Provided by: avr-libc_1.8.0-4.1_all bug

NAME

       <stdlib.h>: General utilities -

   Data Structures
       struct div_t
       struct ldiv_t

   Macros
       #define RAND_MAX   0x7FFF

   Typedefs
       typedef int(* __compar_fn_t )(const void *, const void *)

   Functions
       void abort (void) __ATTR_NORETURN__
       int abs (int __i)
       long labs (long __i)
       void * bsearch (const void *__key, const void *__base, size_t __nmemb,
           size_t __size, int(*__compar)(const void *, const void *))
       div_t div (int __num, int __denom) __asm__('__divmodhi4')
       ldiv_t ldiv (long __num, long __denom) __asm__('__divmodsi4')
       void qsort (void *__base, size_t __nmemb, size_t __size, __compar_fn_t
           __compar)
       long strtol (const char *__nptr, char **__endptr, int __base)
       unsigned long strtoul (const char *__nptr, char **__endptr, int __base)
       long atol (const char *__s) __ATTR_PURE__
       int atoi (const char *__s) __ATTR_PURE__
       void exit (int __status) __ATTR_NORETURN__
       void * malloc (size_t __size) __ATTR_MALLOC__
       void free (void *__ptr)
       void * calloc (size_t __nele, size_t __size) __ATTR_MALLOC__
       void * realloc (void *__ptr, size_t __size) __ATTR_MALLOC__
       double strtod (const char *__nptr, char **__endptr)
       double atof (const char *__nptr)
       int rand (void)
       void srand (unsigned int __seed)
       int rand_r (unsigned long *__ctx)

   Variables
       size_t __malloc_margin
       char * __malloc_heap_start
       char * __malloc_heap_end

   Non-standard (i.e. non-ISO C) functions.
       char * ltoa (long int __val, char *__s, int __radix)
       char * utoa (unsigned int __val, char *__s, int __radix)
       char * ultoa (unsigned long int __val, char *__s, int __radix)
       long random (void)
       void srandom (unsigned long __seed)
       long random_r (unsigned long *__ctx)
       char * itoa (int __val, char *__s, int __radix)
       #define RANDOM_MAX   0x7FFFFFFF

   Conversion functions for double arguments.
       Note that these functions are not located in the default library,
       libc.a, but in the mathematical library, libm.a. So when linking the
       application, the -lm option needs to be specified.
       char * dtostre (double __val, char *__s, unsigned char __prec, unsigned
           char __flags)
       char * dtostrf (double __val, signed char __width, unsigned char
           __prec, char *__s)
       #define DTOSTR_ALWAYS_SIGN   0x01        /* put '+' or ' ' for
           positives */
       #define DTOSTR_PLUS_SIGN   0x02        /* put '+' rather than ' ' */
       #define DTOSTR_UPPERCASE   0x04        /* put 'E' rather 'e' */

Detailed Description

       #include <stdlib.h>

       This file declares some basic C macros and functions as defined by the
       ISO standard, plus some AVR-specific extensions.

Macro Definition Documentation

   #define DTOSTR_ALWAYS_SIGN   0x01        /* put '+' or ' ' for positives */
       Bit value that can be passed in flags to dtostre().

   #define DTOSTR_PLUS_SIGN   0x02        /* put '+' rather than ' ' */
       Bit value that can be passed in flags to dtostre().

   #define DTOSTR_UPPERCASE   0x04        /* put 'E' rather 'e' */
       Bit value that can be passed in flags to dtostre().

   #define RAND_MAX   0x7FFF
       Highest number that can be generated by rand().

   #define RANDOM_MAX   0x7FFFFFFF
       Highest number that can be generated by random().

Typedef Documentation

   typedef int(* __compar_fn_t)(const void *, const void *)
       Comparision function type for qsort(), just for convenience.

Function Documentation

   void abort (void)
       The abort() function causes abnormal program termination to occur. This
       realization disables interrupts and jumps to _exit() function with
       argument equal to 1. In the limited AVR environment, execution is
       effectively halted by entering an infinite loop.

   int abs (int__i)
       The abs() function computes the absolute value of the integer i.

       Note:
           The abs() and labs() functions are builtins of gcc.

   double atof (const char *nptr)
       The atof() function converts the initial portion of the string pointed
       to by nptr to double representation.

