Provided by: upstart_1.8-0ubuntu1_i386 bug


       init - Upstart process management daemon


       init [OPTION]...


       init  is  the  parent of all processes on the system, it is executed by
       the kernel and is responsible for starting all other processes;  it  is
       the  parent  of all processes whose natural parents have died and it is
       responsible for reaping those when they die.

       Processes managed by init are known as jobs and are defined by files in
       the  /etc/init  directory.  See init(5) for more details on configuring

       init(8) is an event-based init daemon.  This means that  jobs  will  be
       automatically  started  and stopped by changes that occur to the system
       state, including as a result of jobs starting and stopping.

       This is different  to  dependency-based  init  daemons  which  start  a
       specified  set of goal jobs, and resolve the order in which they should
       be started and other jobs required by iterating their dependencies.

       For more information on starting and stopping jobs, as well as emitting
       events that will automatically start and stop jobs, see the manual page
       for the initctl(8) tool.

       The primary event is the startup(7) event, emitted when the daemon  has
       finished  loading  its  configuration.   Other  useful  events  are the
       starting(7), started(7), stopping(7) and stopped(7) events  emitted  as
       jobs change state.

       See upstart-events(7) for a summary of well-known events.

   System V compatibility
       The  Upstart  init(8)  daemon  does not keep track of runlevels itself,
       instead they are implemented entirely  by  its  userspace  tools.   The
       event emitted to signify a change of runlevel is the runlevel(7) event.
       For more information see its manual page.


       Options are passed to init(8) by placing them on  the  kernel  command-

       --confdir directory
              Read  job  configuration  files  from  a  directory  other  than
              /etc/init.  For user session mode, read job configuration  files
              from this directory at highest priority.

       --default-console value
              Default  value  for jobs that do not specify a 'console' stanza.
              This could be used for example to set the default to 'none'  but
              still  honour  jobs  that  specify explicitly 'console log'. See
              init(5) for all possible values of console.

              Stop  jobs  from  inheriting  the  initial   environment.   Only
              meaningful when running in user mode.

       --logdir directory
              Write   job   output   log  files  to  a  directory  other  than
              /var/log/upstart (system mode) or $XDG_CACHE_HOME/upstart  (user
              session mode).

              Disable  logging  of  job  output.  Note  that  jobs  specifying
              'console log' will be treated as if they had specified  'console
              none'.  See init(5) for further details.

              Disable chroot sessions.

              Suppress  emission  of  the  initial  startup event. This option
              should only be used for testing since it will stop  the  init(8)
              daemon from starting any jobs automatically.

              Connect  to  the D-Bus session bus. This should only be used for

       --startup-event event
              Specify a different initial  startup  event  from  the  standard

       --user Starts  in user mode, as used for user sessions. Upstart will be
              run as an unprivileged user, reading  configuration  files  from
              configuration  locations  as  per  roughly  XDG  Base  Directory
              Specification. See init(5) for further details.

       -q, --quiet
              Reduces output messages to errors only.

       -v, --verbose
              Outputs verbose messages  about  job  state  changes  and  event
              emissions  to  the  system  console or log, useful for debugging

              Outputs version information and exits.


       init is not normally executed by a user process, and expects to have  a
       process  id  of  1.   If this is not the case, it will actually execute
       telinit(8) and pass all arguments to that.  See that  manual  page  for
       further  details.  However,  if the --user option is specified, it will
       run as a Session Init and  read  alternative  configuration  files  and
       manage the individual user session in a similar fashion.

       Sending  a  Session  Init  a  SIGTERM  signal  is taken as a request to
       shutdown due to an impending system shutdown.  In  this  scenario,  the
       Session  Init  will emit the session-end event and  request all running
       jobs stop. It will attempt to honour  jobs  kill  timeout  values  (see
       init(5)  for  further  details).  Note  however that system policy will
       prevail: if jobs request timeout values longer than the  system  policy
       allows  for complete system shutdown, it will not be possible to honour
       them before the Session Init is killed by the system.


       When run as a user process, the following variables may be used to find
       job configuration files:

       ·   $XDG_CONFIG_HOME

       ·   $XDG_CONFIG_DIRS

       See User Session Mode in init(5) for further details.








       Written by Scott James Remnant <>


       Report bugs at <>


       Copyright © 2009-2012 Canonical Ltd.
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
       NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR  A  PARTICULAR


       control-alt-delete(7)   init(5)   initctl(8)   runlevel(7)   startup(7)
       starting(7)  started(7)  stopping(7)  stopped(7)  telinit(8)   upstart-