Provided by: authbind_2.1.1_i386 bug

NAME

       authbind - bind sockets to privileged ports without root

SYNOPSIS

       authbind [options] program [argument ...]

DESCRIPTION

       authbind  allows  a program which does not or should not run as root to
       bind to low-numbered ports in a controlled way.

       You must invoke the program using authbind.  authbind will set up  some
       environment  variables,  including  an LD_PRELOAD, which will allow the
       program (including any subprocesses it may run) to bind to low-numbered
       (<512) ports if the system is configured to allow this.

OPTIONS

       --deep Normally,  authbind  arranges  for  only  the  program  which it
              directly invokes to  be  affected  by  its  special  version  of
              bind(2).   If  you  specify  --deep then all programs which that
              program invokes directly or indirectly will be affected, so long
              as  they  do  not  unset  the  environment  variables  set up by
              authbind.

       --depth levels
              Causes authbind to affect programs which are levels deep in  the
              calling graph.  The default is --depth 1.

ACCESS CONTROL

       Access  to low numbered ports is controlled by permissions and contents
       of files in a configuration area, /etc/authbind.

       Firstly,  /etc/authbind/byport/port  is  tested.   If  this   file   is
       accessible  for  execution to the calling user, according to access(2),
       then binding to the port is authorised.  If the file can be seen not to
       exist  (the  existence check returns ENOENT) then further tests will be
       used to find authorisation; otherwise, binding is not  authorised,  and
       the bind call will return with the errno value from the access(2) call,
       usually EACCES (Permission denied).

       Secondly,   if   that   test   fails    to    resolve    the    matter,
       /etc/authbind/byaddr/addr,port   (any   protocol)   or   failing   that
       /etc/authbind/byaddr/addr:port (IPv4  only)  is  tested,  in  the  same
       manner  as  above.   Here  addr  is  as from inet_ntop, and port is the
       (local) TCP or UDP port number, expressed as an unsigned integer in the
       minimal non-zero number of digits.

       Thirdly, for IPv6 only: since the textual representation from inet_ntop
       is complicated to predict, a variant of addr is also tested which  does
       not  use the double colon abbreviation: each 16-byte chunk expressed in
       the minimal nonzero number of hex  digits  (i.e.  with  leading  zeroes
       removed), the chunks being separated by colons as is conventional.

       Fourthly,   if   the   question   is   still   unresolved,   the   file
       /etc/authbind/byuid/uid will be opened and read.  If the file does  not
       exist  then  the  binding  is not authorised and bind will return EPERM
       (Operation not permitted, or Not owner).  If the  file  does  exist  it
       will be searched for a line of the form
            addrmin[-addrmax],portmin[-portmax]
            addr[/length],portmin[-portmax]
            addr4/length:portmin,portmax
       matching the request.  The first form requires that the address lies in
       the relevant range (inclusive at both  ends).   The  second  and  third
       forms  require  that the initial length bits of addr match those in the
       proposed bind call.  The third form is only available  for  IPv4  since
       IPv6  addresses  contain colons.  Addresses in the byuid file can be in
       any form acceptable to inet_pton.   In  all  cases  the  proposed  port
       number must lie is in the inclusive range specified.  If such a line is
       found then the binding is authorised.  Otherwise it is  not,  and  bind
       will fail with ENOENT (No such file or directory).

       If  a  read  error  occurs,  or  the  directory /etc/authbind cannot be
       accessed, then not only will bind fail, but an error  message  will  be
       printed to stderr.  Unrecognised lines in /etc/authbind/byuid/uid files
       are silently ignored, as are lines whose addr has  non-zero  bits  more
       than length from the top or where some min is larger than max.

EXAMPLE

       So  for  example  an  attempt  by uid 432 to bind to port 80 of address
       [2620:106:e002:f00f::21] would result in authbind calling access(2) on,
       in order,
              /etc/authbind/byport/80
              /etc/authbind/byaddr/2620:106:e002:f00f::21,80
              /etc/authbind/byaddr/2620:106:e002:f00f:0:0:0:21,80
       If none of these files exist, authbind will read
              /etc/authbind/byuid/432
       and  search for a line to permit the relevant access; examples of lines
       which would do so are:
              2620:106:e002:f00f::21,80
              ::/0,80

PORTS 512-1023

       Authorising binding  to  ports  from  512  to  1023  inclusive  is  not
       recommended.  Some protocols (including some versions of NFS) authorise
       clients by seeing that they are using a port number in this range.   So
       by  authorising  a program to be a server for such a port, you are also
       authorising it to impersonate the whole host for those protocols.

