Provided by: avrdude_6.0.1-1_amd64 bug


     avrdude — driver program for ``simple'' Atmel AVR MCU programmer


     avrdude -p partno [-b baudrate] [-B bitclock] [-c programmer-id] [-C config-file] [-D] [-e]
             [-E exitspec[,exitspec]] [-F] [-i delay] [-n -logfile] [-n] [-O] [-P port] [-q] [-s]
             [-t] [-u] [-U memtype:op:filename:filefmt] [-v] [-x extended_param] [-V]


     Avrdude is a program for downloading code and data to Atmel AVR microcontrollers.  Avrdude
     supports Atmel's STK500 programmer, Atmel's AVRISP and AVRISP mkII devices, Atmel's STK600,
     Atmel's JTAG ICE (mkI, mkII and 3, the latter two also in ISP mode), programmers complying
     to AppNote AVR910 and AVR109 (including the Butterfly), as well as a simple hard-wired
     programmer connected directly to a ppi(4) or parport(4) parallel port, or to a standard
     serial port.  In the simplest case, the hardware consists just of a cable connecting the
     respective AVR signal lines to the parallel port.

     The MCU is programmed in serial programming mode, so, for the ppi(4) based programmer, the
     MCU signals ‘/RESET’, ‘SCK’, ‘MISO’ and ‘MOSI’ need to be connected to the parallel port.
     Optionally, some otherwise unused output pins of the parallel port can be used to supply
     power for the MCU part, so it is also possible to construct a passive stand-alone
     programming device.  Some status LEDs indicating the current operating state of the
     programmer can be connected, and a signal is available to control a buffer/driver IC 74LS367
     (or 74HCT367).  The latter can be useful to decouple the parallel port from the MCU when in-
     system programming is used.

     A number of equally simple bit-bang programming adapters that connect to a serial port are
     supported as well, among them the popular Ponyprog serial adapter, and the DASA and DASA3
     adapters that used to be supported by uisp(1).  Note that these adapters are meant to be
     attached to a physical serial port.  Connecting to a serial port emulated on top of USB is
     likely to not work at all, or to work abysmally slow.

     If you happen to have a Linux system with at least 4 hardware GPIOs available (like almost
     all embedded Linux boards) you can do without any additional hardware - just connect them to
     the MOSI, MISO, RESET and SCK pins on the AVR and use the linuxgpio programmer type. It
     bitbangs the lines using the Linux sysfs GPIO interface. Of course, care should be taken
     about voltage level compatibility. Also, although not strictrly required, it is strongly
     advisable to protect the GPIO pins from overcurrent situations in some way. The simplest
     would be to just put some resistors in series or better yet use a 3-state buffer driver like
     the 74HC244. Have a look at for a more detailed tutorial
     about using this programmer type.

     Atmel's STK500 programmer is also supported and connects to a serial port.  Both, firmware
     versions 1.x and 2.x can be handled, but require a different programmer type specification
     (by now).  Using firmware version 2, high-voltage programming is also supported, both
     parallel and serial (programmer types stk500pp and stk500hvsp).

     Wiring boards are supported, utilizing STK500 V2.x protocol, but a simple DTR/RTS toggle is
     used to set the boards into programming mode.  The programmer type is ``wiring''.

     The Arduino (which is very similar to the STK500 1.x) is supported via its own programmer
     type specification ``arduino''.

     The BusPirate is a versatile tool that can also be used as an AVR programmer.  A single
     BusPirate can be connected to up to 3 independent AVRs. See the section on extended
     parameters below for details.

     Atmel's STK600 programmer is supported in ISP and high-voltage programming modes, and
     connects through the USB.  For ATxmega devices, the STK600 is supported in PDI mode.  For
     ATtiny4/5/9/10 devices, the STK600 and AVRISP mkII are supported in TPI mode.

     The simple serial programmer described in Atmel's application note AVR910, and the
     bootloader described in Atmel's application note AVR109 (which is also used by the AVR
     Butterfly evaluation board), are supported on a serial port.

