Provided by: darcs_2.8.4-3build1_amd64 bug


       darcs - an advanced revision control system


       darcs command <arguments|[options]>...

       Where the commands and their respective arguments are

       darcs help [<darcs_command> [darcs_subcommand]]
       darcs add <file|directory> ...
       darcs remove <file|directory> ...
       darcs move <source> ... <destination>
       darcs replace <old> <new> <file> ...
       darcs revert [file|directory]...
       darcs unrevert
       darcs whatsnew [file|directory]...
       darcs record [file|directory]...
       darcs unrecord
       darcs amend-record [file|directory]...
       darcs mark-conflicts
       darcs tag [tagname]
       darcs setpref <pref> <value>
       darcs diff [file|directory]...
       darcs changes [file|directory]...
       darcs annotate [file|directory]...
       darcs dist
       darcs test
       darcs trackdown [[initialization] command]
       darcs show contents [file]...
       darcs show files [file|directory]...
       darcs show index
       darcs show pristine
       darcs show repo
       darcs show authors
       darcs show tags
       darcs pull [repository]...
       darcs fetch [repository]...
       darcs obliterate
       darcs rollback [file|directory]...
       darcs push [repository]
       darcs send [repository]
       darcs apply <patchfile>
       darcs get <repository> [<directory>]
       darcs put <new repository>
       darcs initialize
       darcs optimize
       darcs check
       darcs repair
       darcs convert <source> [<destination>]


       Darcs is a free, open source revision control system. It is:

       ·  Distributed: Every user has access to the full command set, removing boundaries between
          server and client or committer and non‐committers.

       ·  Interactive: Darcs is easy to learn and efficient to use because it asks you  questions
          in response to simple commands, giving you choices in your work flow. You can choose to
          record one change in a file, while ignoring another. As you update from  upstream,  you
          can review each patch name, even the full `diff' for interesting patches.

       ·  Smart:  Originally  developed  by  physicist  David  Roundy, darcs is based on a unique
          algebra of patches.  This smartness lets you respond to changing demands in  ways  that
          would otherwise not be possible. Learn more about spontaneous branches with darcs.


       Different options are accepted by different Darcs commands.  Each command's most important
       options are listed in the COMMANDS section.  For a full list of all options accepted by  a
       particular command, run `darcs command --help'.

   Selecting Patches:
       The  --patches option yields patches with names matching an `extended' regular expression.
       See regex(7) for details.  The --matches  option  yields  patches  that  match  a  logical
       (Boolean) expression: one or more primitive expressions combined by grouping (parentheses)
       and the complement (not),  conjunction  (and)  and  disjunction  (or)  operators.   The  C
       notation for logic operators (!, && and ||) can also be used.

        --patches=regex is a synonym for --matches='name regex'
        --from-patch    and    --to-patch    are    synonyms    for   --from-match='name...   and
        --from-patch and --to-match can be unproblematically combined:
        darcs changes --from-patch='html.*documentation' --to-match='date 20040212'

       The following primitive Boolean expressions are supported:
         exact - check a literal string against the patch name.
         name - check a regular expression against the patch name.
         author - check a regular expression against the author name.
         hunk - check a regular expression against the contents of a hunk patch.
         comment - check a regular expression against the log message.
         hash - match the darcs hash for a patch.
         date - match the patch date.
         touch - match file paths for a patch.

       Here are some examples:
         darcs  annotate  --summary  --match  'exact  "Resolve  issue17:   use   dynamic   memory
         darcs annotate --summary --match 'name issue17'
         darcs annotate --summary --match 'name "^[Rr]esolve issue17\>"'
         darcs annotate --summary --match 'author "David Roundy"'
         darcs annotate --summary --match 'author droundy'
         darcs annotate --summary --match 'author'
         darcs annotate --summary --match 'hunk "foo = 2"'
         darcs annotate --summary --match 'hunk "^instance .* Foo where$"'
         darcs annotate --summary --match 'comment "prevent deadlocks"'
         darcs              annotate              --summary             --match             'hash
         darcs annotate --summary --match 'date "2006-04-02 22:41"'
         darcs annotate --summary --match 'date "tea time yesterday"'
         darcs annotate --summary --match 'touch src/foo.c'
         darcs annotate --summary --match 'touch src/'
         darcs annotate --summary --match 'touch "src/*.(c|h)"'


       darcs help [<darcs_command> [darcs_subcommand]]
           Without arguments, `darcs help' prints a categorized list  of  darcs  commands  and  a
           short  description  of  each  one.   With  an  extra argument, `darcs help foo' prints
           detailed help about the darcs command foo.

   Changing and querying the working copy:
       darcs add <file|directory> ...
           Generally a repository contains both files that should be version controlled (such  as
           source code) and files that Darcs should ignore (such as executables compiled from the
           source code).  The `darcs add' command is used to tell Darcs which  files  to  version

           When  an  existing  project is first imported into a Darcs repository, it is common to
           run `darcs add -r *' or `darcs record -l' to add all initial source files into darcs.