       To make sure that this isn't done  by  accident,  if  the  port  number
       requested is in the range 512-1023, authbind will expect the permission
       files to have an additional !  at the start of their leafname.

MECHANISM

       The shared library loaded using LD_PRELOAD overrides the bind(2) system
       call.   When a program invoked via authbind calls bind to bind a socket
       to a low-numbered TCP/IP port, and if the program doesn't already  have
       an  effective  uid of 0, the version of bind supposed by authbind forks
       and executes a setuid-root helper  program.   For  non-TCP/IP  sockets,
       high-numbered  ports,  or  programs  which  are  already root, authbind
       passes the call to the original bind(2) system  call,  which  is  found
       using dlsym(3) with the handle RTLD_NEXT.

ERROR HANDLING

       Usually  the  normal  C  error  handling mechanisms apply.  If authbind
       cannot find the program it has been asked to execute it  will  print  a
       message to stderr and exit with code 255.

       The  helper  program usually reports back to the shared library with an
       exit status containing an errno value which encodes  whether  the  bind
       was  permitted  and  successful.   This will be returned to the calling
       program in the usual way.

       In the case of apparent  configuration  or  other  serious  errors  the
       library  and/or  the helper program may cause messages to be printed to
       the program's stderr, was well as returning -1 from bind.

BUGS

       authbind currently only supports IPv4 and IPv6 sockets.  Programs which
       open  other  kinds  of  sockets  will not benefit from authbind, but it
       won't get in their way.

       The use of LD_PRELOAD makes an  authbind  installation  specific  to  a
       particular C library.  This version is for GNU/Linux libc6 (glibc2).

       authbind  may not operate correctly with multithreaded programs.  It is
       inherently very difficult (if not impossible) to perform  the  kind  of
       trickery   that   authbind   does   while  preventing  all  undesirable
       interactions  between  authbind's  activities  and  those  of  (say)  a
       threading runtime system.

       It  is  quite  possible that authbind and other programs and facilities
       which  use  LD_PRELOAD  may  interfere   with   each   other,   causing
       unpredictable   behaviour  or  even  core  dumps.   authbind  is  known
       sometimes not to  work  correctly  with  fakeroot,  for  example  (even
       supposing  it  could  be  determined  what  `correctly'  means  in this
       context).

       authbind is ineffective with  setuid  programs,  because  they  do  not
       honour  LD_PRELOAD  references  outside  the  system  directories,  for
       security  reasons.   (In  fact,  setuid  programs  should  not   honour
       LD_PRELOAD  at  all.)   Of  course  a setuid-root program does not need
       authbind, but it might be useful to  apply  it  to  program  which  are
       setuid  to  another user or setgid.  If the author or builder of such a
       programs wishes it  to  use  authbind  they  could  have  it  load  the
       libauthbind library explicitly rather than via LD_PRELOAD.

       Some  programs may have trouble because authbind spawns a child process
       `under their feet', causing (for  example)  a  fork(2)  to  happen  and
       SIGCHLD  signal  to  be delivered.  Unfortunately the Unix API does not
       make it possible to deal with this problem in a sane way.

       The access control configuration scheme is somewhat strange.

FILES AND ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       /usr/lib/authbind/libauthbind.so.1.0
              The shared library which authbind  causes  to  be  loaded  using
              LD_PRELOAD,  and  which  actually  implements  the  diversion of
              bind(2) to an external program.

       LD_PRELOAD
              The  variable  used  by  the  dynamic   linker   when   starting
              dynamically  linked programs and deciding which shared libraries
              to load and modifed by the  authbind  program  to  allow  it  to
              override the usual meaning of bind(2).

       AUTHBIND_LIB
              If  set,  forces  authbind  to  use its value as the path to the
              shared library to put in LD_PRELOAD, instead of the  compiled-in
              value.   In any case, unless --deep was specified, authbind will
              set this variable to the name of the library actually  added  to
              LD_PRELOAD,  so  that  the library can find and remove the right
              entry.

       AUTHBIND_LEVELS
              This variable is set by authbind to the number  of  levels  left
              from the --depth or --deep option, minus one.  It is decremented
              during _init by the  library  on  each  program  call,  and  the
              library  will  remove itself from the LD_PRELOAD when it reaches
              zero.  The special value y means --deep was specified.

SEE ALSO

       bind(2), authbind-helper(8), dlsym(3), ld.so(8)

AUTHOR

       authbind and this manpage  were  written  by  Ian  Jackson.   They  are
       Copyright (C)1998,2012 by him and released under the GNU General Public
       Licence; there is NO  WARRANTY.   See  /usr/doc/authbind/copyright  and
       /usr/doc/copyright/GPL for details.