Provided by: bundler_1.3.5-2ubuntu1_all bug

NAME

       bundle-install - Install the dependencies specified in your Gemfile

SYNOPSIS

       bundle install [--gemfile=GEMFILE]

                        [--path PATH] [--system]
                        [--without=GROUP1[ GROUP2...]]
                        [--local] [--deployment]
                        [--binstubs[=DIRECTORY]]
                        [--standalone[=GROUP1[ GROUP2...]]]
                        [--trust-policy=POLICY]
                        [--no-cache]
                        [--quiet]

DESCRIPTION

       Install  the  gems  specified in your Gemfile(5). If this is the first time you run bundle
       install (and a Gemfile.lock does not  exist),  bundler  will  fetch  all  remote  sources,
       resolve dependencies and install all needed gems.

       If a Gemfile.lock does exist, and you have not updated your Gemfile(5), bundler will fetch
       all remote sources, but use the dependencies specified  in  the  Gemfile.lock  instead  of
       resolving dependencies.

       If  a  Gemfile.lock does exist, and you have updated your Gemfile(5), bundler will use the
       dependencies in the Gemfile.lock for all gems that you did not update, but will re-resolve
       the  dependencies  of  gems  that you did update. You can find more information about this
       update process below under CONSERVATIVE UPDATING.

OPTIONS

       --gemfile=<gemfile>
              The location of the Gemfile(5) that bundler should use. This defaults to a  gemfile
              in the current working directory. In general, bundler will assume that the location
              of the Gemfile(5) is also the project root, and will look for the Gemfile.lock  and
              vendor/cache relative to it.

       --path=<path>
              The  location  to install the gems in the bundle to. This defaults to the gem home,
              which is the location that gem install  installs  gems  to.  This  means  that,  by
              default,  gems  installed  without  a --path setting will show up in gem list. This
              setting is a remembered option.

       --system
              Installs the gems in the bundle to the system location. This overrides any previous
              remembered use of --path.

       --without=<list>
              A space-separated list of groups to skip installing. This is a remembered option.

       --local
              Do  not  attempt  to  connect  to rubygems.org, instead using just the gems already
              present in Rubygems´ cache or in vendor/cache. Note  that  if  a  more  appropriate
              platform-specific gem exists on rubygems.org, it will not be found.

       --deployment
              Switches  bundler´s  defaults  into  deployment  mode.  Do  not  use  this  flag on
              development machines.

       --binstubs[=<directory>]
              Create a directory (defaults to bin) containing an  executable  that  runs  in  the
              context  of  the  bundle.  For  instance,  if  the  rails  gem  comes  with a rails
              executable, this flag will create a bin/rails  executable  that  ensures  that  all
              dependencies used come from the bundled gems.

       --shebang ruby-install-name
              Uses  the  ruby  executable  (usually ruby) provided to execute the scripts created
              with --binstubs. For instance, if you use  --binstubs  with  --shebang  jruby,  all
              executables will be created to use jruby instead.

       --standalone[=<list>]
              Make  a  bundle  that  can work without Ruby Gems or Bundler at runtime. It takes a
              space separated list of groups to  install.  It  creates  a  bundle  directory  and
              installs  the  bundle  there.  It  also generates a bundle/bundler/setup.rb file to
              replace Bundler´s own setup.

       --trust-policy=[<policy>]
              Apply  the  Rubygems  security  policy  named  policy,  where  policy  is  one   of
              HighSecurity,  MediumSecurity, LowSecurity, or NoSecurity. For more detail, see the
              Rubygems signing documentation, linked below in SEE ALSO.

       --no-cache
              Do not update the cache in vendor/cache with the newly bundled gems. This does  not
              remove  any  existing  cached  gems,  only  stops the newly bundled gems from being
              cached during the install.

       --quiet
              Do not print progress information to stdout. Instead, communicate  the  success  of
              the install operation via exit status code.

DEPLOYMENT MODE

       Bundler´s  defaults  are  optimized  for  development. To switch to defaults optimized for
       deployment, use the --deployment flag. Do not  activate  deployment  mode  on  development
       machines, as it will cause in an error when the Gemfile is modified.

       1.  A Gemfile.lock is required.

           To  ensure  that  the same versions of the gems you developed with and tested with are
           also used in deployments, a Gemfile.lock is required.