       It is equivalent to calling

       strtod(nptr, (char **)0);

   int atoi (const char *s)
       Convert a string to an integer. The atoi() function converts the
       initial portion of the string pointed to by s to integer
       representation. In contrast to

       (int)strtol(s, (char **)NULL, 10);

       this function does not detect overflow (errno is not changed and the
       result value is not predictable), uses smaller memory (flash and stack)
       and works more quickly.

   long atol (const char *s)
       Convert a string to a long integer. The atol() function converts the
       initial portion of the string pointed to by s to long integer
       representation. In contrast to

       strtol(s, (char **)NULL, 10);

       this function does not detect overflow (errno is not changed and the
       result value is not predictable), uses smaller memory (flash and stack)
       and works more quickly.

   void* bsearch (const void *__key, const void *__base, size_t__nmemb,
       size_t__size, int(*)(const void *, const void *)__compar)
       The bsearch() function searches an array of nmemb objects, the initial
       member of which is pointed to by base, for a member that matches the
       object pointed to by key. The size of each member of the array is
       specified by size.

       The contents of the array should be in ascending sorted order according
       to the comparison function referenced by compar. The compar routine is
       expected to have two arguments which point to the key object and to an
       array member, in that order, and should return an integer less than,
       equal to, or greater than zero if the key object is found,
       respectively, to be less than, to match, or be greater than the array
       member.

       The bsearch() function returns a pointer to a matching member of the
       array, or a null pointer if no match is found. If two members compare
       as equal, which member is matched is unspecified.

   void* calloc (size_t__nele, size_t__size)
       Allocate nele elements of size each. Identical to calling malloc()
       using nele * size as argument, except the allocated memory will be
       cleared to zero.

   div_t div (int__num, int__denom)
       The div() function computes the value num/denom and returns the
       quotient and remainder in a structure named div_t that contains two int
       members named quot and rem.

   char* dtostre (double__val, char *__s, unsigned char__prec, unsigned
       char__flags)
       The dtostre() function converts the double value passed in val into an
       ASCII representation that will be stored under s. The caller is
       responsible for providing sufficient storage in s.

       Conversion is done in the format '[-]d.ddde┬▒dd' where there is one
       digit before the decimal-point character and the number of digits after
       it is equal to the precision prec; if the precision is zero, no
       decimal-point character appears. If flags has the DTOSTRE_UPPERCASE bit
       set, the letter 'E' (rather than 'e' ) will be used to introduce the
       exponent. The exponent always contains two digits; if the value is
       zero, the exponent is '00'.

       If flags has the DTOSTRE_ALWAYS_SIGN bit set, a space character will be
       placed into the leading position for positive numbers.

       If flags has the DTOSTRE_PLUS_SIGN bit set, a plus sign will be used
       instead of a space character in this case.

       The dtostre() function returns the pointer to the converted string s.

   char* dtostrf (double__val, signed char__width, unsigned char__prec, char
       *__s)
       The dtostrf() function converts the double value passed in val into an
       ASCII representationthat will be stored under s. The caller is
       responsible for providing sufficient storage in s.

       Conversion is done in the format '[-]d.ddd'. The minimum field width of
       the output string (including the '.' and the possible sign for negative
       values) is given in width, and prec determines the number of digits
       after the decimal sign. width is signed value, negative for left
       adjustment.

       The dtostrf() function returns the pointer to the converted string s.

   void exit (int__status)
       The exit() function terminates the application. Since there is no
       environment to return to, status is ignored, and code execution will
       eventually reach an infinite loop, thereby effectively halting all code
       processing. Before entering the infinite loop, interrupts are globally
       disabled.

       In a C++ context, global destructors will be called before halting
       execution.

   void free (void *__ptr)
       The free() function causes the allocated memory referenced by ptr to be
       made available for future allocations. If ptr is NULL, no action
       occurs.

   char* itoa (int__val, char *__s, int__radix)
       Convert an integer to a string. The function itoa() converts the
       integer value from val into an ASCII representation that will be stored
       under s. The caller is responsible for providing sufficient storage in
       s.

       Note:
           The minimal size of the buffer s depends on the choice of radix.
           For example, if the radix is 2 (binary), you need to supply a
           buffer with a minimal length of 8 * sizeof (int) + 1 characters,
           i.e. one character for each bit plus one for the string terminator.
           Using a larger radix will require a smaller minimal buffer size.

       Warning:
           If the buffer is too small, you risk a buffer overflow.

       Conversion is done using the radix as base, which may be a number
       between 2 (binary conversion) and up to 36. If radix is greater than
       10, the next digit after '9' will be the letter 'a'.

       If radix is 10 and val is negative, a minus sign will be prepended.

       The itoa() function returns the pointer passed as s.

   long labs (long__i)
       The labs() function computes the absolute value of the long integer i.

       Note:
           The abs() and labs() functions are builtins of gcc.

   ldiv_t ldiv (long__num, long__denom)
       The ldiv() function computes the value num/denom and returns the
       quotient and remainder in a structure named ldiv_t that contains two
       long integer members named quot and rem.

   char* ltoa (long int__val, char *__s, int__radix)
       Convert a long integer to a string. The function ltoa() converts the
       long integer value from val into an ASCII representation that will be
       stored under s. The caller is responsible for providing sufficient
       storage in s.