     Atmel's JTAG ICE (mkI, mkII, and 3) is supported as well to up- or download memory areas
     from/to an AVR target (no support for on-chip debugging).  For the JTAG ICE mkII, JTAG,
     debugWire and ISP mode are supported, provided it has a firmware revision of at least 4.14
     (decimal).  JTAGICE3 also supports all of JTAG, debugWIRE, and ISP mode.  See below for the
     limitations of debugWire.  For ATxmega devices, the JTAG ICE mkII is supported in PDI mode,
     provided it has a revision 1 hardware and firmware version of at least 5.37 (decimal).  For
     ATxmega devices, the JTAGICE3 is supported in PDI mode.

     The AVR Dragon is supported in all modes (ISP, JTAG, HVSP, PP, debugWire).  When used in
     JTAG and debugWire mode, the AVR Dragon behaves similar to a JTAG ICE mkII, so all device-
     specific comments for that device will apply as well.  When used in ISP mode, the AVR Dragon
     behaves similar to an AVRISP mkII (or JTAG ICE mkII in ISP mode), so all device-specific
     comments will apply there.  In particular, the Dragon starts out with a rather fast ISP
     clock frequency, so the -B bitclock option might be required to achieve a stable ISP
     communication.  For ATxmega devices, the AVR Dragon is supported in PDI mode, provided it
     has a firmware version of at least 6.11 (decimal).

     The avrftdi, USBasp ISP and USBtinyISP adapters are also supported, provided avrdude has
     been compiled with libusb support.  USBasp ISP and USBtinyISP both feature simple firmware-
     only USB implementations, running on an ATmega8 (or ATmega88), or ATtiny2313, respectively.
     If libftdi has has been compiled in avrdude, the avrftdi device adds support for many
     programmers using FTDI's 2232C/D/H and 4232H parts running in MPSSE mode, which hard-codes
     (in the chip) SCK to bit 1, MOSI to bit 2, and MISO to bit 3. Reset is usually bit 4.

     Input files can be provided, and output files can be written in different file formats, such
     as raw binary files containing the data to download to the chip, Intel hex format, or
     Motorola S-record format.  There are a number of tools available to produce those files,
     like asl(1) as a standalone assembler, or avr-objcopy(1) for the final stage of the GNU
     toolchain for the AVR microcontroller.

     Provided libelf(3) was present when compiling avrdude, the input file can also be the final
     ELF file as produced by the linker.  The appropriate ELF section(s) will be examined,
     according to the memory area to write to.

     Avrdude can program the EEPROM and flash ROM memory cells of supported AVR parts.  Where
     supported by the serial instruction set, fuse bits and lock bits can be programmed as well.
     These are implemented within avrdude as separate memory types and can be programmed using
     data from a file (see the -m option) or from terminal mode (see the dump and write
     commands).  It is also possible to read the chip (provided it has not been code-protected
     previously, of course) and store the data in a file.  Finally, a ``terminal'' mode is
     available that allows one to interactively communicate with the MCU, and to display or
     program individual memory cells.  On the STK500 and STK600 programmer, several operational
     parameters (target supply voltage, target Aref voltage, master clock) can be examined and
     changed from within terminal mode as well.

     In order to control all the different operation modi, a number of options need to be
     specified to avrdude.

           -p partno
                   This is the only option that is mandatory for every invocation of avrdude.  It
                   specifies the type of the MCU connected to the programmer.  These are read
                   from the config file.  If avrdude does not know about a part that you have,
                   simply add it to the config file (be sure and submit a patch back to the
                   author so that it can be incorporated for the next version).  See the sample
                   config file for the format.  For currently supported MCU types use ? as
                   partno, this will print a list of partno ids and official part names on the
                   terminal. (Both can be used with the -p option.)

                   Following parts need special attention:

                   AT90S1200   The ISP programming protocol of the AT90S1200 differs in subtle
                               ways from that of other AVRs.  Thus, not all programmers support
                               this device.  Known to work are all direct bitbang programmers,
                               and all programmers talking the STK500v2 protocol.

                   AT90S2343   The AT90S2323 and ATtiny22 use the same algorithm.