           This is mainly to ensure that you remember to check  your  Gemfile.lock  into  version
           control.

       2.  The Gemfile.lock must be up to date

           In  development,  you  can  modify  your  Gemfile(5)  and  re-run  bundle  install  to
           conservatively update your Gemfile.lock snapshot.

           In deployment, your Gemfile.lock should  be  up-to-date  with  changes  made  in  your
           Gemfile(5).

       3.  Gems are installed to vendor/bundle not your default system location

           In  development, it´s convenient to share the gems used in your application with other
           applications and other scripts run on the system.

           In deployment, isolation is a more important default. In addition, the user  deploying
           the  application  may  not  have  permission to install gems to the system, or the web
           server may not have permission to read them.

           As a result, bundle install --deployment installs gems to the vendor/bundle  directory
           in the application. This may be overridden using the --path option.

SUDO USAGE

       By default, bundler installs gems to the same location as gem install.

       In  some cases, that location may not be writable by your Unix user. In that case, bundler
       will stage everything in a temporary directory, then ask you for  your  sudo  password  in
       order to copy the gems into their system location.

       From your perspective, this is identical to installing them gems directly into the system.

       You  should  never  use sudo bundle install. This is because several other steps in bundle
       install must be performed as the current user:

       ·   Updating your Gemfile.lock

       ·   Updating your vendor/cache, if necessary

       ·   Checking out private git repositories using your user´s SSH keys

       Of these three, the first two could theoretically be performed by chowning  the  resulting
       files  to  $SUDO_USER.  The third, however, can only be performed by actually invoking the
       git command as the current user. Therefore, git gems are  downloaded  and  installed  into
       ~/.bundle rather than $GEM_HOME or $BUNDLE_PATH.

       As  a  result, you should run bundle install as the current user, and bundler will ask for
       your password if it is needed to put the gems into their final location.

INSTALLING GROUPS

       By default, bundle install will install all gems in all groups in your Gemfile(5),  except
       those declared for a different platform.

       However,  you  can  explicitly  tell  bundler  to  skip installing certain groups with the
       --without option. This option takes a space-separated list of groups.

       While the --without option will skip installing the gems in the specified groups, it  will
       still  download  those  gems and use them to resolve the dependencies of every gem in your
       Gemfile(5).

       This is so that installing a different set  of  groups  on  another  machine  (such  as  a
       production  server)  will not change the gems and versions that you have already developed
       and tested against.

       Bundler offers a rock-solid guarantee  that  the  third-party  code  you  are  running  in
       development  and  testing  is also the third-party code you are running in production. You
       can choose to exclude some of that code in different environments, but you will  never  be
       caught  flat-footed  by  different  versions  of  third-party code being used in different
       environments.

       For a simple illustration, consider the following Gemfile(5):

           source "https://rubygems.org"

           gem "sinatra"

           group :production do
             gem "rack-perftools-profiler"
           end

       In  this   case,   sinatra   depends   on   any   version   of   Rack   (>=   1.0,   while
       rack-perftools-profiler depends on 1.x (~> 1.0).

       When  you  run  bundle  install  --without  production  in  development,  we  look  at the
       dependencies of rack-perftools-profiler as well. That way, you do not spend all your  time
       developing  against Rack 2.0, using new APIs unavailable in Rack 1.x, only to have bundler
       switch to Rack 1.2 when the production group is used.

       This should not cause any problems in practice, because we do not attempt to  install  the
       gems  in  the  excluded  groups,  and  only  evaluate as part of the dependency resolution
       process.

       This also means that you cannot include different versions of the same  gem  in  different
       groups,  because  doing  so  would  result  in  different  sets  of  dependencies  used in
       development and production. Because of the vagaries of the dependency resolution  process,
       this  usually  affects  more  than  just  the  gems  you  list in your Gemfile(5), and can
       (surprisingly) radically change the gems you are using.

REMEMBERED OPTIONS

       Some options (marked above in the OPTIONS section) are remembered between calls to  bundle
       install, and by the Bundler runtime.

       For  instance,  if  you  run  bundle  install  --without test, a subsequent call to bundle
       install that does not include a --without flag will remember your previous choice.

       In addition, a call to Bundler.setup will not attempt to make the  gems  in  those  groups
       available on the Ruby load path, as they were not installed.