       Note:
           The minimal size of the buffer s depends on the choice of radix.
           For example, if the radix is 2 (binary), you need to supply a
           buffer with a minimal length of 8 * sizeof (long int) + 1
           characters, i.e. one character for each bit plus one for the string
           terminator. Using a larger radix will require a smaller minimal
           buffer size.

       Warning:
           If the buffer is too small, you risk a buffer overflow.

       Conversion is done using the radix as base, which may be a number
       between 2 (binary conversion) and up to 36. If radix is greater than
       10, the next digit after '9' will be the letter 'a'.

       If radix is 10 and val is negative, a minus sign will be prepended.

       The ltoa() function returns the pointer passed as s.

   void* malloc (size_t__size)
       The malloc() function allocates size bytes of memory. If malloc()
       fails, a NULL pointer is returned.

       Note that malloc() does not initialize the returned memory to zero
       bytes.

       See the chapter about malloc() usage for implementation details.

   void qsort (void *__base, size_t__nmemb, size_t__size,
       __compar_fn_t__compar)
       The qsort() function is a modified partition-exchange sort, or
       quicksort.

       The qsort() function sorts an array of nmemb objects, the initial
       member of which is pointed to by base. The size of each object is
       specified by size. The contents of the array base are sorted in
       ascending order according to a comparison function pointed to by
       compar, which requires two arguments pointing to the objects being
       compared.

       The comparison function must return an integer less than, equal to, or
       greater than zero if the first argument is considered to be
       respectively less than, equal to, or greater than the second.

   int rand (void)
       The rand() function computes a sequence of pseudo-random integers in
       the range of 0 to RAND_MAX (as defined by the header file <stdlib.h>).

       The srand() function sets its argument seed as the seed for a new
       sequence of pseudo-random numbers to be returned by rand(). These
       sequences are repeatable by calling srand() with the same seed value.

       If no seed value is provided, the functions are automatically seeded
       with a value of 1.

       In compliance with the C standard, these functions operate on int
       arguments. Since the underlying algorithm already uses 32-bit
       calculations, this causes a loss of precision. See random() for an
       alternate set of functions that retains full 32-bit precision.

   int rand_r (unsigned long *__ctx)
       Variant of rand() that stores the context in the user-supplied variable
       located at ctx instead of a static library variable so the function
       becomes re-entrant.

   long random (void)
       The random() function computes a sequence of pseudo-random integers in
       the range of 0 to RANDOM_MAX (as defined by the header file
       <stdlib.h>).

       The srandom() function sets its argument seed as the seed for a new
       sequence of pseudo-random numbers to be returned by rand(). These
       sequences are repeatable by calling srandom() with the same seed value.

       If no seed value is provided, the functions are automatically seeded
       with a value of 1.

   long random_r (unsigned long *__ctx)
       Variant of random() that stores the context in the user-supplied
       variable located at ctx instead of a static library variable so the
       function becomes re-entrant.

   void* realloc (void *__ptr, size_t__size)
       The realloc() function tries to change the size of the region allocated
       at ptr to the new size value. It returns a pointer to the new region.
       The returned pointer might be the same as the old pointer, or a pointer
       to a completely different region.

       The contents of the returned region up to either the old or the new
       size value (whatever is less) will be identical to the contents of the
       old region, even in case a new region had to be allocated.

       It is acceptable to pass ptr as NULL, in which case realloc() will
       behave identical to malloc().

       If the new memory cannot be allocated, realloc() returns NULL, and the
       region at ptr will not be changed.

   void srand (unsigned int__seed)
       Pseudo-random number generator seeding; see rand().

   void srandom (unsigned long__seed)
       Pseudo-random number generator seeding; see random().

   double strtod (const char *nptr, char **endptr)
       The strtod() function converts the initial portion of the string
       pointed to by nptr to double representation.

       The expected form of the string is an optional plus ( '+' ) or minus
       sign ( '-' ) followed by a sequence of digits optionally containing a
       decimal-point character, optionally followed by an exponent. An
       exponent consists of an 'E' or 'e', followed by an optional plus or
       minus sign, followed by a sequence of digits.

       Leading white-space characters in the string are skipped.

       The strtod() function returns the converted value, if any.

       If endptr is not NULL, a pointer to the character after the last
       character used in the conversion is stored in the location referenced
       by endptr.

       If no conversion is performed, zero is returned and the value of nptr
       is stored in the location referenced by endptr.