                   ATmega2560, ATmega2561
                               Flash addressing above 128 KB is not supported by all programming
                               hardware.  Known to work are jtag2, stk500v2, and bit-bang

                   ATtiny11    The ATtiny11 can only be programmed in high-voltage serial mode.

           -b baudrate
                   Override the RS-232 connection baud rate specified in the respective
                   programmer's entry of the configuration file.

           -B bitclock
                   Specify the bit clock period for the JTAG interface or the ISP clock (JTAG ICE
                   only).  The value is a floating-point number in microseconds.  The default
                   value of the JTAG ICE results in about 1 microsecond bit clock period,
                   suitable for target MCUs running at 4 MHz clock and above.  Unlike certain
                   parameters in the STK500, the JTAG ICE resets all its parameters to default
                   values when the programming software signs off from the ICE, so for MCUs
                   running at lower clock speeds, this parameter must be specified on the
                   command-line.  You can use the 'default_bitclock' keyword in your
                   ${HOME}/.avrduderc file to assign a default value to keep from having to
                   specify this option on every invocation.

           -c programmer-id
                   Use the programmer specified by the argument.  Programmers and their pin
                   configurations are read from the config file (see the -C option).  New pin
                   configurations can be easily added or modified through the use of a config
                   file to make avrdude work with different programmers as long as the programmer
                   supports the Atmel AVR serial program method.  You can use the
                   'default_programmer' keyword in your ${HOME}/.avrduderc file to assign a
                   default programmer to keep from having to specify this option on every
                   invocation.  A full list of all supported programmers is output to the
                   terminal by using ? as programmer-id.

           -C config-file
                   Use the specified config file to load configuration data.  This file contains
                   all programmer and part definitions that avrdude knows about.  If you have a
                   programmer or part that avrdude does not know about, you can add it to the
                   config file (be sure and submit a patch back to the author so that it can be
                   incorporated for the next version).  See the config file, located at
                   /etc/avrdude.conf, which contains a description of the format.

                   If config-file is written as +filename then this file is read after the system
                   wide and user configuration files. This can be used to add entries to the
                   configuration without patching your system wide configuration file. It can be
                   used several times, the files are read in same order as given on the command

           -D      Disable auto erase for flash.  When the -U option with flash memory is
                   specified, avrdude will perform a chip erase before starting any of the
                   programming operations, since it generally is a mistake to program the flash
                   without performing an erase first.  This option disables that.  Auto erase is
                   not used for ATxmega devices as these devices can use page erase before
                   writing each page so no explicit chip erase is required.  Note however that
                   any page not affected by the current operation will retain its previous

           -e      Causes a chip erase to be executed.  This will reset the contents of the flash
                   ROM and EEPROM to the value ‘0xff’, and clear all lock bits.  Except for
                   ATxmega devices which can use page erase, it is basically a prerequisite
                   command before the flash ROM can be reprogrammed again.  The only exception
                   would be if the new contents would exclusively cause bits to be programmed
                   from the value ‘1’ to ‘0’.  Note that in order to reprogram EERPOM cells, no
                   explicit prior chip erase is required since the MCU provides an auto-erase
                   cycle in that case before programming the cell.

           -E exitspec[,exitspec]
                   By default, avrdude leaves the parallel port in the same state at exit as it
                   has been found at startup.  This option modifies the state of the ‘/RESET’ and
                   ‘Vcc’ lines the parallel port is left at, according to the exitspec arguments
                   provided, as follows:

                   reset    The ‘/RESET’ signal will be left activated at program exit, that is
                            it will be held low, in order to keep the MCU in reset state
                            afterwards.  Note in particular that the programming algorithm for
                            the AT90S1200 device mandates that the ‘/RESET’ signal is active
                            before powering up the MCU, so in case an external power supply is
                            used for this MCU type, a previous invocation of avrdude with this
                            option specified is one of the possible ways to guarantee this

                   noreset  The ‘/RESET’ line will be deactivated at program exit, thus allowing
                            the MCU target program to run while the programming hardware remains

                   vcc      This option will leave those parallel port pins active (i. e. high)
                            that can be used to supply ‘Vcc’ power to the MCU.

                   novcc    This option will pull the ‘Vcc’ pins of the parallel port down at
                            program exit.

                   d_high   This option will leave the 8 data pins on the parallel port active.
                            (i. e. high)

                   d_low    This option will leave the 8 data pins on the parallel port inactive.
                            (i. e. low)

                   Multiple exitspec arguments can be separated with commas.

