incremental recursion mode.  These include:
              --delete-before,   --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,    and
              --delay-updates.   Because of this, the default delete mode when
              you specify --delete is now --delete-during when  both  ends  of
              the  connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during
              to request this improved deletion mode  explicitly).   See  also
              the  --delete-delay  option  that  is a better choice than using
              --delete-after.

              Incremental   recursion    can    be    disabled    using    the
              --no-inc-recursive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
              Use  relative  paths.  This  means  that  the  full  path  names
              specified on the command line are sent to the server rather than
              just  the  last  parts  of  the  filenames. This is particularly
              useful when you want to send several  different  directories  at
              the same time. For example, if you used this command:

                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              ...  this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
              machine. If instead you used

                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would  be  created  on  the
              remote  machine,  preserving  its  full  path.  These extra path
              elements are called "implied directories" (i.e.  the  "foo"  and
              the "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

              Beginning  with  rsync  3.0.0,  rsync always sends these implied
              directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
              element  is really a symlink on the sending side.  This prevents
              some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
              file  that you didn’t realize had a symlink in its path.  If you
              want to  duplicate  a  server-side  symlink,  include  both  the
              symlink  via its path, and referent directory via its real path.
              If you’re dealing with an older rsync on the sending  side,  you
              may need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
              is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.   With
              a  modern  rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
              can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.   (Note
              that  the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not
              be abbreviated.)  For older rsync versions, you  would  need  to
              use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing
              files:

                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell,  so
              that  the  "cd"  command  doesn’t  remain  in  effect for future
              commands.)  If you’re pulling files from  an  older  rsync,  use
              this idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

       --no-implied-dirs
              This  option  affects  the  default  behavior  of the --relative
              option.  When it is specified, the  attributes  of  the  implied
              directories  from  the  source  names  are  not  included in the
              transfer.  This means that the corresponding  path  elements  on
              the destination system are left unchanged if they exist, and any
              missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
              This  even  allows  these  implied  path  elements  to  have big
              differences, such as being a  symlink  to  a  directory  on  the
              receiving side.

              For  instance,  if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
              rsync to transfer  the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
              "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
              "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
              receiving  rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it
              as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
              With    --no-implied-dirs,    the    receiving   rsync   updates
              "path/foo/file" using the existing path  elements,  which  means
              that  the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
              to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is   to   use   the
              --keep-dirlinks  option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks to
              directories in the rest of the transfer).

              When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may  need
              to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
              you  request  and  you  wish  the  implied  directories  to   be
              transferred as normal directories.

       -b, --backup
              With  this  option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
              each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where  the
              backup  file  goes  and what (if any) suffix gets appended using
              the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note  that  if  you  don’t   specify   --backup-dir,   (1)   the
              --omit-dir-times  option will be implied, and (2) if --delete is
              also in effect (without --delete-excluded),  rsync  will  add  a
              "protect"  filter-rule  for  the backup suffix to the end of all
              your existing excludes (e.g. -f  "P  *~").   This  will  prevent
              previously backed-up files from being deleted.  Note that if you
              are supplying your own filter rules, you may  need  to  manually
              insert  your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
              list so that it has a  high  enough  priority  to  be  effective
              (e.g.,  if  your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of
              ’*’, the auto-added rule would never be reached).

       --backup-dir=DIR
              In combination with the --backup option,  this  tells  rsync  to
              store  all  backups  in the specified directory on the receiving
              side.  This can  be  used  for  incremental  backups.   You  can
              additionally  specify  a backup suffix using the --suffix option
              (otherwise the files backed up in the specified  directory  will
              keep their original filenames).

              Note  that  if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
              will be relative to the destination directory, so  you  probably
              want  to  specify  either an absolute path or a path that starts
              with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup  dir
              cannot  go  outside  the  module’s path hierarchy, so take extra
              care not to delete it or copy into it.

       --suffix=SUFFIX
              This option allows you to override  the  default  backup  suffix
              used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
              no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
              This  forces  rsync  to  skip  any  files  which  exist  on  the
              destination  and  have  a  modified  time that is newer than the
              source  file.   (If  an  existing   destination   file   has   a
              modification time equal to the source file’s, it will be updated
              if the sizes are different.)

              Note that this does not affect the copying of symlinks or  other
              special  files.   Also,  a difference of file format between the
              sender and receiver is always considered to be important  enough
              for  an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In other
              words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a
              file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

              This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t
              affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
              doesn’t  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

       --inplace
              This option changes how rsync transfers a  file  when  its  data
              needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
              new copy of the file  and  moving  it  into  place  when  it  is
              complete,  rsync instead writes the updated data directly to the
              destination file.

              This has several effects:

              o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data  will
                     be  visible  through  other hard links to the destination
                     file.  Moreover, attempts to copy differing source  files
                     onto  a multiply-linked destination file will result in a
                     "tug of war" with the destination data changing back  and
                     forth.

              o      In-use  binaries  cannot  be  updated (either the OS will
                     prevent this from happening, or binaries that attempt  to
                     swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

              o      The  file’s  data will be in an inconsistent state during
                     the transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
                     interrupted or if an update fails.

              o      A  file  that  rsync  cannot  write to cannot be updated.
                     While a super user can update any  file,  a  normal  user
                     needs  to be granted write permission for the open of the
                     file for writing to be successful.

              o      The efficiency of rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm may be
                     reduced   if   some  data  in  the  destination  file  is
                     overwritten before it can be copied to a  position  later
                     in  the  file.   This does not apply if you use --backup,
                     since rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the
                     basis file for the transfer.

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
              being accessed by others, so be careful  when  choosing  to  use
              this for a copy.

              This   option  is  useful  for  transferring  large  files  with
              block-based changes or appended data, and also on  systems  that
              are  disk  bound,  not  network  bound.  It can also help keep a
              copy-on-write filesystem  snapshot  from  diverging  the  entire
              contents of a file that only has minor changes.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
              not delete the  file),  but  conflicts  with  --partial-dir  and
              --delay-updates.   Prior  to  rsync  2.6.4  --inplace  was  also
              incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

       --append
              This causes rsync to update a file by appending  data  onto  the
              end  of  the  file,  which  presumes  that the data that already
              exists on the receiving side is identical with the start of  the
              file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be transferred and
              its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size  on
              the  sender,  the file is skipped.  This does not interfere with
              the  updating  of  a   file’s   non-content   attributes   (e.g.
              permissions,  ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be
              transferred, nor does it affect the updating of any  non-regular
              files.   Implies  --inplace, but does not conflict with --sparse
              (since it is always extending a file’s length).

       --append-verify
              This works just like the --append option, but the existing  data
              on  the  receiving  side  is  included in the full-file checksum
              verification step, which will cause a file to be resent  if  the
              final   verification   step   fails   (rsync   uses   a  normal,
              non-appending --inplace transfer for the resend).

              Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0,  the  --append  option  worked  like
              --append-verify,  so  if you are interacting with an older rsync
              (or the transfer is using a protocol prior  to  30),  specifying
              either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
              Tell  the  sending  side  to  include  any  directories that are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory’s contents are not
              copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
              trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without  this
              option   or   the   --recursive  option,  rsync  will  skip  all
              directories it encounters (and output a message to  that  effect
              for  each  one).   If  you  specify both --dirs and --recursive,
              --recursive takes precedence.

              The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
              --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
              --recursive wasn’t specified (so that directories  are  seen  in
              the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
              this off.

              There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
              (or   --old-d)   that   tells   rsync  to  use  a  hack  of  "-r
              --exclude=’/*/*’" to  get  an  older  rsync  to  list  a  single
              directory without recursing.

       -l, --links
              When  symlinks  are  encountered,  recreate  the  symlink on the
              destination.

       -L, --copy-links
              When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to  (the
              referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
              of rsync, this option also had the side-effect  of  telling  the
              receiving   side   to  follow  symlinks,  such  as  symlinks  to
              directories.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you’ll need to
              specify  --keep-dirlinks  (-K)  to get this extra behavior.  The
              only exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too old
              to  understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have
              the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

       --copy-unsafe-links
              This tells rsync to copy the referent  of  symbolic  links  that
              point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
              treated like ordinary files, and so  are  any  symlinks  in  the
              source  path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
              additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

       --safe-links
              This tells rsync  to  ignore  any  symbolic  links  which  point
              outside the copied tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
              Using this  option  in  conjunction  with  --relative  may  give
              unexpected results.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
              This  option  causes  the  sending  side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
              you  don’t  want  symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
              they would be using --copy-links.

              Without  this  option,  if  the  sending  side  has  replaced  a
              directory with a symlink to a directory, the receiving side will
              delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
              a  directory  hierarchy  (as  long  as --force or --delete is in
              effect).

              See  also  --keep-dirlinks  for  an  analogous  option  for  the
              receiving side.

              --copy-dirlinks  applies  to  all symlinks to directories in the
              source.  If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks,  a
              trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with
              a trailing slash, using --relative to make the  paths  match  up
              right.  For example:

              rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

              This  works  because  rsync  calls lstat(2) on the source arg as
              given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
              giving  rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the
              symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This option causes the receiving side to treat a  symlink  to  a
              directory  as  though  it  were a real directory, but only if it
              matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this  option,
              the receiver’s symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real
              directory.