       If the correct value would cause overflow, plus or minus INFINITY is
       returned (according to the sign of the value), and ERANGE is stored in
       errno. If the correct value would cause underflow, zero is returned and
       ERANGE is stored in errno.

   long strtol (const char *__nptr, char **__endptr, int__base)
       The strtol() function converts the string in nptr to a long value. The
       conversion is done according to the given base, which must be between 2
       and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

       The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as
       determined by isspace()) followed by a single optional '+' or '-' sign.
       If base is zero or 16, the string may then include a '0x' prefix, and
       the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken as
       10 (decimal) unless the next character is '0', in which case it is
       taken as 8 (octal).

       The remainder of the string is converted to a long value in the obvious
       manner, stopping at the first character which is not a valid digit in
       the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter 'A' in either upper or
       lower case represents 10, 'B' represents 11, and so forth, with 'Z'
       representing 35.)

       If endptr is not NULL, strtol() stores the address of the first invalid
       character in *endptr. If there were no digits at all, however, strtol()
       stores the original value of nptr in endptr. (Thus, if *nptr is not
       '\0' but **endptr is '\0' on return, the entire string was valid.)

       The strtol() function returns the result of the conversion, unless the
       value would underflow or overflow. If no conversion could be performed,
       0 is returned. If an overflow or underflow occurs, errno is set to
       ERANGE and the function return value is clamped to LONG_MIN or
       LONG_MAX, respectively.

   unsigned long strtoul (const char *__nptr, char **__endptr, int__base)
       The strtoul() function converts the string in nptr to an unsigned long
       value. The conversion is done according to the given base, which must
       be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

       The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as
       determined by isspace()) followed by a single optional '+' or '-' sign.
       If base is zero or 16, the string may then include a '0x' prefix, and
       the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken as
       10 (decimal) unless the next character is '0', in which case it is
       taken as 8 (octal).

       The remainder of the string is converted to an unsigned long value in
       the obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is not a
       valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter 'A' in
       either upper or lower case represents 10, 'B' represents 11, and so
       forth, with 'Z' representing 35.)

       If endptr is not NULL, strtoul() stores the address of the first
       invalid character in *endptr. If there were no digits at all, however,
       strtoul() stores the original value of nptr in endptr. (Thus, if *nptr
       is not '\0' but **endptr is '\0' on return, the entire string was
       valid.)

       The strtoul() function return either the result of the conversion or,
       if there was a leading minus sign, the negation of the result of the
       conversion, unless the original (non-negated) value would overflow; in
       the latter case, strtoul() returns ULONG_MAX, and errno is set to
       ERANGE. If no conversion could be performed, 0 is returned.

   char* ultoa (unsigned long int__val, char *__s, int__radix)
       Convert an unsigned long integer to a string. The function ultoa()
       converts the unsigned long integer value from val into an ASCII
       representation that will be stored under s. The caller is responsible
       for providing sufficient storage in s.

       Note:
           The minimal size of the buffer s depends on the choice of radix.
           For example, if the radix is 2 (binary), you need to supply a
           buffer with a minimal length of 8 * sizeof (unsigned long int) + 1
           characters, i.e. one character for each bit plus one for the string
           terminator. Using a larger radix will require a smaller minimal
           buffer size.

       Warning:
           If the buffer is too small, you risk a buffer overflow.

       Conversion is done using the radix as base, which may be a number
       between 2 (binary conversion) and up to 36. If radix is greater than
       10, the next digit after '9' will be the letter 'a'.

       The ultoa() function returns the pointer passed as s.

   char* utoa (unsigned int__val, char *__s, int__radix)
       Convert an unsigned integer to a string. The function utoa() converts
       the unsigned integer value from val into an ASCII representation that
       will be stored under s. The caller is responsible for providing
       sufficient storage in s.

       Note:
           The minimal size of the buffer s depends on the choice of radix.
           For example, if the radix is 2 (binary), you need to supply a
           buffer with a minimal length of 8 * sizeof (unsigned int) + 1
           characters, i.e. one character for each bit plus one for the string
           terminator. Using a larger radix will require a smaller minimal
           buffer size.

       Warning:
           If the buffer is too small, you risk a buffer overflow.

       Conversion is done using the radix as base, which may be a number
       between 2 (binary conversion) and up to 36. If radix is greater than
       10, the next digit after '9' will be the letter 'a'.

       The utoa() function returns the pointer passed as s.

Variable Documentation

   char* __malloc_heap_end
       malloc() tunable.

   char* __malloc_heap_start
       malloc() tunable.

   size_t __malloc_margin
       malloc() tunable.

Author

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Version 1.8.0                   Thu Apr 10 201<stdlib.h>: General utilities(3)