           -F      Normally, avrdude tries to verify that the device signature read from the part
                   is reasonable before continuing.  Since it can happen from time to time that a
                   device has a broken (erased or overwritten) device signature but is otherwise
                   operating normally, this options is provided to override the check.  Also, for
                   programmers like the Atmel STK500 and STK600 which can adjust parameters local
                   to the programming tool (independent of an actual connection to a target
                   controller), this option can be used together with -t to continue in terminal

           -i delay
                   For bitbang-type programmers, delay for approximately delay microseconds
                   between each bit state change.  If the host system is very fast, or the target
                   runs off a slow clock (like a 32 kHz crystal, or the 128 kHz internal RC
                   oscillator), this can become necessary to satisfy the requirement that the ISP
                   clock frequency must not be higher than 1/4 of the CPU clock frequency.  This
                   is implemented as a spin-loop delay to allow even for very short delays.  On
                   Unix-style operating systems, the spin loop is initially calibrated against a
                   system timer, so the number of microseconds might be rather realistic,
                   assuming a constant system load while avrdude is running.  On Win32 operating
                   systems, a preconfigured number of cycles per microsecond is assumed that
                   might be off a bit for very fast or very slow machines.

           -l logfile
                   Use logfile rather than stderr for diagnostics output.  Note that initial
                   diagnostic messages (during option parsing) are still written to stderr

           -n      No-write - disables actually writing data to the MCU (useful for debugging
                   avrdude ).

           -O      Perform a RC oscillator run-time calibration according to Atmel application
                   note AVR053.  This is only supported on the STK500v2, AVRISP mkII, and JTAG
                   ICE mkII hardware.  Note that the result will be stored in the EEPROM cell at
                   address 0.

           -P port
                   Use port to identify the device to which the programmer is attached.  By
                   default the /dev/ppi0 port is used, but if the programmer type normally
                   connects to the serial port, the /dev/cuaa0 port is the default.  If you need
                   to use a different parallel or serial port, use this option to specify the
                   alternate port name.

                   On Win32 operating systems, the parallel ports are referred to as lpt1 through
                   lpt3, referring to the addresses 0x378, 0x278, and 0x3BC, respectively.  If
                   the parallel port can be accessed through a different address, this address
                   can be specified directly, using the common C language notation (i. e.,
                   hexadecimal values are prefixed by ‘0x’ ).

                   For the JTAG ICE mkII and JTAGICE3, if avrdude has been configured with libusb
                   support, port can alternatively be specified as usb[:serialno].  This will
                   cause avrdude to search the programmer on USB.  If serialno is also specified,
                   it will be matched against the serial number read from any JTAG ICE mkII found
                   on USB.  The match is done after stripping any existing colons from the given
                   serial number, and right-to-left, so only the least significant bytes from the
                   serial number need to be given.

                   As the AVRISP mkII device can only be talked to over USB, the very same method
                   of specifying the port is required there.

                   For the USB programmer "AVR-Doper" running in HID mode, the port must be
                   specified as avrdoper. Libusb support is required on Unix but not on Windows.
                   For more information about AVR-Doper see

                   For the USBtinyISP, which is a simplicistic device not implementing serial
                   numbers, multiple devices can be distinguished by their location in the USB
                   hierarchy.  See the the respective Troubleshooting entry in the detailed
                   documentation for examples.

                   For programmers that attach to a serial port using some kind of higher level
                   protocol (as opposed to bit-bang style programmers), port can be specified as
                   net:host:port.  In this case, instead of trying to open a local device, a TCP
                   network connection to (TCP) port on host is established.  The remote endpoint
                   is assumed to be a terminal or console server that connects the network stream
                   to a local serial port where the actual programmer has been attached to.  The
                   port is assumed to be properly configured, for example using a transparent
                   8-bit data connection without parity at 115200 Baud for a STK500.  This
                   feature is currently not implemented for Win32 systems.