              For  example,  suppose  you  transfer  a  directory  "foo"  that
              contains  a  file  "file",  but  "foo" is a symlink to directory
              "bar" on the receiver.  Without  --keep-dirlinks,  the  receiver
              deletes symlink "foo", recreates it as a directory, and receives
              the file into the  new  directory.   With  --keep-dirlinks,  the
              receiver keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
              all the symlinks  in  the  copy!   If  it  is  possible  for  an
              untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the
              user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink  with
              a  real  directory  and affect the content of whatever directory
              the symlink references.  For backup copies, you are  better  off
              using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify
              your receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending
              side.

       -H, --hard-links
              This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
              link  together  the  corresponding  files  on  the  destination.
              Without this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated
              as though they were separate files.

              This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
              links  on  the  destination  exactly matches that on the source.
              Cases in which the destination may end up with extra hard  links
              include the following:

              o      If  the  destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
                     linking than what is present in the  source  file  list),
                     the  copying  algorithm  will  not break them explicitly.
                     However, if  one  or  more  of  the  paths  have  content
                     differences,  the  normal  file-update process will break
                     those extra links (unless you  are  using  the  --inplace
                     option).

              o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
                     links, the linking of the destination files  against  the
                     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
                     to  become  linked  together  due  to   the   --link-dest
                     associations.

              Note  that  rsync  can only detect hard links between files that
              are inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file  that  has
              extra  hard-link connections to files outside the transfer, that
              linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
              option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
              your files are being updated so that you  are  certain  that  no
              unintended  changes  happen due to lingering hard links (and see
              the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync  may
              transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
              link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.   This
              does  not  affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e. which files
              are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
              data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have
              been found later in  the  transfer  in  another  member  of  the
              hard-linked  set  of files).  One way to avoid this inefficiency
              is to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc-recursive
              option.

       -p, --perms
              This  option  causes  the receiving rsync to set the destination
              permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
              the  --chmod  option for a way to modify what rsync considers to
              be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing files (including  updated  files)  retain  their
                     existing  permissions,  though the --executability option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set  to  the
                     source  file’s  permissions  masked  with  the  receiving
                     directory’s default  permissions  (either  the  receiving
                     process’s  umask,  or  the  permissions specified via the
                     destination directory’s default ACL), and  their  special
                     permission  bits  disabled except in the case where a new
                     directory  inherits  a  setgid  bit   from   its   parent
                     directory.

              Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
              rsync’s  behavior  is  the  same  as  that  of  other  file-copy
              utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In  summary:  to  give  destination files (both old and new) the
              source  permissions,  use  --perms.   To  give  new  files   the
              destination-default  permissions  (while  leaving existing files
              unchanged), make sure that the --perms option  is  off  and  use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX  (which  ensures  that  all  non-masked bits get
              enabled).  If you’d care to make this latter behavior easier  to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
              line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the  -Z  option,
              and  includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination
              dir):

                 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You could then use this new option in a  command  such  as  this
              one:

                 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat:  make  sure  that  -a  does  not  follow -Z, or it will
              re-enable the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

              The  preservation   of   the   destination’s   setgid   bit   on
              newly-created directories when --perms is off was added in rsync
              2.6.7.  Older rsync versions  erroneously  preserved  the  three
              special permission bits for newly-created files when --perms was
              off, while overriding the destination’s setgid bit setting on  a
              newly-created  directory.   Default  ACL observance was added to
              the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7,  so  older  (or  non-ACL-enabled)
              rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
              mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that  affects
              these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  preserve  the executability (or
              non-executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.
              A  regular  file  is considered to be executable if at least one
              ’x’  is  turned  on  in  its  permissions.   When  an   existing
              destination  file’s  executability  differs  from  that  of  the
              corresponding source file, rsync modifies the destination file’s
              permissions as follows:

              o      To  make  a  file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
                     ’x’ permissions.

              o      To make a  file  executable,  rsync  turns  on  each  ’x’
                     permission   that  has  a  corresponding  ’r’  permission
                     enabled.

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
              This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs  to  be
              the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The  source  and  destination  systems  must have compatible ACL
              entries for this option to work properly.  See the  --fake-super
              option  for  a  way  to  backup  and  restore  ACLs that are not
              compatible.

       -X, --xattrs
              This option causes rsync  to  update  the  destination  extended
              attributes to be the same as the source ones.

              For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
              being  done  by  a  super-user  copies  all  namespaces   except
              system.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.  To
              be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces  as  a  normal
              user, see the --fake-super option.

              Note  that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values
              (e.g. those used by --fake-super) unless you repeat  the  option
              (e.g.  -XX).   This  "copy  all xattrs" mode cannot be used with
              --fake-super.

       --chmod
              This option tells rsync to apply  one  or  more  comma-separated
              "chmod"  modes  to  the permission of the files in the transfer.
              The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
              that  the  sending  side supplied for the file, which means that
              this option can seem to have no  effect  on  existing  files  if
              --perms is not enabled.

              In  addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in the
              chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
              to  a  directory  by prefixing it with a ’D’, or specify an item
              that should only apply to a file by prefixing  it  with  a  ’F’.
              For  example, the following will ensure that all directories get
              marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both  are
              user-writable  and group-writable, and that both have consistent
              executability across all bits:

              --chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

              It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
              additional  option  is  just  appended to the list of changes to
              make.

              See  the  --perms  and  --executability  options  for  how   the
              resulting  permission  value  can be applied to the files in the
              transfer.

       -o, --owner
              This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
              file  to  be  the  same  as  the  source  file,  but only if the
              receiving rsync is being run as the  super-user  (see  also  the
              --super  and  --fake-super  options).   Without this option, the
              owner of new and/or transferred files are set  to  the  invoking
              user on the receiving side.

              The  preservation  of ownership will associate matching names by
              default, but may fall back  to  using  the  ID  number  in  some
              circumstances  (see  also  the  --numeric-ids  option for a full
              discussion).

       -g, --group
              This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
              file  to  be  the  same  as  the  source file.  If the receiving
              program is not running as the super-user (or if  --no-super  was
              specified),  only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
              side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
              group  is  set  to the default group of the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The preservation of group information  will  associate  matching
              names  by  default,  but may fall back to using the ID number in
              some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full
              discussion).

       --devices
              This  option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
              files to the remote system  to  recreate  these  devices.   This
              option  has  no  effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
              super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

       --specials
              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
              sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This  tells  rsync to transfer modification times along with the
              files and update them on the remote system.  Note that  if  this
              option  is  not  used, the optimization that excludes files that
              have not been modified cannot be effective; in  other  words,  a
              missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
              used -I,  causing  all  files  to  be  updated  (though  rsync’s
              delta-transfer  algorithm  will make the update fairly efficient
              if the files haven’t actually changed, you’re  much  better  off
              using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
              This  tells  rsync  to  omit  directories  when it is preserving
              modification  times  (see  --times).   If  NFS  is  sharing  the
              directories  on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.
              This  option  is  inferred   if   you   use   --backup   without
              --backup-dir.

       --super
              This  tells  the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
              even if the receiving rsync wasn’t run by the super-user.  These
              activities  include:  preserving  users  via the --owner option,
              preserving all groups (not just the current user’s  groups)  via
              the  --groups  option,  and  copying  devices  via the --devices
              option.  This is useful for systems that allow  such  activities
              without  being  the  super-user,  and also for ensuring that you
              will get errors if the receiving side isn’t  being  run  as  the
              super-user.   To  turn off super-user activities, the super-user
              can use --no-super.

       --fake-super
              When  this  option  is  enabled,  rsync   simulates   super-user
              activities  by  saving/restoring  the  privileged attributes via
              special extended attributes that are attached to each  file  (as
              needed).  This includes the file’s owner and group (if it is not
              the default), the file’s device info (device & special files are
              created  as  empty  text files), and any permission bits that we
              won’t allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets
              u-s,g-s,o-t  for  safety) or that would limit the owner’s access
              (since the real super-user can always access/change a file,  the
              files  we  create can always be accessed/changed by the creating
              user).  This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was  specified)
              and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

              This  is  a  good way to backup data without using a super-user,
              and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

              The --fake-super option only affects the side where  the  option
              is   used.    To  affect  the  remote  side  of  a  remote-shell
              connection, specify an rsync path:

                rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --fake-super" /src/ host:/dest/

              Since there is only one "side" in  a  local  copy,  this  option
              affects both the sending and receiving of files.  You’ll need to
              specify a copy using "localhost" if  you  need  to  avoid  this,
              possibly   using  the  "lsh"  shell  script  (from  the  support
              directory) as a substitute  for  an  actual  remote  shell  (see
              --rsh).

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See  also  the  "fake super" setting in the daemon’s rsyncd.conf
              file.

       -S, --sparse
              Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they  take  up  less
              space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because it’s
              not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

       -n, --dry-run
              This makes rsync perform a  trial  run  that  doesn’t  make  any
              changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It
              is most commonly used in  combination  with  the  -v,  --verbose
              and/or  -i,  --itemize-changes  options  to  see  what  an rsync
              command is going to do before one actually runs it.