       The settings that are remembered are:

       --deployment
              At  runtime,  this  remembered  setting  will  also  result  in  Bundler raising an
              exception if the Gemfile.lock is out of date.

       --path Subsequent calls to bundle install will install gems to  the  directory  originally
              passed  to --path. The Bundler runtime will look for gems in that location. You can
              revert this option by running bundle install --system.

       --binstubs
              Bundler will update the executables every subsequent call to bundle install.

       --without
              As described above, Bundler will skip the gems specified by --without in subsequent
              calls  to bundle install. The Bundler runtime will also not try to make the gems in
              the skipped groups available.

THE GEMFILE.LOCK

       When you run bundle install, Bundler will persist the full names and versions of all  gems
       that you used (including dependencies of the gems specified in the Gemfile(5)) into a file
       called Gemfile.lock.

       Bundler uses this file in all subsequent calls to bundle install,  which  guarantees  that
       you always use the same exact code, even as your application moves across machines.

       Because  of  the  way  dependency  resolution  works,  even  a seemingly small change (for
       instance, an update to a point-release of a dependency of a gem in  your  Gemfile(5))  can
       result in radically different gems being needed to satisfy all dependencies.

       As a result, you SHOULD check your Gemfile.lock into version control. If you do not, every
       machine that checks out your repository (including your production  server)  will  resolve
       all  dependencies again, which will result in different versions of third-party code being
       used if any of the gems in the Gemfile(5) or any of their dependencies have been updated.

CONSERVATIVE UPDATING

       When you make a change to the Gemfile(5) and then run bundle install, Bundler will  update
       only the gems that you modified.

       In  other words, if a gem that you did not modify worked before you called bundle install,
       it will continue to use the exact same versions of all dependencies as it used before  the
       update.

       Let´s take a look at an example. Here´s your original Gemfile(5):

           source "https://rubygems.org"

           gem "actionpack", "2.3.8"
           gem "activemerchant"

       In  this  case, both actionpack and activemerchant depend on activesupport. The actionpack
       gem depends on activesupport 2.3.8 and rack ~> 1.1.0, while the activemerchant gem depends
       on activesupport >= 2.3.2, braintree >= 2.0.0, and builder >= 2.0.0.

       When  the  dependencies are first resolved, Bundler will select activesupport 2.3.8, which
       satisfies the requirements of both gems in your Gemfile(5).

       Next, you modify your Gemfile(5) to:

           source "https://rubygems.org"

           gem "actionpack", "3.0.0.rc"
           gem "activemerchant"

       The  actionpack  3.0.0.rc  gem  has  a  number  of  new  dependencies,  and  updates   the
       activesupport dependency to = 3.0.0.rc and the rack dependency to ~> 1.2.1.

       When  you run bundle install, Bundler notices that you changed the actionpack gem, but not
       the activemerchant gem. It  evaluates  the  gems  currently  being  used  to  satisfy  its
       requirements:

       activesupport 2.3.8
              also used to satisfy a dependency in activemerchant, which is not being updated

       rack ~> 1.1.0
              not currently being used to satify another dependency

       Because  you  did  not explicitly ask to update activemerchant, you would not expect it to
       suddenly stop working after updating actionpack. However, satisfying the new activesupport
       3.0.0.rc dependency of actionpack requires updating one of its dependencies.

       Even  though  activemerchant  declares  a very loose dependency that theoretically matches
       activesupport 3.0.0.rc, bundler treats gems in your Gemfile(5) that have not changed as an
       atomic  unit together with their dependencies. In this case, the activemerchant dependency
       is treated as activemerchant 1.7.1 + activesupport 2.3.8, so bundle  install  will  report
       that it cannot update actionpack.

       To  explicitly  update  actionpack,  including  its  dependencies  which other gems in the
       Gemfile(5) still depend on, run bundle update actionpack (see bundle update(1)).

       Summary: In general, after making a change to the Gemfile(5) , you should first try to run
       bundle  install, which will guarantee that no other gems in the Gemfile(5) are impacted by
       the change. If that does not work, run bundle update(1) bundle-update.1.html.

SEE ALSO

       ·   Gem install docs: http://docs.rubygems.org/read/chapter/2

       ·   Rubygems signing docs: http://docs.rubygems.org/read/chapter/21

                                            April 2013                          BUNDLE-INSTALL(1)