           -q      Disable (or quell) output of the progress bar while reading or writing to the
                   device.  Specify it a second time for even quieter operation.

           -s      Disable safemode prompting.  When safemode discovers that one or more fuse
                   bits have unintentionally changed, it will prompt for confirmation regarding
                   whether or not it should attempt to recover the fuse bit(s).  Specifying this
                   flag disables the prompt and assumes that the fuse bit(s) should be recovered
                   without asking for confirmation first.

           -t      Tells avrdude to enter the interactive ``terminal'' mode instead of up- or
                   downloading files.  See below for a detailed description of the terminal mode.

           -u      Disable the safemode fuse bit checks.  Safemode is enabled by default and is
                   intended to prevent unintentional fuse bit changes.  When enabled, safemode
                   will issue a warning if the any fuse bits are found to be different at program
                   exit than they were when avrdude was invoked.  Safemode won't alter fuse bits
                   itself, but rather will prompt for instructions, unless the terminal is non-
                   interactive, in which case safemode is disabled.  See the -s option to disable
                   safemode prompting.

                   If one of the configuration files has a line
                         default_safemode = no;
                   safemode is disabled by default.  The -u option's effect is negated in that
                   case, i. e. it enables safemode.

                   Safemode is always disabled for AVR32, Xmega and TPI devices.

           -U memtype:op:filename[:format]
                   Perform a memory operation as indicated.  The memtype field specifies the
                   memory type to operate on.  The available memory types are device-dependent,
                   the actual configuration can be viewed with the part command in terminal mode.
                   Typically, a device's memory configuration at least contains the memory types
                   flash and eeprom.  All memory types currently known are:
                   calibration  One or more bytes of RC oscillator calibration data.
                   eeprom       The EEPROM of the device.
                   efuse        The extended fuse byte.
                   flash        The flash ROM of the device.
                   fuse         The fuse byte in devices that have only a single fuse byte.
                   hfuse        The high fuse byte.
                   lfuse        The low fuse byte.
                   lock         The lock byte.
                   signature    The three device signature bytes (device ID).
                   fuseN        The fuse bytes of ATxmega devices, N is an integer number for
                                each fuse supported by the device.
                   application  The application flash area of ATxmega devices.
                   apptable     The application table flash area of ATxmega devices.
                   boot         The boot flash area of ATxmega devices.
                   prodsig      The production signature (calibration) area of ATxmega devices.
                   usersig      The user signature area of ATxmega devices.

                   The op field specifies what operation to perform:

                   r        read device memory and write to the specified file

                   w        read data from the specified file and write to the device memory

                   v        read data from both the device and the specified file and perform a

                   The filename field indicates the name of the file to read or write.  The
                   format field is optional and contains the format of the file to read or write.
                   Format can be one of:

                   i    Intel Hex

                   s    Motorola S-record

                   r    raw binary; little-endian byte order, in the case of the flash ROM data

                   e    ELF (Executable and Linkable Format)

                   m    immediate; actual byte values specified on the command line, separated by
                        commas or spaces.  This is good for programming fuse bytes without having
                        to create a single-byte file or enter terminal mode.

                   a    auto detect; valid for input only, and only if the input is not provided
                        at stdin.

                   d    decimal; this and the following formats are only valid on output.  They
                        generate one line of output for the respective memory section, forming a
                        comma-separated list of the values.  This can be particularly useful for
                        subsequent processing, like for fuse bit settings.

                   h    hexadecimal; each value will get the string 0x prepended.

                   o    octal; each value will get a 0 prepended unless it is less than 8 in
                        which case it gets no prefix.

                   b    binary; each value will get the string 0b prepended.

                   The default is to use auto detection for input files, and raw binary format
                   for output files.  Note that if filename contains a colon, the format field is
                   no longer optional since the filename part following the colon would otherwise
                   be misinterpreted as format.

                   As an abbreviation, the form -U filename is equivalent to specifying -U
                   flash:w:filename:a.  This will only work if filename does not have a colon in

           -v      Enable verbose output.  More -v options increase verbosity level.