              The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to  be  exactly  the
              same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
              trickery and system call failures); if it isn’t, that’s  a  bug.
              Other  output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in some
              areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send  the  actual  data  for
              file  transfers,  so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent",
              "bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data"  statistics
              are  too  small,  and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run
              where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
              With this option rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm  is  not  used
              and  the  whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be
              faster if this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
              source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
              disk  (especially  when  the  "disk"  is  actually  a  networked
              filesystem).   This  is  the  default  when  both the source and
              destination are  specified  as  local  paths,  but  only  if  no
              batch-writing option is in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This  tells  rsync  to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
              recursing.  This does not limit the user’s  ability  to  specify
              items  to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync’s recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and  also  the  analogous recursion on the receiving side during
              deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If   this  option  is  repeated,  rsync  omits  all  mount-point
              directories from the copy.   Otherwise,  it  includes  an  empty
              directory   at   each   mount-point  it  encounters  (using  the
              attributes  of  the  mounted  directory  because  those  of  the
              underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
              is  treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
              unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This tells rsync to skip creating files (including  directories)
              that  do  not  exist  yet on the destination.  If this option is
              combined with the --ignore-existing option,  no  files  will  be
              updated  (which  can  be  useful if all you want to do is delete
              extraneous files).

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn’t
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn’t affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

       --ignore-existing
              This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
              the destination (this does not ignore existing  directories,  or
              nothing would get done).  See also --existing.

              This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t
              affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
              doesn’t  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This option can be useful for  those  doing  backups  using  the
              --link-dest  option when they need to continue a backup run that
              got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into  a  new
              directory  hierarchy  (when it is used properly), using --ignore
              existing will ensure that the already-handled  files  don’t  get
              tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
              files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at  the
              existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

       --remove-source-files
              This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the sending side the files
              (meaning non-directories) that are a part of  the  transfer  and
              have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              Note  that  you should only use this option on source files that
              are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
              in  a  particular directory over to another host, make sure that
              the finished files get renamed into the  source  directory,  not
              directly  written into it, so that rsync can’t possibly transfer
              a file that is not yet fully written.  If you can’t first  write
              the  files  into  a different directory, you should use a naming
              idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not  yet
              finished  (e.g.  name  the  file  "foo.new"  when it is written,
              rename it to "foo" when it is done,  and  then  use  the  option
              --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

       --delete
              This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
              side (ones that aren’t on the sending side), but  only  for  the
              directories  that  are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
              using  a  wildcard  for  the directory’s contents (e.g. "dir/*")
              since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus  gets
              a  request  to  transfer individual files, not the files’ parent
              directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer  are  also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
              option or mark the rules as only matching on  the  sending  side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior  to  rsync  2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
              --recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
              whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a  very
              good  idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
              see what files are going to be deleted.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
              any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
              This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures  (such  as  NFS
              errors)  on  the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
              files on the  destination.   You  can  override  this  with  the
              --ignore-errors option.

              The   --delete   option   may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
              --delete-WHEN   options   without   conflict,   as    well    as
              --delete-excluded.    However,  if  none  of  the  --delete-WHEN
              options are specified, rsync  will  choose  the  --delete-during
              algorithm  when  talking  to  rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the
              --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older  rsync.   See
              also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

       --delete-before
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
              more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting  before  the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
              tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
              the  transfer  possible.   However,  it  does  introduce a delay
              before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
              transfer  to  timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).  It also
              forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
              that  requires  rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
              memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
              incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
              scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
              so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
              doing the deletions prior  to  any  per-directory  filter  files
              being  updated.   This  option  was first added in rsync version
              2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)  for  more  details  on
              file-deletion.

       --delete-delay
              Request  that  the  file-deletions  on  the  receiving  side  be
              computed during the transfer (like  --delete-during),  and  then
              removed  after  the  transfer  completes.   This  is useful when
              combined  with  --delay-updates  and/or  --fuzzy,  and  is  more
              efficient than using --delete-after (but can behave differently,
              since --delete-after computes the deletions in a  separate  pass
              after  all  updates  are  done).  If the number of removed files
              overflows an internal buffer, a temporary file will  be  created
              on  the  receiving  side  to hold the names (it is removed while
              open, so you shouldn’t see it  during  the  transfer).   If  the
              creation  of  the  temporary  file fails, rsync will try to fall
              back to using --delete-after (which it cannot do if  --recursive
              is  doing an incremental scan).  See --delete (which is implied)
              for more details on file-deletion.

       --delete-after
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
              after  the  transfer  has  completed.  This is useful if you are
              sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the  transfer
              and  you  want  their  exclusions  to take effect for the delete
              phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
              old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
              scan all the files in the transfer  into  memory  at  once  (see
              --recursive).   See --delete (which is implied) for more details
              on file-deletion.

       --delete-excluded
              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
              not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
              files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
              See  the  FILTER  RULES  section  for  a  way to make individual
              exclusions behave this way on the receiver, and  for  a  way  to
              protect  files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is
              implied) for more details on file-deletion.

       --ignore-errors
              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there  are
              I/O errors.

       --force
              This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
              is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
              deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
              when using --delete-after, and  it  used  to  be  non-functional
              unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

       --max-delete=NUM
              This   tells  rsync  not  to  delete  more  than  NUM  files  or
              directories.  If that limit is exceeded, a warning is output and
              rsync exits with an error code of 25 (new for 3.0.0).

              Also new for version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be
              warned about any extraneous files  in  the  destination  without
              removing  any  of  them.   Older  clients  interpreted  this  as
              "unlimited", so if you don’t know what version  the  client  is,
              you   can   use   the   less   obvious   --max-delete=-1   as  a
              backward-compatible way to specify that no deletions be  allowed
              (though older versions didn’t warn when the limit was exceeded).

       --max-size=SIZE
              This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
              than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed  with  a
              string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
              value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn’t
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn’t affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              The  suffixes  are  as  follows:  "K"  (or  "KiB") is a kibibyte
              (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024),  and  "G"  (or
              "GiB")   is  a  gibibyte  (1024*1024*1024).   If  you  want  the
              multiplier to be 1000 instead of 1024, use "KB", "MB", or  "GB".
              (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
              the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset
              by one byte in the indicated direction.

              Examples:    --max-size=1.5mb-1    is    1499999    bytes,   and
              --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

       --min-size=SIZE
              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is  smaller
              than  the  specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
              small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a  description
              of SIZE and other information.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This  forces  the  block  size  used  in  rsync’s delta-transfer
              algorithm to a fixed value.  It is normally  selected  based  on
              the  size  of each file being updated.  See the technical report
              for details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This option allows you to choose  an  alternative  remote  shell
              program  to  use  for communication between the local and remote
              copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to  use  ssh  by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If  this  option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
              remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on  the
              remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
              remote shell connection, rather than  through  a  direct  socket
              connection  to  a  running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
              the section "USING  RSYNC-DAEMON  FEATURES  VIA  A  REMOTE-SHELL
              CONNECTION" above.

              Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
              COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single  argument.   You  must
              use  spaces  (not  tabs  or  other  whitespace)  to separate the
              command and args from each other, and you can use single- and/or
              double-quotes  to  preserve  spaces  in  an  argument  (but  not
              backslashes).   Note  that  doubling  a  single-quote  inside  a
              single-quoted  string  gives  you  a  single-quote; likewise for
              double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which  quotes
              your  shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some
              examples:

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note that ssh users  can  alternately  customize  site-specific
              connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
              environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as
              -e.

              See  also  the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this
              option.

       --rsync-path=PROGRAM
              Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the  remote
              machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
              default           remote-shell’s           path            (e.g.
              --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that  PROGRAM is run
              with the help of a shell, so it can be any program,  script,  or
              command  sequence  you’d  care  to  run,  so long as it does not
              corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync  is  using  to
              communicate.

              One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on
              the remote machine for use  with  the  --relative  option.   For
              instance:

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This  is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
              that you often don’t want to transfer between systems. It uses a
              similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to  determine  if  a file should be
              ignored.

              The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following  items
              (these  initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
              RULES section):

                     RCS  SCCS  CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG   cvslog.*   tags   TAGS
                     .make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
                     *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so  *.exe
                     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

              then,  files  listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
              and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable  (all
              cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
              .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
              Unlike rsync’s filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
              whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If you’re combining -C with your own --filter rules, you  should
              note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
              rules,  regardless  of  where  the  -C   was   placed   on   the
              command-line.   This  makes them a lower priority than any rules
              you specified explicitly.  If you want to  control  where  these
              CVS  excludes  get  inserted  into your filter rules, you should
              omit the -C as a command-line option and use  a  combination  of
              --filter=:C  and  --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by
              putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a  filter  file  with  your
              other  rules).   The  first  option  turns  on the per-directory
              scanning for the .cvsignore file.   The  second  option  does  a
              one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
              This  option  allows  you  to  add  rules to selectively exclude
              certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This  is
              most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You  may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
              like to build up the list of files to exclude.   If  the  filter
              contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
              the rule to rsync as a single argument.   The  text  below  also
              mentions  that  you  can  use an underscore to replace the space
              that separates a rule from its arg.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this
              option.