           Adding symbolic links (symlinks) is not supported.

           Darcs will ignore all files and folders  that  look  `boring'.   The  --boring  option
           overrides this behaviour.

           Darcs  will  not add file if another file in the same folder has the same name, except
           for case.  The --case-ok option overrides this behaviour.  Windows and  OS  X  usually
           use filesystems that do not allow files a folder to have the same name except for case
           (for example, `ReadMe' and `README').  If --case-ok is used, the repository  might  be
           unusable on those systems!

       darcs remove <file|directory> ...
           The  `darcs  remove'  command  exists  primarily for symmetry with `darcs add', as the
           normal way to remove a file from version control is  simply  to  delete  it  from  the
           working  tree.   This  command  is  only useful in the unusual case where one wants to
           record a removal patch WITHOUT deleting the copy in the working  tree  (which  can  be

           Note  that  applying  a removal patch to a repository (e.g. by pulling the patch) will
           ALWAYS affect the working tree of that repository.

       darcs move <source> ... <destination>
           Darcs cannot reliably distinguish between a file being deleted and a  new  one  added,
           and  a  file being moved.  Therefore Darcs always assumes the former, and provides the
           `darcs mv' command to let Darcs know when you want the latter.  This command will also
           move  the file in the working tree (unlike `darcs remove'), unless it has already been

           Darcs will not rename a file if another file in the same folder  has  the  same  name,
           except  for  case.   The  --case-ok option overrides this behaviour.  Windows and OS X
           usually use filesystems that do not allow files a folder to have the same name  except
           for  case  (for example, `ReadMe' and `README').  If --case-ok is used, the repository
           might be unusable on those systems!

       darcs replace <old> <new> <file> ...
           In  addition  to  line-based  patches,  Darcs  supports  a  limited  form  of  lexical
           substitution.  Files are treated as sequences of words, and each occurrence of the old
           word is replaced by the new word.  This is intended to provide a clean way to rename a
           function  or  variable.   Such renamings typically affect lines all through the source
           code, so a traditional line-based patch would be very likely to  conflict  with  other
           branches, requiring manual merging.

           Files  are  tokenized  according  to one simple rule: words are strings of valid token
           characters, and everything between them (punctuation and whitespace) is discarded.  By
           default,  valid  token  characters  are  letters,  numbers  and  the  underscore (i.e.
           [A-Za-z0-9_]).  However if the old and/or  new  token  contains  either  a  hyphen  or
           period, BOTH hyphen and period are treated as valid (i.e. [A-Za-z0-9_.-]).

           The  set  of  valid  characters can be customized using the --token-chars option.  The
           argument must be surrounded by square  brackets.   If  a  hyphen  occurs  between  two
           characters  in  the  set,  it is treated as a set range.  For example, in most locales
           [A-Z] denotes all uppercase letters.  If the first character is a caret, valid  tokens
           are taken to be the complement of the remaining characters.  For example, [^:\n] could
           be used to match fields in the passwd(5), where records and fields  are  separated  by
           newlines and colons respectively.

           If you choose to use --token-chars, you are STRONGLY encouraged to do so consistently.
           The consequences of  using  multiple  replace  patches  with  different  --token-chars
           arguments on the same file are not well tested nor well understood.

           By  default  Darcs will refuse to perform a replacement if the new token is already in
           use, because the replacements would  be  not  be  distinguishable  from  the  existing
           tokens.   This  behaviour  can  be  overridden by supplying the --force option, but an
           attempt to `darcs rollback' the resulting patch will affect these existing tokens.


           The tokenizer treats files as byte strings, so it is not possible for --token-chars to
           include  multi-byte  characters,  such  as  the  non-ASCII parts of UTF-8.  Similarly,
           trying to replace a `high-bit' character from a unibyte encoding will also  result  in
           replacement of the same byte in files with different encodings.  For example, an acute
           a from ISO 8859-1 will also match an alpha from ISO 8859-7.

           Due to limitations in the patch file format, --token-chars  arguments  cannot  contain
           literal  whitespace.   For  example, [^ \n\t] cannot be used to declare all characters
           except the space, tab and newline as valid  within  a  word,  because  it  contains  a
           literal space.

           Unlike POSIX regex(7) bracket expressions, character classes (such as [[:alnum:]]) are
           NOT supported by --token-chars, and will be  silently  treated  as  a  simple  set  of

       darcs revert [file|directory]...
           The  `darcs  revert'  command  discards  unrecorded changes the working tree.  As with
           `darcs record', you will be asked which hunks (changes) to revert.  The  --all  switch
           can  be  used  to  avoid  such prompting. If files or directories are specified, other
           parts of the working tree are not reverted.