           -V      Disable automatic verify check when uploading data.

           -x extended_param
                   Pass extended_param to the chosen programmer implementation as an extended
                   parameter.  The interpretation of the extended parameter depends on the
                   programmer itself.  See below for a list of programmers accepting extended

   Terminal mode
     In this mode, avrdude only initializes communication with the MCU, and then awaits user
     commands on standard input.  Commands and parameters may be abbreviated to the shortest
     unambiguous form.  Terminal mode provides a command history using readline(3), so previously
     entered command lines can be recalled and edited.  The following commands are currently

           dump memtype addr nbytes
                   Read nbytes bytes from the specified memory area, and display them in the
                   usual hexadecimal and ASCII form.

           dump    Continue dumping the memory contents for another nbytes where the previous
                   dump command left off.

           write memtype addr byte1 ... byteN
                   Manually program the respective memory cells, starting at address addr, using
                   the values byte1 through byteN.  This feature is not implemented for bank-
                   addressed memories such as the flash memory of ATMega devices.

           erase   Perform a chip erase.

           send b1 b2 b3 b4
                   Send raw instruction codes to the AVR device.  If you need access to a feature
                   of an AVR part that is not directly supported by avrdude, this command allows
                   you to use it, even though avrdude does not implement the command. When using
                   direct SPI mode, up to 3 bytes can be omitted.

           sig     Display the device signature bytes.

           spi     Enter direct SPI mode.  The pgmled pin acts as slave select.  Only supported
                   on parallel bitbang programmers.

           part    Display the current part settings and parameters.  Includes chip specific
                   information including all memory types supported by the device, read/write
                   timing, etc.

           pgm     Return to programming mode (from direct SPI mode).

           vtarg voltage
                   Set the target's supply voltage to voltage Volts.  Only supported on the
                   STK500 and STK600 programmer.

           varef [channel] voltage
                   Set the adjustable voltage source to voltage Volts.  This voltage is normally
                   used to drive the target's Aref input on the STK500.  On the Atmel STK600, two
                   reference voltages are available, which can be selected by the optional
                   channel argument (either 0 or 1).  Only supported on the STK500 and STK600

           fosc freq[M|k]
                   Set the master oscillator to freq Hz.  An optional trailing letter M
                   multiplies by 1E6, a trailing letter k by 1E3.  Only supported on the STK500
                   and STK600 programmer.

           fosc off
                   Turn the master oscillator off.  Only supported on the STK500 and STK600

           sck period
                   STK500 and STK600 programmer only: Set the SCK clock period to period

                   JTAG ICE only: Set the JTAG ICE bit clock period to period microseconds.  Note
                   that unlike STK500 settings, this setting will be reverted to its default
                   value (approximately 1 microsecond) when the programming software signs off
                   from the JTAG ICE.  This parameter can also be used on the JTAG ICE mkII and
                   JTAGICE3 to specify the ISP clock period when operating the ICE in ISP mode.

           parms   STK500 and STK600 programmer only: Display the current voltage and master
                   oscillator parameters.

                   JTAG ICE only: Display the current target supply voltage and JTAG bit clock

           verbose [level]
                   Change (when level is provided), or display the verbosity level.  The initial
                   verbosity level is controlled by the number of -v options given on the


           help    Give a short on-line summary of the available commands.

           quit    Leave terminal mode and thus avrdude.

   Default Parallel port pin connections
     (these can be changed, see the -c option)
     Pin number   Function
     2-5          Vcc (optional power supply to MCU)
     7            /RESET (to MCU)
     8            SCK (to MCU)
     9            MOSI (to MCU)
     10           MISO (from MCU)
     18-25        GND