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
              your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this
              rule:

                 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
              that have been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use  their
              rules  to  filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
              it is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This filters out the .rsync-filter  files  themselves  from  the
              transfer.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES  section for detailed information on how
              these options work.

       --exclude=PATTERN
              This option is a simplified form of  the  --filter  option  that
              defaults  to  an  exclude  rule  and  does  not  allow  the full
              rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this
              option.

       --exclude-from=FILE
              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
              a FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per  line).   Blank
              lines  in  the  file  and  lines  starting  with  ’;’ or ’#’ are
              ignored.  If FILE is -, the list  will  be  read  from  standard
              input.

       --include=PATTERN
              This  option  is  a  simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to  an  include  rule  and  does  not  allow  the  full
              rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES section for detailed information on this
              option.

       --include-from=FILE
              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
              a  FILE  that  contains  include patterns (one per line).  Blank
              lines in the file  and  lines  starting  with  ’;’  or  ’#’  are
              ignored.   If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard
              input.

       --files-from=FILE
              Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of  files
              to  transfer  (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard
              input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
              transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

              o      The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
                     the path information that is specified for each  item  in
                     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
                     that off).

              o      The --dirs (-d) option  is  implied,  which  will  create
                     directories  specified  in  the  list  on the destination
                     rather than  noisily  skipping  them  (use  --no-dirs  or
                     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The  --archive  (-a)  option’s  behavior  does  not imply
                     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if  you  want
                     it.

              o      These  side-effects change the default state of rsync, so
                     the  position  of  the   --files-from   option   on   the
                     command-line  has  no  bearing  on  how other options are
                     parsed  (e.g.  -a  works  the  same   before   or   after
                     --files-from, as does --no-R and all other options).

              The  filenames  that  are read from the FILE are all relative to
              the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed  and  no  ".."
              references  are  allowed  to go higher than the source dir.  For
              example, take this command:

                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If /tmp/foo contains the string  "bin"  (or  even  "/bin"),  the
              /usr/bin  directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote
              host.  If it contains "bin/"  (note  the  trailing  slash),  the
              immediate  contents of the directory would also be sent (without
              needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began  in
              version  2.6.4).   In  both cases, if the -r option was enabled,
              that dir’s entire hierarchy would also be transferred  (keep  in
              mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
              since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
              the  (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only
              the path info that is read from the file -- it  does  not  force
              the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the remote
              host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front
              of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
              short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the
              remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This  would  copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote "src" host.

              If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and  the
              --files-from  filenames are being sent from one host to another,
              the filenames will be translated from the sending host’s charset
              to the receiving host’s charset.

              NOTE:  sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps
              rsync to be more efficient, as it  will  avoid  re-visiting  the
              path  elements that are shared between adjacent entries.  If the
              input is not sorted, some path  elements  (implied  directories)
              may  end  up  being  scanned  multiple  times,  and  rsync  will
              eventually unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list
              elements.

       -0, --from0
              This  tells  rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file
              are terminated by a null (’\0’) character,  not  a  NL,  CR,  or
              CR+LF.     This    affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
              --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
              It  does  not  affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
              This option sends all filenames and most options to  the  remote
              rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  This
              means that spaces are not split in names, and  any  non-wildcard
              special  characters  are  not  translated  (such  as ~, $, ;, &,
              etc.).  Wildcards are expanded  on  the  remote  host  by  rsync
              (instead of the shell doing it).

              If  you  use  this  option with --iconv, the args related to the
              remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
              character-set.   The  translation  happens before wild-cards are
              expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This option instructs rsync to use DIR as  a  scratch  directory
              when  creating  temporary copies of the files transferred on the
              receiving  side.   The  default  behavior  is  to  create   each
              temporary   file   in  the  same  directory  as  the  associated
              destination file.

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
              does  not  have  enough free space to hold a copy of the largest
              file in the transfer.  In  this  case  (i.e.  when  the  scratch
              directory  is  on a different disk partition), rsync will not be
              able to rename each received temporary file over the top of  the
              associated  destination  file,  but  instead  must  copy it into
              place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of  the
              destination  file,  which  means  that the destination file will
              contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not  done
              this  way  (even if the destination file were first removed, the
              data locally copied to  a  temporary  file  in  the  destination
              directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
              the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
              open),  and  thus  there might not be enough room to fit the new
              version on the disk at the same time.

              If you are using this option for reasons other than  a  shortage
              of   disk   space,   you   may  wish  to  combine  it  with  the
              --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied  files
              get  put  into  subdirectories  in  the  destination  hierarchy,
              awaiting the end of the transfer.  If you don’t have enough room
              to   duplicate   all  the  arriving  files  on  the  destination
              partition, another way to tell  rsync  that  you  aren’t  overly
              concerned  about  disk  space is to use the --partial-dir option
              with a relative path; because this tells rsync that it is OK  to
              stash off a copy of a single file in a subdir in the destination
              hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-dir as a staging  area  to
              bring  over  the copied file, and then rename it into place from
              there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with an  absolute  path  does
              not have this side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
              any destination file that is  missing.   The  current  algorithm
              looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
              file  that  has  an  identical  size  and  modified-time,  or  a
              similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file
              to try to speed up the transfer.

              Note that the use of the --delete option might get  rid  of  any
              potential  fuzzy-match  files,  so  either use --delete-after or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

       --compare-dest=DIR
              This option instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on  the  destination
              machine  as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files
              against doing  transfers  (if  the  files  are  missing  in  the
              destination  directory).   If  a  file  is  found in DIR that is
              identical to the sender’s file, the file will NOT be transferred
              to  the  destination  directory.   This is useful for creating a
              sparse backup of just files that have changed  from  an  earlier
              backup.

              Beginning  in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
              may be provided, which will cause rsync to search  the  list  in
              the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found
              that differs only in attributes, a local copy is  made  and  the
              attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs  will  be  selected  to  try  to  speed  up  the
              transfer.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

       --copy-dest=DIR
              This option behaves like --compare-dest,  but  rsync  will  also
              copy  unchanged  files found in DIR to the destination directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              destination  while leaving existing files intact, and then doing
              a  flash-cutover  when  all   files   have   been   successfully
              transferred.

              Multiple  --copy-dest  directories  may  be provided, which will
              cause rsync to search the list in the  order  specified  for  an
              unchanged  file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one
              of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is  relative  to  the  destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

       --link-dest=DIR
              This  option  behaves  like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
              hard linked from DIR to the destination  directory.   The  files
              must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
              possibly  ownership)  in  order  for  the  files  to  be  linked
              together.  An example:

                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If  file’s  aren’t linking, double-check their attributes.  Also
              check if some attributes are getting forced outside  of  rsync’s
              control,  such  a  mount  option  that squishes root to a single
              user, or mounts a removable drive with generic  ownership  (such
              as OS X’s "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
              be provided, which will cause rsync to search the  list  in  the
              order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found that
              differs only in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is  made  and  the
              attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs  will  be  selected  to  try  to  speed  up  the
              transfer.

              This  option  works  best when copying into an empty destination
              hierarchy, as rsync treats existing files as definitive  (so  it
              never  looks  in  the  link-dest  dirs  when  a destination file
              already exists), and  as  malleable  (so  it  might  change  the
              attributes   of  a  destination  file,  which  affects  all  the
              hard-linked versions).

              Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times,  rsync
              will not link any files together because it only links identical
              files together as a substitute for transferring the file,  never
              as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had  a  bug  that  could
              prevent  --link-dest  from working properly for a non-super-user
              when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You  can  work-around
              this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
              With  this  option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent
              to the destination machine, which reduces  the  amount  of  data
              being  transmitted  --  something  that  is  useful  over a slow
              connection.

              Note that this  option  typically  achieves  better  compression
              ratios  than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell
              or a compressing transport because it  takes  advantage  of  the
              implicit  information  in  the matching data blocks that are not
              explicitly sent over the connection.

              See the --skip-compress option for  the  default  list  of  file
              suffixes that will not be compressed.

       --compress-level=NUM
              Explicitly  set  the  compression  level to use (see --compress)
              instead  of  letting  it  default.   If  NUM  is  non-zero,  the
              --compress option is implied.

       --skip-compress=LIST
              Override  the list of file suffixes that will not be compressed.
              The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without  the  dot)
              separated by slashes (/).

              You  may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should
              be skipped.

              Simple character-class matching is supported: each must  consist
              of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
              classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are  supported,  and  ’-’  has  no
              special meaning).

              The  characters  asterisk  (*)  and  question-mark  (?)  have no
              special meaning.

              Here’s an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1  of
              the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):

                  --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2

              The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this
              (in this version of rsync):

              7z avi bz2 deb gz iso jpeg jpg mov mp3 mp4 ogg rpm tbz tgz z zip

              This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list  in  all
              but  one  situation:  a  copy  from a daemon rsync will add your
              skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files  (and  its
              list may be configured to a different default).

       --numeric-ids
              With  this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
              rather than using user and group names and mapping them at  both
              ends.