           In you accidentally reverted something you wanted to keep (for example, typing  `darcs
           rev  -a'  instead  of  `darcs  rec  -a'),  you can immediately run `darcs unrevert' to
           restore it.  This is only guaranteed to work if the repository has not  changed  since
           `darcs revert' ran.

       darcs unrevert
           Unrevert is a rescue command in case you accidentally reverted something you wanted to
           keep (for example, typing `darcs rev -a' instead of `darcs rec -a').

           This command may fail if the repository has  changed  since  the  revert  took  place.
           Darcs  will  ask  for  confirmation  before executing an interactive command that will
           DEFINITELY prevent unreversion.

       darcs whatsnew [file|directory]...
           The `darcs whatsnew' command lists unrecorded changes to the  working  tree.   If  you
           specify  a  set  of  files and directories, only unrecorded changes to those files and
           directories are listed.

           With the --summary option, the changes are  condensed  to  one  line  per  file,  with
           mnemonics to indicate the nature and extent of the change.  The --look-for-adds option
           causes candidates for `darcs add' to be  included  in  the  summary  output.   Summary
           mnemonics are as follows:

             `A f' and `A d/' respectively mean an added file or directory.
             `R f' and `R d/' respectively mean a removed file or directory.
             `M f -N +M rP' means a modified file, with N lines deleted, M
             lines added, and P lexical replacements.
             `f -> g' means a moved file or directory.
             `a f' and `a d/' respectively mean a new, but unadded, file or
             directory, when using --look-for-adds.

             An exclamation mark (!) as in `R! foo.c', means the hunk is known to
             conflict with a hunk in another patch.  The phrase `duplicated'
             means the hunk is known to be identical to a hunk in another patch.

           By  default,  `darcs  whatsnew'  uses Darcs' internal format for changes.  To see some
           context (unchanged lines) around each change,  use  the  --unified  option.   To  view
           changes  in  conventional  `diff'  format, use the `darcs diff' command; but note that
           `darcs whatsnew' is faster.

           This command exits unsuccessfully (returns a non-zero exit status)  if  there  are  no
           unrecorded changes.

   Copying changes between the working copy and the repository:
       darcs record [file|directory]...
           The `darcs record' command is used to create a patch from changes in the working tree.
           If you specify a set of files and directories, changes to other files will be skipped.

           Every patch has a name, an optional description, an author and a date.

           The patch name should be a short sentence that concisely describes the patch, such  as
           `Add  error  handling  to  main event loop.'  You can supply it in advance with the -m
           option, or provide it when prompted.

           The patch description is an optional block of free-form text.  It is  used  to  supply
           additional  information  that  doesn't  fit  in the patch name.  For example, it might
           include a rationale of WHY the change was necessary.  By default  Darcs  asks  if  you
           want to add a description; the --edit-long-comment and --skip-long-comment can be used
           to answer `yes' or `no' (respectively) to this prompt.  Finally, the --logfile  option
           allows  you  to  supply  a  file that already contains the patch name (first line) and
           patch description (subsequent lines).  This is useful if a previous record failed  and
           left a darcs-record-0 file.

           Each  patch  is attributed to its author, usually by email address (for example, `Fred
           Bloggs <>').  Darcs looks in several places for  this  author  string:
           the   --author   option,   the  files  _darcs/prefs/author  (in  the  repository)  and
           ~/.darcs/author (in your home directory), and the environment  variables  $DARCS_EMAIL
           and  $EMAIL.   If  none of those exist, Darcs will prompt you for an author string and
           write it to _darcs/prefs/author.  Note that  if  if  you  have  more  than  one  email
           address,  note  that  you  can  put  them all in ~/.darcs/author, one author per line.
           Darcs will still prompt you for an author, but it allows you to select from the  list,
           or to type in an alternative.

           The patch date is generated automatically.  It can only be spoofed by using the --pipe

           If a test command has been defined with `darcs setpref', attempting to record a  patch
           will  cause  the  test command to be run in a clean copy of the working tree (that is,
           including only recorded changes).  If the test fails, you will be offered to abort the
           record operation.

           The  --set-scripts-executable option causes scripts to be made executable in the clean
           copy of the working tree,  prior  to  running  the  test.   See  `darcs  get'  for  an
           explanation of the script heuristic.

           If your test command is tediously slow (e.g. `make all') and you are recording several
           patches in a row, you may wish to use --no-test to skip all but the final test.

           To see some context (unchanged lines) around each change, use the --unified option.

       darcs unrecord
           Unrecord does the opposite of record in that it makes the changes from patches  active
           changes  again which you may record or revert later.  The working copy itself will not
           change.  Beware that you should not use this command if you are going to re-record the
           changes  in  any  way  and  there  is a possibility that another user may have already
           pulled the patch.

       darcs amend-record [file|directory]...
           Amend-record updates a `draft' patch with additions or improvements,  resulting  in  a
           single `finished' patch.  This is better than recording the additions and improvements
           as separate patches, because  then  whenever  the  `draft'  patch  is  copied  between
           repositories, you would need to make sure all the extra patches are copied, too.