   debugWire limitations
     The debugWire protocol is Atmel's proprietary one-wire (plus ground) protocol to allow an
     in-circuit emulation of the smaller AVR devices, using the ‘/RESET’ line.  DebugWire mode is
     initiated by activating the ‘DWEN’ fuse, and then power-cycling the target.  While this mode
     is mainly intended for debugging/emulation, it also offers limited programming capabilities.
     Effectively, the only memory areas that can be read or programmed in this mode are flash ROM
     and EEPROM.  It is also possible to read out the signature.  All other memory areas cannot
     be accessed.  There is no chip erase functionality in debugWire mode; instead, while
     reprogramming the flash ROM, each flash ROM page is erased right before updating it.  This
     is done transparently by the JTAG ICE mkII (or AVR Dragon).  The only way back from
     debugWire mode is to initiate a special sequence of commands to the JTAG ICE mkII (or AVR
     Dragon), so the debugWire mode will be temporarily disabled, and the target can be accessed
     using normal ISP programming.  This sequence is automatically initiated by using the JTAG
     ICE mkII or AVR Dragon in ISP mode, when they detect that ISP mode cannot be entered.

   Programmers accepting extended parameters
           JTAG ICE mkII


           AVR Dragon
                   When using the JTAG ICE mkII, JTAGICE3 or AVR Dragon in JTAG mode, the
                   following extended parameter is accepted:

                                 Setup the JTAG scan chain for UB units before, UA units after,
                                 BB bits before, and BA bits after the target AVR, respectively.
                                 Each AVR unit within the chain shifts by 4 bits.  Other JTAG
                                 units might require a different bit shift count.


                                 Override the device code selection by using VALUE as the device
                                 code.  The programmer is not queried for the list of supported
                                 device codes, and the specified VALUE is not verified but used
                                 directly within the ‘T’ command sent to the programmer.  VALUE
                                 can be specified using the conventional number notation of the C
                                 programming language.

                                 Disables the default checking for block transfer capability.
                                 Use no_blockmode only if your AVR910 programmer creates errors
                                 during initial sequence.


                                 The default setup assumes the BusPirate's CS output pin
                                 connected to the RESET pin on AVR side. It is however possible
                                 to have multiple AVRs connected to the same BP with MISO, MOSI
                                 and SCK lines common for all of them.  In such a case one AVR
                                 should have its RESET connected to BusPirate's CS pin, second
                                 AVR's RESET connected to BusPirate's AUX pin and if your
                                 BusPirate has an AUX2 pin (only available on BusPirate version
                                 v1a with firmware 3.0 or newer) use that to activate RESET on
                                 the third AVR.

                                 It may be a good idea to decouple the BusPirate and the AVR's
                                 SPI buses from each other using a 3-state bus buffer. For
                                 example 74HC125 or 74HC244 are some good candidates with the
                                 latches driven by the appropriate reset pin (cs, aux or aux2).
                                 Otherwise the SPI traffic in one active circuit may interfere
                                 with programming the AVR in the other design.

                                 The SPI speed for the Bus Pirate's binary SPI mode:

                                 0 ..  30 kHz   (default)
                                 1 .. 125 kHz
                                 2 .. 250 kHz
                                 3 ..   1 MHz
                                 4 ..   2 MHz
                                 5 ..   2.6 MHz
                                 6 ..   4 MHz
                                 7 ..   8 MHz

                                 Sets the SPI speed and uses the Bus Pirate's binary "raw-wire"

                                 0 ..   5 kHz
                                 1 ..  50 kHz
                                 2 .. 100 kHz   (Firmware v4.2+ only)
                                 3 .. 400 kHz   (v4.2+)

                                 The only advantage of the "raw-wire" mode is the different SPI
                                 frequencies available. Paged writing is not implemented in this

                         ascii   Attempt to use ASCII mode even when the firmware supports
                                 BinMode (binary mode).  BinMode is supported in firmware 2.7 and
                                 newer, older FW's either don't have BinMode or their BinMode is
                                 buggy. ASCII mode is slower and makes the above reset=, spifreq=
                                 and rawfreq= parameters unavailable. Be aware that ASCII mode is
                                 not guaranteed to work with newer firmware versions, and is
                                 retained only to maintain compatability with older firmware

                                 Firmware versions 5.10 and newer support a binary mode SPI
                                 command that enables whole pages to be written to AVR flash
                                 memory at once, resulting in a significant write speed increase.
                                 If use of this mode is not desirable for some reason, this
                                 option disables it.