              By  default  rsync  will  use  the  username  and  groupname  to
              determine what ownership to give files. The special  uid  0  and
              the  special  group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even
              if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
              match  on  the  destination system, then the numeric ID from the
              source system is used instead.  See also  the  comments  on  the
              "use  chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
              on how the chroot setting affects rsync’s ability to look up the
              names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

       --timeout=TIMEOUT
              This  option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
              If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
              exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

       --contimeout
              This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
              wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.   If  the
              timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

       --address
              By  default  rsync  will  bind  to  the  wildcard  address  when
              connecting to an rsync daemon.  The --address option allows  you
              to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.  See
              also this option in the --daemon mode section.

       --port=PORT
              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use  rather  than
              the  default  of  873.  This is only needed if you are using the
              double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon  (since
              the  URL  syntax  has a way to specify the port as a part of the
              URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

       --sockopts
              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to  tune
              their  systems  to  the  utmost degree. You can set all sorts of
              socket options which may make  transfers  faster  (or  slower!).
              Read  the  man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
              on some of the options you may be able to  set.  By  default  no
              special  socket options are set. This only affects direct socket
              connections to a remote rsync daemon.  This option  also  exists
              in the --daemon mode section.

       --blocking-io
              This  tells  rsync  to  use blocking I/O when launching a remote
              shell transport.  If the remote shell is either  rsh  or  remsh,
              rsync  defaults  to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to
              using non-blocking I/O.  (Note  that  ssh  prefers  non-blocking
              I/O.)

       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests  a  simple  itemized list of the changes that are being
              made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
              the  same  as  specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.  If you repeat
              the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
              receiving  rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
              older versions of rsync, but that also turns on  the  output  of
              other verbose messages).

              The  "%i"  escape  has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.
              The general format is like the string YXcstpoguax,  where  Y  is
              replaced  by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the
              file-type, and the other letters represent attributes  that  may
              be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A  < means that a file is being transferred to the remote
                     host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to  the  local
                     host (received).

              o      A  c  means that a local change/creation is occurring for
                     the item (such as the creation  of  a  directory  or  the
                     changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A  h  means  that the item is a hard link to another item
                     (requires --hard-links).

              o      A . means that the item is not being updated  (though  it
                     might have attributes that are being modified).

              o      A  *  means  that  the  rest  of the itemized-output area
                     contains a message (e.g. "deleting").

              The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d  for  a
              directory,  an  L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The other letters in the string above  are  the  actual  letters
              that  will be output if the associated attribute for the item is
              being updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to  this
              are:  (1)  a newly created item replaces each letter with a "+",
              (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3)  an
              unknown  attribute  replaces  each  letter  with a "?" (this can
              happen when talking to an older rsync).

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A c means either that a  regular  file  has  a  different
                     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
                     or special file has a changed value.  Note  that  if  you
                     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
                     flag will be present only for checksum-differing  regular
                     files.

              o      A  s  means  the  size of a regular file is different and
                     will be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
                     updated  to  the  sender’s  value (requires --times).  An
                     alternate value of T means  that  the  modification  time
                     will  be  set  to the transfer time, which happens when a
                     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
                     symlink  is  changed and the receiver can’t set its time.
                     (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client,  you  might  see
                     the  s  flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag
                     for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A p means the permissions are  different  and  are  being
                     updated to the sender’s value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
                     the  sender’s  value  (requires  --owner  and  super-user
                     privileges).

              o      A  g means the group is different and is being updated to
                     the sender’s value (requires --group and the authority to
                     set the group).

              o      The u slot is reserved for future use.

              o      The a means that the ACL information changed.

              o      The  x  means  that  the  extended  attribute information
                     changed.

              One other output is possible:  when  deleting  files,  the  "%i"
              will  output  the string "*deleting" for each item that is being
              removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough  rsync
              that  it  logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose
              message).

       --out-format=FORMAT
              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
              to  the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text string
              containing embedded single-character escape  sequences  prefixed
              with  a  percent  (%) character.   A default format of "%n%L" is
              assumed if -v is specified (which reports the name of  the  file
              and,  if  the item is a link, where it points).  For a full list
              of the possible escape characters, see the "log format"  setting
              in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              Specifying  the --out-format option will mention each file, dir,
              etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a transferred file,
              a   recreated  symlink/device,  or  a  touched  directory).   In
              addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in  the
              string  (e.g.  if  the  --itemize-changes  option was used), the
              logging of names increases to mention any item that  is  changed
              in  any  way  (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).
              See the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output
              of "%i".

              Rsync  will  output  the  out-format  string  prior  to a file’s
              transfer  unless  one  of  the  transfer-statistic  escapes   is
              requested,  in  which case the logging is done at the end of the
              file’s transfer.  When  this  late  logging  is  in  effect  and
              --progress is also specified, rsync will also output the name of
              the file being transferred prior  to  its  progress  information
              (followed, of course, by the out-format output).

       --log-file=FILE
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  log what it is doing to a file.
              This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,  but  can  be
              requested  for  the  client  side  and/or  the  server side of a
              non-daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option,  transfer
              logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
              the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here’s a example command that requests the remote  side  to  log
              what is happening:

                rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

              This  is  very  useful  if you need to debug why a connection is
              closing unexpectedly.

       --log-file-format=FORMAT
              This allows you to specify exactly what  per-update  logging  is
              put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
              also be specified for this option to have any effect).   If  you
              specify  an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in
              the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              The  default  FORMAT  used  if  --log-file is specified and this
              option is not is ’%i %n%L’.

       --stats
              This tells rsync to print a verbose set  of  statistics  on  the
              file  transfer,  allowing  you  to  tell  how  effective rsync’s
              delta-transfer algorithm is for your data.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number of files is the  count  of  all  "files"  (in  the
                     generic  sense),  which  includes  directories, symlinks,
                     etc.

              o      Number of files transferred is the count of normal  files
                     that  were  updated via rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm,
                     which does not include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                     transfer.   This  does not count any size for directories
                     or special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                     sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal  data  is  how much unmatched file-update data we
                     had to send to  the  receiver  for  it  to  recreate  the
                     updated files.

              o      Matched  data  is  how much data the receiver got locally
                     when recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory size for the file list due to some  compressing
                     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File  list  generation time is the number of seconds that
                     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
                     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
                     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
                     sent from the client side to the server side.

              o      Total  bytes  received  is  the  count of all non-message
                     bytes that rsync received by the  client  side  from  the
                     server  side.   "Non-message"  bytes  means that we don’t
                     count the bytes for a verbose  message  that  the  server
                     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
              This  tells  rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in
              the output instead of trying to test  them  to  see  if  they’re
              valid  in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All
              control  characters  (but  never  tabs)  are   always   escaped,
              regardless of this option’s setting.

              The  escape  idiom  that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
              backslash (\) and a  hash  (#),  followed  by  exactly  3  octal
              digits.   For  example,  a  newline  would output as "\#012".  A
              literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it
              is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
              Output  numbers in a more human-readable format.  This makes big
              numbers output using larger units, with a K, M, or G suffix.  If
              this  option  was  specified  once,  these units are K (1000), M
              (1000*1000), and G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is  repeated,
              the units are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

       --partial
              By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
              the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances  it  is  more
              desirable   to  keep  partially  transferred  files.  Using  the
              --partial option tells rsync to  keep  the  partial  file  which
              should  make  a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much
              faster.

       --partial-dir=DIR
              A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option  is
              to  specify  a  DIR  that  will be used to hold the partial data
              (instead of writing it out to the  destination  file).   On  the
              next  transfer,  rsync will use a file found in this dir as data
              to speed up the resumption of the transfer and  then  delete  it
              after it has served its purpose.

              Note  that  if  --whole-file  is  specified  (or  implied),  any
              partial-dir file that is found for a file that is being  updated
              will  simply  be  removed  (since rsync is sending files without
              using rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
              not  the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative path
              (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to  have  rsync  create
              the  partial-directory  in the destination file’s directory when
              needed, and then remove  it  again  when  the  partial  file  is
              deleted.

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
              an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.   This
              will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
              on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
              of  partial-dir  items  on  the receiving side.  An example: the
              above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of  "-f  '-p
              .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
              your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the  partial-dir  because
              (1)  the  auto-added  rule may be ineffective at the end of your
              other rules, or (2) you may wish  to  override  rsync’s  exclude
              choice.   For  instance,  if you want to make rsync clean-up any
              left-over partial-dirs that may  be  lying  around,  you  should
              specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.  -f 'R
              .rsync-partial/'.     (Avoid    using     --delete-before     or
              --delete-during  unless  you  don’t need rsync to use any of the
              left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by  other
              users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You  can  also  set  the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does  not
              force  --partial  to  be  enabled,  but  rather it affects where
              partial files go when --partial  is  specified.   For  instance,
              instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
              you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
              and  then  just  use  the  -P  option  to turn on the use of the
              .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that  the
              --partial  option  does  not look for this environment value are
              (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
              --partial-dir),  and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see
              below).

              For  the  purposes  of  the  daemon-config’s  "refuse   options"
              setting,  --partial-dir  does  not  imply --partial.  This is so
              that a refusal of the --partial option can be used  to  disallow
              the  overwriting  of  destination files with a partial transfer,
              while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

       --delay-updates
              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
              a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
              all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.   This
              attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By default the files are placed into a directory named  ".~tmp~"
              in  each  file’s  destination directory, but if you’ve specified
              the --partial-dir option, that directory will be  used  instead.
              See  the  comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion
              of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
              what  you  can do if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs
              that might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with  --inplace  and
              --append.