           Do  not  copy  draft  patches between repositories, because a finished patch cannot be
           copied into a repository that contains a draft of the same patch.  If this has already
           happened, `darcs obliterate' can be used to remove the draft patch.

           Do  not run amend-record in repository that other developers can pull from, because if
           they pull while an amend-record is in progress, their repository may be corrupted.

           When recording a draft patch, it is a good idea to start the  name  with  `DRAFT:'  so
           that  other  developers know it is not finished.  When finished, remove it with `darcs
           amend-record --edit-long-comment'.  To change  the  patch  name  without  starting  an
           editor, use --patch-name.

           Like  `darcs  record', if you call amend-record with files as arguments, you will only
           be asked about changes to those files.  So to amend a patch to foo.c with improvements
           in bar.c, you would run:

               darcs amend-record --match 'touch foo.c' bar.c

           It  is  usually  a  bad idea to amend another developer's patch.  To make amend-record
           only ask about your own patches by default, you can add something  like  `amend-record
           match David Roundy' to ~/.darcs/defaults, where `David Roundy' is your name.

       darcs mark-conflicts
           Darcs  requires  human  guidance  to  unify changes to the same part of a source file.
           When a conflict first occurs, darcs will add the initial state and both choices to the
           working  tree,  delimited  by  the  markers `v v v', `=====',  `* * *' and `^ ^ ^', as

           v v v v v v v  Initial  state.   =============  First  choice.   *************  Second
           choice.  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

           However,  you might revert or manually delete these markers without actually resolving
           the conflict.  In this case, `darcs  mark-conflicts'  is  useful  to  show  where  any
           unresolved   conflicts.    It   is  also  useful  if  `darcs  apply'  is  called  with
           --apply-conflicts, where conflicts aren't marked initially.

           Any unrecorded changes to the working tree WILL be lost  forever  when  you  run  this
           command!  You will be prompted for confirmation before this takes place.

   Direct modification of the repository:
       darcs tag [tagname]
           The  `darcs  tag' command names the current repository state, so that it can easily be
           referred to later.  Every `important' state should be tagged; in particular it is good
           practice  to  tag  each  stable  release with a number or codename.  Advice on release
           numbering can be found at

           To reproduce the state of a repository `R' as at tag `t', use the command  `darcs  get
           --tag t R'.  The command `darcs show tags' lists all tags in the current repository.

           Tagging  also  provides  significant performance benefits: when Darcs reaches a shared
           tag that depends on all antecedent patches, it can simply stop processing.

           Like normal patches, a tag has a name, an author, a timestamp  and  an  optional  long
           description, but it does not change the working tree.  A tag can have any name, but it
           is generally best to pick a naming scheme and stick to it.

           The `darcs tag' command accepts the --pipe  option,  which  behaves  as  described  in
           `darcs record'.

       darcs setpref <pref> <value>
           When  working  on project with multiple repositories and contributors, it is sometimes
           desirable for a preference to be set consistently project-wide.  This is  achieved  by
           treating a preference set with `darcs setpref' as an unrecorded change, which can then
           be recorded and then treated like any other patch.

           Valid preferences are:

             test -- a shell command that runs regression tests
             predist -- a shell command to run before `darcs dist'
             boringfile -- the path to a version-controlled boring file
             binariesfile -- the path to a version-controlled binaries file

           For example, a project using GNU autotools, with  a  `make  test'  target  to  perform
           regression tests, might enable Darcs' integrated regression testing with the following

             darcs setpref test 'autoconf && ./configure && make && make test'

           Note that merging is not currently implemented for preferences: if two patches attempt
           to  set the same preference, the last patch applied to the repository will always take
           precedence.  This is considered a low-priority bug,  because  preferences  are  seldom

   Querying the repository:
       darcs diff [file|directory]...
           The  `darcs  diff'  command  compares  two versions of the working tree of the current
           repository.  Without options, the pristine (recorded) and unrecorded working trees are
           compared.   This  is lower-level than the `darcs whatsnew' command, since it outputs a
           line-by-line diff, and it is also slower.  As with `darcs whatsnew',  if  you  specify
           files  or directories, changes to other files are not listed.  The command always uses
           an external diff utility.

           With the --patch option, the comparison will be made between working  trees  with  and
           without  that  patch.  Patches `after' the selected patch are not present in either of
           the compared working trees.  The --from-patch and --to-patch options allow the set  of
           patches in the `old' and `new' working trees to be specified separately.

           The  associated tag and match options are also understood, e.g. `darcs diff --from-tag
           1.0 --to-tag 1.1'.  All these options assume an ordering of the patch set, so  results
           may be affected by operations such as `darcs optimize --reorder'.

           diff(1) is called with the arguments -rN.  The --unified option causes -u to be passed
           to diff(1).   An  additional  argument  can  be  passed  using  --diff-opts,  such  as
           --diff-opts=-ud or --diff-opts=-wU9.