                                 Newer firmware versions support in binary mode SPI command some
                                 AVR Extended Commands. Using the "Bulk Memory Read from Flash"
                                 results in a significant read speed increase. If use of this
                                 mode is not desirable for some reason, this option disables it.

                                 This sets the AUX pin to output a frequency of n kHz. Connecting
                                 the AUX pin to the XTAL1 pin of your MCU, you can provide it a
                                 clock, for example when it needs an external clock because of
                                 wrong fuses settings.  This setting is only available in ASCII
                                 mode. (The lower limit was chosen so the CPU frequency is at
                                 least for four times the SPI frequency which is in ASCII mode

                                 This sets the serial receive timeout to the given value.  The
                                 timeout happens every time avrdude waits for the BusPirate
                                 prompt.  Especially in ascii mode this happens very often, so
                                 setting a smaller value can speed up programming a lot.  The
                                 default value is 100ms. Using 10ms might work in most cases.

           Wiring  When using the Wiring programmer type, the following optional extended
                   parameter is accepted:

                                 After performing the port open phase, AVRDUDE will wait/snooze
                                 for snooze milliseconds before continuing to the protocol sync
                                 phase.  No toggling of DTR/RTS is performed if snooze is greater
                                 than 0.

                   Connection to the PICkit2 programmer:

                   (AVR)    (PICkit2)
                   RST  -   VPP/MCLR (1)
                   VDD  -   VDD Target (2) -- possibly optional if AVR self powered
                   GND  -   GND (3)
                   MISO -   PGD (4)
                   SCLK -   PDC (5)
                   MOSI -   AUX (6)

                   Extended commandline parameters:

                                 Sets the SPI clocking rate in Hz (default is 100kHz).
                                 Alternately the -B or -i options can be used to set the period.

                                 Sets the timeout for USB reads and writes in milliseconds
                                 (default is 1500 ms).


           /dev/ppi0     default device to be used for communication with the programming

                         programmer and parts configuration file

                         programmer and parts configuration file (per-user overrides)

           ~/.inputrc    Initialization file for the readline(3) library

                         Schematic of programming hardware


     avrdude: jtagmkII_setparm(): bad response to set parameter command: RSP_FAILED
     avrdude: jtagmkII_getsync(): ISP activation failed, trying debugWire
     avrdude: Target prepared for ISP, signed off.
     avrdude: Please restart avrdude without power-cycling the target.

     If the target AVR has been set up for debugWire mode (i. e. the DWEN fuse is programmed),
     normal ISP connection attempts will fail as the /RESET pin is not available.  When using the
     JTAG ICE mkII in ISP mode, the message shown indicates that avrdude has guessed this
     condition, and tried to initiate a debugWire reset to the target.  When successful, this
     will leave the target AVR in a state where it can respond to normal ISP communication again
     (until the next power cycle).  Typically, the same command is going to be retried again
     immediately afterwards, and will then succeed connecting to the target using normal ISP


     avr-objcopy(1), ppi(4), libelf(3,) readline(3)

     The AVR microcontroller product description can be found at



     Avrdude was written by Brian S. Dean <>.

     This man page by Joerg Wunsch.


     Please report bugs via

     The JTAG ICE programmers currently cannot write to the flash ROM one byte at a time.  For
     that reason, updating the flash ROM from terminal mode does not work.

     Page-mode programming the EEPROM through JTAG (i.e. through an -U option) requires a prior
     chip erase.  This is an inherent feature of the way JTAG EEPROM programming works.  This
     also applies to the STK500 and STK600 in parallel programming mode.

     The USBasp and USBtinyISP drivers do not offer any option to distinguish multiple devices
     connected simultaneously, so effectively only a single device is supported.

     The avrftdi driver allows to select specific devices using any combination of vid,pid serial
     number (usbsn) vendor description (usbvendoror part description (usbproduct) as seen with
     lsusb or whatever tool used to view USB device information. Multiple devices can be on the
     bus at the same time. For the H parts, which have multiple MPSSE interfaces, the interface
     can also be selected.  It defaults to interface 'A'.