              This  option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
              file transferred) and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
              the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
              files.  Note also that you should not use an  absolute  path  to
              --partial-dir  unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
              in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
              files  will  be  put  into  a  single  directory  if the path is
              absolute) and (2) there are no mount  points  in  the  hierarchy
              (since  the  delayed  updates will fail if they can’t be renamed
              into place).

              See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support"  subdir
              for  an  update  algorithm  that  is  even  more atomic (it uses
              --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the  receiving  rsync  to  get  rid  of  empty
              directories  from  the  file-list,  including nested directories
              that  have  no  non-directory  children.   This  is  useful  for
              avoiding the creation of a bunch of useless directories when the
              sending rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note  that  the  use  of  transfer rules, such as the --min-size
              option, does not affect what goes into the file list,  and  thus
              does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
              directory match the transfer rule.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
              affects  what  directories  get deleted when a delete is active.
              However, keep in mind that excluded files  and  directories  can
              prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
              hiding source files and protecting destination files.   See  the
              perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

              You  can  prevent  the pruning of certain empty directories from
              the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance,
              this  option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept
              in the file-list:

              --filter ’protect emptydir/’

              Here’s an example that copies all .pdf  files  in  a  hierarchy,
              only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
              .pdf  files,  and  ensures  that  any  superfluous   files   and
              directories in the destination are removed (note the hide filter
              of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

              rsync -avm --del --include=’*.pdf’ -f ’hide,! */’ src/ dest

              If you didn’t want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
              more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'  --exclude='*'"
              would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if  that  is  more
              natural to you).

       --progress
              This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
              progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user  something  to
              watch.  Implies --verbose if it wasn’t already specified.

              While  rsync  is  transferring  a  regular  file,  it  updates a
              progress line that looks like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
              63% of the sender’s file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
              4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These  statistics  can  be  misleading if rsync’s delta-transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender’s file consists
              of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
              will probably drop dramatically when the receiver  gets  to  the
              literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
              finish than the receiver  estimated  as  it  was  finishing  the
              matched part of the file.

              When  the  file  transfer  finishes, rsync replaces the progress
              line with a summary line that looks like this:

                   1238099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in  total,  the
              average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
              per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
              the  5th  transfer  of  a  regular file during the current rsync
              session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to  check
              (to  see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396
              total files in the file-list.

       -P     The -P  option  is  equivalent  to  --partial  --progress.   Its
              purpose  is  to make it much easier to specify these two options
              for a long transfer that may be interrupted.

       --password-file
              This option allows you to provide  a  password  in  a  file  for
              accessing an rsync daemon.  The file must not be world readable.
              It should contain just the password as the  first  line  of  the
              file (all other lines are ignored).

              This  option  does  not  supply  a  password  to  a remote shell
              transport such as ssh; to learn how  to  do  that,  consult  the
              remote  shell’s  documentation.   When accessing an rsync daemon
              using a remote shell as the transport, this  option  only  comes
              into  effect  after the remote shell finishes its authentication
              (i.e. if you have also specified  a  password  in  the  daemon’s
              config file).

       --list-only
              This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of
              transferred.  This option is  inferred  if  there  is  a  single
              source  arg  and no destination specified, so its main uses are:
              (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
              a  file-listing  command, or (2) to be able to specify more than
              one source arg (note:  be  sure  to  include  the  destination).
              Caution:  keep  in  mind  that  a source arg with a wild-card is
              expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to
              try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Compatibility  note:   when requesting a remote listing of files
              from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may  encounter
              an  error  if  you  ask  for  a  non-recursive listing.  This is
              because  a  file  listing  implies   the   --dirs   option   w/o
              --recursive,  and older rsyncs don’t have that option.  To avoid
              this problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you  don’t
              need  to expand a directory’s content), or turn on recursion and
              exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

       --bwlimit=KBPS
              This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
              kilobytes  per  second. This option is most effective when using
              rsync with large files (several megabytes and up).  Due  to  the
              nature  of  rsync  transfers,  blocks  of data are sent, then if
              rsync determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait  before
              sending  the  next data block. The result is an average transfer
              rate equaling the specified limit. A value of zero specifies  no
              limit.

       --write-batch=FILE
              Record  a  file  that  can later be applied to another identical
              destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section  for
              details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

       --only-write-batch=FILE
              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
              destination system when  creating  the  batch.   This  lets  you
              transport  the  changes to the destination system via some other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to  some
              portable  media:  if this media fills to capacity before the end
              of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
              destination  and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
              changes  (as  long  as  you  don’t  mind  a  partially   updated
              destination system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
              remote system  because  this  allows  the  batched  data  to  be
              diverted  from  the sender into the batch file without having to
              flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender  is
              remote, and thus can’t write the batch).

       --read-batch=FILE
              Apply  all  of  the  changes  stored  in FILE, a file previously
              generated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch  data  will
              be  read  from standard input.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for
              details.

       --protocol=NUM
              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful  for
              creating  a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
              of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used  with  the
              --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
              run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
              creating  the  batch file to force the older protocol version to
              be used in the batch file (assuming you can’t upgrade the  rsync
              on the reading system).

       --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC
              Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
              option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up  the
              default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
              can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and  a
              remote   charset   separated   by   a   comma   in   the   order
              --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.   This  order
              ensures  that  the  option  will  stay  the  same whether you’re
              pushing or pulling  files.   Finally,  you  can  specify  either
              --no-iconv  or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.
              The default setting of this option  is  site-specific,  and  can
              also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

              For  a  list  of  what  charset  names  your local iconv library
              supports, you can run "iconv --list".

              If you  specify  the  --protect-args  option  (-s),  rsync  will
              translate the filenames you specify on the command-line that are
              being sent to  the  remote  host.   See  also  the  --files-from
              option.

              Note  that  rsync  does not do any conversion of names in filter
              files (including include/exclude files).  It is  up  to  you  to
              ensure  that  you’re specifying matching rules that can match on
              both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
              include/exclude  rules  if there are filename differences on the
              two sides that need to be accounted for.

              When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon  that  allows
              it,  the  daemon  uses  the  charset  specified in its "charset"
              configuration parameter regardless of  the  remote  charset  you
              actually  pass.   Thus,  you  may  feel free to specify just the
              local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6  when  creating  sockets.   This
              only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as
              the outgoing socket when directly contacting  an  rsync  daemon.
              See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

              If  rsync  was  complied  without  support  for IPv6, the --ipv6
              option will have no effect.  The --version output will tell  you
              if this is the case.

       --checksum-seed=NUM
              Set  the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum
              seed is included in each block and  file  checksum  calculation.
              By  default  the  checksum  seed  is generated by the server and
              defaults to the current time() .  This option is used to  set  a
              specific  checksum  seed,  which is useful for applications that
              want repeatable block and file checksums, or in the  case  where
              the  user  wants  a more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0
              causes rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.

DAEMON OPTIONS

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

       --daemon
              This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
              start  running  may  be accessed using an rsync client using the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it  is
              being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
              terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon  will  read
              the  config  file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client
              and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
              page for more details.

       --address
              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
              daemon with the --daemon option.  The  --address  option  allows
              you  to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
              This makes virtual hosting  possible  in  conjunction  with  the
              --config  option.   See  also the "address" global option in the
              rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --bwlimit=KBPS
              This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
              kilobytes  per second for the data the daemon sends.  The client
              can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
              value  will  be  rounded down if they try to exceed it.  See the
              client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

       --config=FILE
              This specifies an alternate config file than the default.   This
              is  only  relevant  when  --daemon is specified.  The default is
              /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon  is  running  over  a  remote
              shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
              case  the  default  is  rsyncd.conf  in  the  current  directory
              (typically $HOME).

       --no-detach
              When  running  as  a  daemon, this option instructs rsync to not
              detach itself and become a background process.  This  option  is
              required  when  running  as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
              or  AIX’s  System  Resource  Controller.   --no-detach  is  also
              recommended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has
              no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

       --port=PORT
              This  specifies  an  alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
              listen on rather than the default of 873.  See also  the  "port"
              global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --log-file=FILE
              This  option  tells  the  rsync daemon to use the given log-file
              name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

       --log-file-format=FORMAT
              This option tells the rsync  daemon  to  use  the  given  FORMAT
              string  instead  of using the "log format" setting in the config
              file.  It also enables "transfer logging" unless the  string  is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

       --sockopts
              This  overrides  the  socket  options setting in the rsyncd.conf
              file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information the daemon  logs
              during  its  startup  phase.   After  the  client  connects, the
              daemon’s verbosity level will be controlled by the options  that
              the  client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module’s
              config section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to  prefer  IPv4/IPv6  when  creating  the  incoming
              sockets   that   the   rsync  daemon  will  use  to  listen  for
              connections.  One of these options  may  be  required  in  older
              versions  of  Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if
              you see an "address already in use" error when nothing  else  is
              using  the  port,  try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting
              the daemon).

              If rsync was complied  without  support  for  IPv6,  the  --ipv6
              option  will have no effect.  The --version output will tell you
              if this is the case.