           The  --diff-command option can be used to specify an alternative utility, such as meld
           (GNOME) or opendiff (OS X).  Arguments may be included, separated by whitespace.   The
           value  is  not  interpreted  by  a  shell,  so  shell  constructs cannot be used.  The
           arguments %1 and %2 MUST be included, these are substituted for the two working  trees
           being compared.  If this option is used, --diff-opts is ignored.

       darcs changes [file|directory]...
           The  `darcs  changes' command lists the patches that constitute the current repository
           or, with --repo, a remote repository.  Without options or arguments, ALL patches  will
           be listed.

           When  given  one  or more files or directories as arguments, only patches which affect
           those files or directories are listed. This includes changes that  happened  to  files
           before they were moved or renamed.

           When  given a --from-tag, --from-patch or --from-match, only changes since that tag or
           patch are listed.  Similarly, the --to-tag, --to-patch and --to-match options restrict
           the list to older patches.

           The  --last  and  --max-count  options  both  limit the number of patches listed.  The
           former applies BEFORE other filters, whereas the latter applies AFTER  other  filters.
           For example `darcs changes foo.c --max-count 3' will print the last three patches that
           affect foo.c, whereas `darcs changes --last 3 foo.c' will, of the last three  patches,
           print only those that affect foo.c.

           Three  output  formats  exist.   The default is --human-readable.  You can also select
           --context, which is the internal format (as seen in patch bundles) that can be re-read
           by Darcs (e.g. `darcs get --context').

           Finally,  there  is --xml-output, which emits valid XML... unless a the patch metadata
           (author, name or description) contains a non-ASCII character and  was  recorded  in  a
           non-UTF8 locale.

           Note  that  while  the  --context flag may be used in conjunction with --xml-output or
           --human-readable, in neither case will darcs get be able to read the output.   On  the
           other  hand,  sufficient  information  WILL  be  output  for  a knowledgeable human to
           recreate the current state of the repository.

       darcs annotate [file|directory]...
           The `darcs annotate' command provides two unrelated  operations.   When  called  on  a
           file,  it  will find the patch that last modified each line in that file.  When called
           on a patch (e.g. using --patch), it will print the  internal  representation  of  that

           The  --summary  option will result in a summarized patch annotation, similar to `darcs
           whatsnew'.  It has no effect on file annotations.

           By default, output is in a human-readable format.  The --machine-readable  option  can
           be used to generate output for machine postprocessing.

       darcs dist
           The   `darcs  dist'  command  creates  a  compressed  archive  (a  `tarball')  in  the
           repository's root directory,  containing  the  recorded  state  of  the  working  tree
           (unrecorded changes and the _darcs directory are excluded).

           If  a  predist  command  is set (see `darcs setpref'), that command will be run on the
           tarball contents prior to archiving.  For example, autotools projects would set it  to
           `autoconf && automake'.

           By  default, the tarball (and the top-level directory within the tarball) has the same
           name as the repository, but this can be overridden with the --dist-name option.

       darcs test
           If a regression test is defined (see `darcs setpref') it will be run.

       darcs trackdown [[initialization] command]
           Trackdown tries to find the most recent version in the repository which passes a test.
           Given  no  arguments,  it  uses  the  default repository test.  Given one argument, it
           treats it as a test command.  Given two arguments,  the  first  is  an  initialization
           command with is run only once, and the second is the test command.

           Without  the  --bisect  option,  trackdown  does linear search starting from head, and
           moving away from head.  With the --bisect option, it does binary search.

           Under the assumption that failure is monotonous, trackdown produces  the  same  result
           with  and  without  --bisect.   (Monotonous means that when moving away from head, the
           test result changes only once from "fail" to "ok".)  If failure is not monotonous, any
           one of the patches that break the test is found at random.
       darcs show contents [file]...
           Show  contents can be used to display an earlier version of some file(s).  If you give
           show contents no version arguments, it displays the recorded version of the file(s).

       darcs show files [file|directory]...
           The `darcs show files' command lists those files and directories in the  working  tree
           that are under version control.  This command is primarily for scripting purposes; end
           users will probably want `darcs whatsnew --summary'.

           A file is `pending' if it has been added but not recorded.  By default, pending  files
           (and directories) are listed; the --no-pending option prevents this.

           By  default  `darcs show files' lists both files and directories, but the alias `darcs
           show  manifest'  only  lists  files.   The  --files,  --directories,  --no-files   and
           --no-directories modify this behaviour.

           By default entries are one-per-line (i.e. newline separated).  This can cause problems
           if the files themselves contain newlines or other control characters.  To  get  aroudn
           this,  the  --null  option  uses  the null character instead.  The script interpreting
           output from this command needs to understand this idiom; `xargs -0' is such a command.