       -h, --help
              When  specified  after  --daemon,  print  a  short   help   page
              describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.

FILTER RULES

       The  filter  rules  allow  for  flexible  selection  of  which files to
       transfer (include) and which files to skip (exclude).  The rules either
       directly  specify  include/exclude  patterns  or  they specify a way to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As the list of files/directories to transfer  is  built,  rsync  checks
       each  name  to  be  transferred  against  the  list  of include/exclude
       patterns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is
       an  exclude  pattern,  then  that  file is skipped; if it is an include
       pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no  matching  pattern  is
       found, then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync  builds  an  ordered  list  of  filter  rules as specified on the
       command-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:

              RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]
              RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]

       You have your choice of using either  short  or  long  RULE  names,  as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ’,’ separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.   The  PATTERN  or  FILENAME  that
       follows  (when  present)  must  come  after either a single space or an
       underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect,  P  specifies  a  pattern  for  protecting  files  from
              deletion.
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
       comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full  range  of  rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
       list  (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
       If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash,  space)  or  "+  "  (plus,
       space),  then  the  rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter  option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern  each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter rules (as  introduced  in  the  FILTER  RULES  section
       above).   The  include/exclude  rules  each  specify  a pattern that is
       matched  against  the  names  of  the  files  that  are  going  to   be
       transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if  the  pattern  starts  with  a  /  then  it  is anchored to a
              particular spot in the  hierarchy  of  files,  otherwise  it  is
              matched  against  the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a
              leading ^ in regular expressions.  Thus  "/foo"  would  match  a
              name of "foo" at either the "root of the transfer" (for a global
              rule) or in the  merge-file’s  directory  (for  a  per-directory
              rule).   An  unqualified  "foo"  would  match  a  name  of "foo"
              anywhere  in  the  tree  because  the   algorithm   is   applied
              recursively  from  the  top  down;  it  behaves  as if each path
              component gets a turn at being the end of  the  filename.   Even
              the  unanchored  "sub/foo"  would  match  at  any  point  in the
              hierarchy where a "foo"  was  found  within  a  directory  named
              "sub".   See  the  section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
              for a full discussion of how to specify a pattern  that  matches
              at the root of the transfer.

       o      if  the  pattern  ends  with  a  /  then  it  will  only match a
              directory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match  and  wildcard
              matching  by checking if the pattern contains one of these three
              wildcard characters: ’*’, ’?’, and ’[’ .

       o      a ’*’ matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use ’**’ to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a ’?’ matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a  ’[’  introduces  a  character  class,  such   as   [a-z]   or
              [[:alpha:]].

       o      in  a  wildcard  pattern,  a  backslash  can be used to escape a
              wildcard  character,  but  it  is  matched  literally  when   no
              wildcards are present.

       o      if  the  pattern  contains  a / (not counting a trailing /) or a
              "**", then it is matched against the  full  pathname,  including
              any leading directories. If the pattern doesn’t contain a / or a
              "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
              filename.   (Remember  that the algorithm is applied recursively
              so "full filename" can actually be any portion of  a  path  from
              the starting directory on down.)

       o      a  trailing  "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
              "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the  directory
              (as  if  "dir_name/**"  had  been specified).  This behavior was
              added in version 2.6.7.

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied  by
       -a),  every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down, so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent’s
       full  name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and
       "/foo/bar" must  not  be  excluded).   The  exclude  patterns  actually
       short-circuit  the directory traversal stage when rsync finds the files
       to send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory,  it  can
       render  a  deeper  include  pattern  ineffectual  because rsync did not
       descend through that  excluded  section  of  the  hierarchy.   This  is
       particularly  important  when using a trailing ’*’ rule.  For instance,
       this won’t work:

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by  the  ’*’
       rule,  so  rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the "some" or
       "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the  hierarchy  to  be  included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
       somewhere   before   the   "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.   For  instance,
       this set of rules works fine:

              + /some/
              + /some/path/
              + /some/path/this-file-is-found
              + /file-also-included
              - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "-  /foo"  would  exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
              transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at  two
              levels   below  a  directory  named  foo  in  the  transfer-root
              directory

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named  bar  two  or  more
              levels   below  a  directory  named  foo  in  the  transfer-root
              directory

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include  all
              directories  and  C  source files but nothing else (see also the
              --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+  foo/bar.c",  and  "-  *"  would
              include  only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory
              must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A / specifies that the include/exclude rule  should  be  matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the  passwd  file  any  time  the
              transfer  was  sending  files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/
              subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named
              "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
              pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all
              non-directories.

       o      A  C  is  used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
              should be inserted as excludes in place of  the  "-C".   No  arg
              should follow.

       o      An  s  is  used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
              side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents  files
              from  being  transferred.   The  default is for a rule to affect
              both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
              default  rules  become  sender-side only.  See also the hide (H)
              and show (S) rules,  which  are  an  alternate  way  to  specify
              sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
              side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
              from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
              the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an  alternate  way
              to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A  p  indicates  that  a  rule is perishable, meaning that it is
              ignored in directories that are being  deleted.   For  instance,
              the -C option’s default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and
              "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
              that  was  removed  on  the  source  from  being  deleted on the
              destination.

MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge  (.)  or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There are two kinds  of  merged  files  --  single-instance  (’.’)  and
       per-directory  (’:’).   A  single-instance merge file is read one time,
       and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the
       "."  rule.   For  per-directory  merge  files,  rsync  will  scan every
       directory that it traverses for the named file,  merging  its  contents
       when  the  file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These
       per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it
       is  the  sending  side that is being scanned for the available files to
       transfer.  These rule files may also need  to  be  transferred  to  the
       receiving  side if you want them to affect what files don’t get deleted
       (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

              merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
              . /etc/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the  file  should  consist  of  only  exclude
              patterns,   with   no  other  rule-parsing  except  for  in-file
              comments.

       o      A + specifies that the  file  should  consist  of  only  include
              patterns,   with   no  other  rule-parsing  except  for  in-file
              comments.

       o      A C is a way to specify that  the  file  should  be  read  in  a
              CVS-compatible  manner.   This  turns  on ’n’, ’w’, and ’-’, but
              also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If  no
              filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A  e  will  exclude  the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
              "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An  n  specifies  that  the   rules   are   not   inherited   by
              subdirectories.

       o      A  w  specifies  that  the  rules  are  word-split on whitespace
              instead of the  normal  line-splitting.   This  also  turns  off
              comments.   Note:  the  space that separates the prefix from the
              rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar"  is  parsed  as  two
              rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn’t also disabled).

       o      You  may  also  specify  any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-"
              rules (above) in order to have the rules that are read  in  from
              the  file  default to having that modifier set (except for the !
              modifier, which would not be useful).  For  instance,  "merge,-/
              .excl"  would  treat  the  contents  of  .excl  as absolute-path
              excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC"  would  each  make
              all  their  per-directory  rules apply only on the sending side.
              If the merge rule specifies sides to affect  (via  the  s  or  r
              modifier  or  both), then the rules in the file must not specify
              sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory  rules  are  inherited  in  all  subdirectories  of   the
       directory  where  the  merge-file was found unless the ’n’ modifier was
       used.   Each  subdirectory’s  rules  are  prefixed  to  the   inherited
       per-directory  rules  from  its parents, which gives the newest rules a
       higher priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of  dir-merge
       rules  are  grouped  together  in  the  spot  where  the merge-file was
       specified, so it is possible to override dir-merge  rules  via  a  rule
       that  got  specified  earlier  in  the  list of global rules.  When the
       list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a  per-directory  file,  it  only
       clears the inherited rules for the current merge file.

       Another  way  to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
       inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored  rules  in  a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file’s directory, so
       a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here’s  an  example  filter  file  which  you’d specify via --filter=".
       file":

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter  file  at
       the  start  of  the  list  and  also turns the ".rules" filename into a
       per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the
       directory  scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory  of  the  first  transfer  directory, rsync will scan all the
       parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for  the
       indicated  per-directory  file.   For instance, here is a common filter
       (see -F):

              --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That rule tells rsync  to  scan  for  the  file  .rsync-filter  in  all
       directories  from  the  root  down  through the parent directory of the
       transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in
       the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer.  (Note: for an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module’s "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in  "/"  and
       "/src"   before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for  the  file  in
       "/src/path" and  its  subdirectories.   The  last  command  avoids  the
       parent-dir  scan  and  only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
       you  should  use  the  rule  ":C",  which  creates  a  dir-merge of the
       .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.   You  can  use
       this  to  affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option’s inclusion of the
       per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your  rules  by  putting
       the  ":C"  wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync
       would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of  all
       your  other  rules  (giving  it a lower priority than your command-line
       rules).  For example:

              cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
              + foo.o
              :C
              - *.old
              EOT
              rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each  one  will  merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules  that  follow  the  :C  instead  of being subservient to all your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions,   the  contents  of  $HOME/.cvsignore,  and  the  value  of
       $CVSIGNORE) you should omit the  -C  command-line  option  and  instead
       insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE

       You  can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
       rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The  "current"
       list  is  either  the  global list of rules (if the rule is encountered
       while parsing the filter options)  or  a  set  of  per-directory  rules
       (which  are  inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use
       this to clear out the parent’s rules).

ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS

       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are  anchored  at
       the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are anchored at the merge-file’s  directory).   If  you  think  of  the
       transfer  as  a  subtree  of  names  that are being sent from sender to
       receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to  be  duplicated
       in  the  destination  directory.  This root governs where patterns that
       start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to  the  transfer-root,  changing  the
       trailing  slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative
       option affects the path you need to use in your matching  (in  addition
       to  changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let’s say that we want to match two source files, one with an  absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
              +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
              Target file: /dest/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
              +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just  look  at
       the  output  when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use
       the --dry-run option if you’re not yet ready to copy any files).

PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE

       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant  on  the
       sending  side,  so  you  can  feel  free  to  exclude  the  merge files
       themselves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the  ’e’
       modifier  adds  this  exclude  for you, as seen in these two equivalent
       commands:

              rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
              rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you  want
       some  files  to  be excluded from being deleted, you’ll need to be sure
       that the receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The  easiest  way
       is  to  include  the  per-directory merge files in the transfer and use
       --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side  gets  all
       the  same  exclude  rules as the sending side before it tries to delete
       anything:

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you’ll need
       to  either  specify  some  global  exclude rules (i.e. specified on the
       command line), or you’ll need to maintain your own per-directory  merge
       files  on  the receiving side.  An example of the first is this (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=’: .rules’ --filter=’. /my/extra.rules’
          --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of  the
       transfer,  but  (on  the sending side) the rules are subservient to the
       rules merged from the .rules files because they  were  specified  after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In  one  final  example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they  don’t
       get  deleted)  and  then put rules into the local files to control what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

BATCH MODE

       Batch mode can be used to  apply  the  same  set  of  updates  to  many
       identical  systems.  Suppose  one  has  a tree which is replicated on a
       number of hosts.  Now suppose some  changes  have  been  made  to  this
       source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.
       In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch
       option  to  apply  the  changes  made  to the source tree to one of the
       destination trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync  client  to
       store  in  a  "batch  file"  all  the information needed to repeat this
       operation against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum,  and  data  block  generation  more  than  once when updating
       multiple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can  be  used
       to  transfer  the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To apply the recorded changes to another destination  tree,  run  rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For   your  convenience,  a  script  file  is  also  created  when  the
       write-batch option is used:  it will be named the  same  as  the  batch
       file  with  ".sh"  appended.   This script file contains a command-line
       suitable for updating a destination tree  using  the  associated  batch
       file.  It  can  be  executed  using  a  Bourne  (or Bourne-like) shell,
       optionally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname  which  is
       then  used  instead  of  the original destination path.  This is useful
       when the destination tree path on the current host differs from the one
       used to create the batch file.

       Examples:

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In   these   examples,   rsync  is  used  to  update  /adest/dir/  from
       /source/dir/ and the information to repeat this operation is stored  in
       "foo" and "foo.sh".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between  the
       two  examples  reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
       with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn’t have to be
              local  --  you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
              either the  remote-shell  syntax  or  rsync  daemon  syntax,  as
              desired.

       o      The  first  example  uses  the  created "foo.sh" file to get the
              right rsync options when running the read-batch command  on  the
              remote host.

       o      The  second  example  reads the batch data via standard input so
              that the batch file doesn’t need to  be  copied  to  the  remote
              machine first.  This example avoids the foo.sh script because it
              needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
              the  script  file  if you wished to make use of it (just be sure
              that no other option is trying to use standard  input,  such  as
              the "--exclude-from=-" option).

       Caveats:

       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
       to be identical to the destination tree that was  used  to  create  the
       batch  update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
       is encountered the update might be discarded with  a  warning  (if  the
       file  appears  to  be  up-to-date  already)  or  the file-update may be
       attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the  update  discarded
       with  an  error.   This  means  that  it  should  be  safe  to re-run a
       read-batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If  you  wish  to
       force  the  batched-update  to  always  be  attempted regardless of the
       file’s size and date, use the -I option (when reading the  batch).   If
       an  error  occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a partially
       updated state.  In  that  case,  rsync  can  be  used  in  its  regular
       (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The  rsync  version used on all destinations must be at least as new as
       the one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an  error
       if  the  protocol  version  in  the  batch  file  is  too  new  for the
       batch-reading rsync to handle.  See also the --protocol  option  for  a
       way  to  have  the  creating  rsync generate a batch file that an older
       rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version
       2.6.3,  so mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not
       work.)

       When reading a batch file,  rsync  will  force  the  value  of  certain
       options  to  match the data in the batch file if you didn’t set them to
       the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and  should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to  --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped, and the  --filter/--include/--exclude  options
       are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The    code   that   creates   the   BATCH.sh   file   transforms   any
       filter/include/exclude options into a single list that is appended as a
       "here"  document  to  the  shell script file.  An advanced user can use
       this to modify the exclude list if a change in  what  gets  deleted  by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the shell script as an easy way to  run  the  appropriate  --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The  original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
       version uses a new implementation.

SYMBOLIC LINKS

       Three basic behaviors are possible when  rsync  encounters  a  symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By  default,  symbolic  links  are  not  transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks  are  recreated  with  the  same
       target on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If  --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe"  and  "unsafe"  symbolic  links.   An
       example  where  this  might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
       ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not  include  symbolic
       links  to  /etc/passwd  in  the  public  section  of  the  site.  Using
       --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file  they
       point  to  on  the  destination.   Using --safe-links will cause unsafe
       links to be omitted altogether.  (Note that you  must  specify  --links
       for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic  links  are  considered  unsafe  if they are absolute symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain  enough  ".."  components  to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here’s  a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list
       is in order of precedence, so if  your  combination  of  options  isn’t
       mentioned,  use  the  first  line  that  is  a  complete subset of your
       options:

       --copy-links
              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
              other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn  all  unsafe  symlinks  into  files  and duplicate all safe
              symlinks.

       --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks  into  files,  noisily  skip  all  safe
              symlinks.

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

       --links
              Duplicate all symlinks.

DIAGNOSTICS

       rsync  occasionally  produces  error  messages  that  may seem a little
       cryptic. The one that seems to cause the most  confusion  is  "protocol
       version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This  message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
       facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync  is  using
       for  its  transport.  The  way  to diagnose this problem is to run your
       remote shell like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly  then  out.dat
       should  be  a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
       rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains  some  text  or
       data.  Look  at  the contents and try to work out what is producing it.
       The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell  startup  scripts
       (such  as  .cshrc  or  .profile)  that  contain  output  statements for
       non-interactive logins.

       If  you  are  having  trouble  debugging  filter  patterns,  then   try
       specifying  the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity rsync will show
       why each individual file is included or excluded.

EXIT VALUES

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested  action  not  supported:  an  attempt  was   made   to
              manipulate  64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them;
              or an option was specified that is supported by the  client  and
              not by the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       CVSIGNORE
              The   CVSIGNORE  environment  variable  supplements  any  ignore
              patterns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude  option  for
              more details.

       RSYNC_ICONV
              Specify   a  default  --iconv  setting  using  this  environment
              variable. (First supported in 3.0.0.)

       RSYNC_RSH
              The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you  to  override  the
              default  shell  used  as  the transport for rsync.  Command line
              options are permitted after the command name, just as in the  -e
              option.

       RSYNC_PROXY
              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
              rsync client to use a web  proxy  when  connecting  to  a  rsync
              daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

       RSYNC_PASSWORD
              Setting  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the required password allows you to
              run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync  daemon  without
              user  intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to
              a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to  do  that,
              consult the remote shell’s documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The  USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
              the default username sent to an rsync  daemon.   If  neither  is
              set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user’s default
              .cvsignore file.

FILES

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

SEE ALSO

       rsyncd.conf(5)

BUGS

       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may  re-sync  unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file  permissions,  devices,  etc.  are transferred as native numerical
       values

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at http://rsync.samba.org/

VERSION

       This man page is current for version 3.0.9 of rsync.

INTERNAL OPTIONS

       The options --server and --sender are used  internally  by  rsync,  and
       should  never  be  typed  by  a  user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such  as
       when  setting  up  a  login  that  can  only run an rsync command.  For
       instance, the support  directory  of  the  rsync  distribution  has  an
       example  script  named  rrsync  (for restricted rsync) that can be used
       with a restricted ssh login.

CREDITS

       rsync is distributed under the GNU General  Public  License.   See  the
       file COPYING for details.

       A  WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The site includes
       an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover  questions  unanswered  by  this  manual
       page.

       The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

       We  would  be  delighted  to  hear  from  you if you like this program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.

       This program uses the excellent zlib  compression  library  written  by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

THANKS

       Special  thanks  go  out  to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
       Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian  Krahmer,  Martin  Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks  also  to  Richard  Brent,  Brendan  Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen
       Rothwell  and  David  Bell.   I’ve  probably  missed  some  people,  my
       apologies if I have.

AUTHOR

       rsync  was  originally  written  by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
       Many people have later contributed to it.  It is  currently  maintained
       by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing   lists   for   support   and   development  are  available  at
       http://lists.samba.org

                                  23 Sep 2011                         rsync(1)