           For example, to list version-controlled files by size:

               darcs show files -0 | xargs -0 ls -ldS

       darcs show index
           The `darcs show index' command lists  all  version-controlled  files  and  directories
           along with their hashes as stored in _darcs/index. For files, the fields correspond to
           file size, sha256 of the current file content and the filename.
       darcs show pristine
           The `darcs show pristine' command lists all version-controlled files  and  directories
           along  with  the  hashes of their pristine copies. For files, the fields correspond to
           file size, sha256 of the pristine file content and the filename.
       darcs show repo
           The `darcs show repo'  command  displays  statistics  about  the  current  repository,
           allowing  third-party  scripts  to  access  this information without inspecting _darcs
           directly (and without breaking when the _darcs format changes).

           By default, the number of patches is shown.  If this data isn't needed, use --no-files
           to accelerate this command from O(n) to O(1).

           By default, output is in a human-readable format.  The --xml-output option can be used
           to generate output for machine postprocessing.

       darcs show authors
           The `darcs show authors' command lists the authors of the current  repository,  sorted
           by  the number of patches contributed.  With the --verbose option, this command simply
           lists the author of each patch (without aggregation or sorting).

           An author's name or email address may change over time.  To tell Darcs  when  multiple
           author  strings refer to the same individual, create an `.authorspellings' file in the
           root of the working tree.  Each line in this file begins with  an  author's  canonical
           name  and  address,  and may be followed by a comma separated list of extended regular
           expressions.  Blank lines and lines beginning  with  two  hyphens  are  ignored.   The
           format of .authorspelling can be described by this pattern:

            name <address> [, regexp ]*

           There  are  some  pitfalls concerning special characters: Whitespaces are stripped, if
           you need space in regexp use [ ].  Because comma serves as a  separator  you  have  to
           escape  it if you want it in regexp. Note that .authorspelingfile use extended regular
           expressions so +, ? and so on are metacharacters and you need to  escape  them  to  be
           interpreted literally.

           Any  patch  with  an  author  string  that matches the canonical address or any of the
           associated regexps is considered to be the work  of  that  author.   All  matching  is
           case-insensitive  and  partial  (it can match a substring). Use ^,$ to match the whole
           string in regexps

           Currently this canonicalization step is done only  in  `darcs  show  authors'.   Other
           commands, such as `darcs changes' use author strings verbatim.

           An example .authorspelling file is:

               -- This is a comment.
               Fred Nurk <>
               John Snagge <>, John, snagge@, js@(si|mit).edu
               Chuck Jones\, Jr. <>, cj\

       darcs show tags
           The tags command writes a list of all tags in the repository to standard output.

           Tab  characters  (ASCII  character  9)  in  tag names are changed to spaces for better
           interoperability with shell tools.  A warning is printed if this happens.

   Copying patches between repositories with working copy update:
       darcs pull [repository]...
           Pull is used to bring changes made in another repository into the  current  repository
           (that  is,  either  the  one  in  the current directory, or the one specified with the
           --repodir option). Pull allows you to bring over all or some of the patches  that  are
           in  that  repository  but not in this one. Pull accepts arguments, which are URLs from
           which to pull, and when called without an argument, pull will use the repository  from
           which you have most recently either pushed or pulled.

           See 'darcs help apply' for detailed description of many options.

       darcs fetch [repository]...
           fetch  is used to bring changes made in another repository into the current repository
           without actually applying them. Fetch allows you to bring over  all  or  some  of  the
           patches  that  are  in  that  repository but not in this one. Fetch accepts arguments,
           which are URLs from which to fetch, and when called without an  argument,  fetch  will
           use  the  repository  from  which you have most recently either pushed or pulled.  The
           fetched patches are stored into a patch bundle,  to  be  later  applied  using  "darcs
       darcs obliterate
           Obliterate  completely  removes  recorded  patches  from  your  local repository.  The
           changes will be undone in your working copy and the patches will not be shown in  your
           changes list anymore.  Beware that you can lose precious code by obliterating!

       darcs rollback [file|directory]...
           Rollback  is used to undo the effects of one or more patches without actually deleting
           them.  Instead, it creates a new patch reversing selected portions.  of those changes.
           Unlike obliterate and unrecord (which accomplish a similar goal) rollback is perfectly
           safe, since it leaves in the repository a record of its changes.

       darcs push [repository]
           Push is the opposite of pull.  Push allows  you  to  copy  changes  from  the  current
           repository into another repository.

       darcs send [repository]
           Send  is  used  to  prepare  a  bundle  of  patches  that  can  be applied to a target
           repository.  Send accepts the URL of the  repository  as  an  argument.   When  called
           without  an  argument, send will use the most recent repository that was either pushed
           to, pulled from or sent to.  By default, the patch bundle is sent by  email,  although
           you may save it to a file.

       darcs apply <patchfile>
           The  `darcs  apply'  command  takes  a patch bundle and attempts to insert it into the
           current repository.  In addition to invoking it directly on bundles created by  `darcs
           send',  it  is used internally by `darcs push' and `darcs put' on the remote end of an
           SSH connection.

           If no file is supplied, the bundle is read from standard input.

           If given an email instead of a patch bundle, Darcs will look for the bundle as a  MIME
           attachment to that email.  Currently this will fail if the MIME boundary is rewritten,
           such as in Courier and

           If the `--reply' option is used, and the bundle is attached to  an
           email,  Darcs  will send a report (indicating success or failure) to the sender of the
           bundle (the To field).  The argument to noreply is the address the report will  appear
           to originate FROM.

           The --cc option will cause the report to be CC'd to another address, for example `--cc
 ,'.  Using  --cc  without  --reply  is

           If  gpg(1)  is  installed,  you  can use `--verify pubring.gpg' to reject bundles that
           aren't signed by a key in pubring.gpg.

           If --test is supplied and a test is defined (see `darcs setpref'), the bundle will  be
           rejected  if the test fails after applying it.  In that case, the rejection email from
           --reply will include the test output.

           A patch bundle may introduce unresolved conflicts with existing patches  or  with  the
           working   tree.    By   default,   Darcs   will   add  conflict  markers  (see  `darcs

           The --external-merge option lets you resolve these conflicts using an  external  merge
           tool.   In  the  option,  '%a' is replaced with the common ancestor (merge base), '%1'
           with the first version, '%2' with the second version, and '%o'  with  the  path  where
           your  resolved  content  should  go.  For example, to use the xxdiff visual merge tool
           you'd specify: --external-merge='xxdiff -m -O -M %o %1 %a %2'

           The --allow-conflicts option will skip conflict marking; this is useful when you  want
           to  treat  a repository as just a bunch of patches, such as using `darcs pull --union'
           to download of your co-workers patches before going offline.

           This can mess up unrecorded changes in the working tree, forcing you  to  resolve  the
           conflict  immediately.   To simply reject bundles that introduce unresolved conflicts,
           using the --dont-allow-conflicts  option.   Making  this  the  default  in  push-based
           workflows is strongly recommended.

           Unlike  most  Darcs  commands, `darcs apply' defaults to --all.  Use the --interactive
           option to pick which patches to apply from a bundle.

       darcs get <repository> [<directory>]
           Get creates a local copy of a repository.  The optional second  argument  specifies  a
           destination  directory  for  the  new copy; if omitted, it is inferred from the source

           By default Darcs will copy every patch from the original repository.  This  means  the
           copy  is completely independent of the original; you can operate on the new repository
           even when the original is inaccessible.  If you  expect  the  original  repository  to
           remain  accessible,  you can use --lazy to avoid copying patches until they are needed
           (`copy on demand').  This is particularly useful when copying a remote repository with
           a long history that you don't care about.

           The  --lazy  option isn't as useful for local copies, because Darcs will automatically
           use `hard linking' where possible.  As well as saving time and space, you can move  or
           delete  the  original repository without affecting a complete, hard-linked copy.  Hard
           linking requires that the copy be on the same filesystem and the original  repository,
           and  that  the  filesystem  support  hard  linking.   This includes NTFS, HFS+ and all
           general-purpose Unix filesystems (such as ext3, UFS and ZFS).  FAT  does  not  support
           hard links.

           Darcs get will not copy unrecorded changes to the source repository's working tree.

           It  is often desirable to make a copy of a repository that excludes some patches.  For
           example, if releases are tagged then `darcs get --tag .' would  make  a  copy  of  the
           repository as at the latest release.

           An  untagged repository state can still be identified unambiguously by a context file,
           as generated by `darcs changes --context'.   Given  the  name  of  such  a  file,  the
           --context  option  will  create  a repository that includes only the patches from that
           context.  When a user reports a bug in an unreleased  version  of  your  project,  the
           recommended  way  to  find  out exactly what version they were running is to have them
           include a context file in the bug report.

           You can also make a copy of an untagged  state  using  the  --to-patch  or  --to-match
           options,  which  exclude  patches  `after'  the  first  matching patch.  Because these
           options treat the set of patches as an ordered sequence, you may get different results
           after reordering with `darcs optimize', so tagging is preferred.

       darcs put <new repository>
           The  `darcs  put'  command  creates a copy of the current repository.  It is currently
           very inefficient, so when creating local copies you should use `darcs get . x' instead
           of `darcs put x'.

           Currently  this  command  just uses `darcs init' to create the target repository, then
           `darcs push --all' to copy patches to it.  Options passed to `darcs put' are passed to
           the  init  and/or push commands as appropriate.  See those commands for an explanation
           of each option.

   Administrating repositories:
       darcs initialize
           The `darcs initialize' command turns the current directory into  a  Darcs  repository.
           Any  existing files and subdirectories become UNSAVED changes: record them with `darcs
           record --look-for-adds'.

           This command creates the `_darcs' directory, which stores  version  control  metadata.
           It also contains per-repository settings in _darcs/prefs/, which you can read about in
           the user manual.

           By default, patches of the new repository are in the darcs-2 semantics.  However it is
           possible  to  create  a  repository  in  darcs-1  semantics  with the flag `--hashed',
           althought this is not recommended except for sharing patches with a project that  uses
           patches in the darcs-1 semantics.

           Initialize is commonly abbreviated to `init'.

       darcs optimize
           The  `darcs  optimize' command modifies the current repository in an attempt to reduce
           its resource requirements.  By default a single fast, safe optimization is  performed;
           additional  optimization  techniques  can  be  enabled  by  passing  options to `darcs

           The default optimization moves recent patches (those not included in the  latest  tag)
           to  the  `front', reducing the amount that a typical remote command needs to download.
           It should also reduce the CPU time needed for some operations.

           The `darcs optimize --relink' command hard-links patches that the  current  repository
           has   in   common   with   its   peers.    Peers  are  those  repositories  listed  in
           _darcs/prefs/sources, or defined with  the  `--sibling'  option  (which  can  be  used
           multiple times).

           Darcs  uses  hard-links  automatically,  so this command is rarely needed.  It is most
           useful if you used `cp -r' instead of `darcs get' to copy  a  repository,  or  if  you
           pulled the same patch from a remote repository into multiple local repositories.

           By  default  patches  are  compressed  with  zlib  (RFC  1951)  to reduce storage (and
           download)  size.   In  exceptional  circumstances,  it  may  be  preferable  to  avoid
           compression.   In this case the `--dont-compress' option can be used (e.g. with `darcs
           record') to avoid compression.

           The `darcs optimize --uncompress' and `darcs optimize --compress' commands can be used
           to  ensure existing patches in the current repository are respectively uncompressed or
           compressed.  Note that repositories in  the  legacy  `old-fashioned-inventory'  format
           have a .gz extension on patch files even when uncompressed.

           There is one more optimization which CAN NOT be performed by this command.  Every time
           your record a patch, a new inventory file is written to _darcs/inventories/,  and  old
           inventories are never reaped.

           If _darcs/inventories/ is consuming a relatively large amount of space, you can safely
           reclaim it by using `darcs get' to make a complete copy of the repo.  When  doing  so,
           don't  forget to copy over any unsaved changes you have made to the working tree or to
           unversioned files in _darcs/prefs/ (such as _darcs/prefs/author).

       darcs check
           This command verifies that the patches in the repository, when applied successively to
           an  empty  tree, result in the pristine tree.  If not, the differences are printed and
           Darcs exits unsucessfully (with a non-zero exit status).

           If a regression test is defined (see `darcs setpref') it will be run by `darcs check'.
           Use the --no-test option to disable this.

       darcs repair
           The  `darcs  repair'  command  attempts  to  fix corruption in the current repository.
           Currently it can only repair  damage  to  the  pristine  tree,  which  is  where  most
           corruption occurs.

       darcs convert <source> [<destination>]
           The current repository format is called `darcs-2'.  It was introduced in Darcs 2.0 and
           became the default for new projects in Darcs 2.2.  The `darcs convert' command  allows
           existing projects to migrate to this format from the older `darcs-1' format.

           This  command  DOES  NOT modify the source repository; a new destination repository is
           created.  It is safe to run this command more than once  on  a  repository  (e.g.  for
           testing), before the final conversion.

           WARNING:  the  repository produced by this command is not understood by Darcs 1.x, and
           patches cannot be exchanged between repositories in darcs-1 and darcs-2 formats.

           Furthermore, darcs 2 repositories created by different  invocations  of  this  command
           SHOULD  NOT  exchange patches, unless those repositories had no patches in common when
           they were converted.  (That is, within a set of repos that exchange patches, no  patch
           should be converted more than once.)

           Due  to this limitation, migrating a multi-branch project is a little awkward.  Sorry!
           Here is the recommended process:

            1. for each branch `foo', tag that branch with `foo-final';
            2. merge all branches together (--allow-conflicts may help);
            3. run `darcs optimize --reorder' on the result;
            4. run `darcs convert' to create a merged darcs-2 repository;
            5. re-create each branch by calling `darcs get --tag foo-final' on
               the darcs-2 repository; and finally
            6. use `darcs obliterate' to delete the foo-final tags.


       Per-user preferences are set in $HOME/.darcs (on Unix) or  %APPDATA%/darcs  (on  Windows).
       This is also the default location of the cache.

       To  edit a patch description of email comment, Darcs will invoke an external editor.  Your
       preferred  editor  can  be  set  as  any  of  the  environment  variables   $DARCS_EDITOR,
       $DARCSEDITOR, $VISUAL or $EDITOR.  If none of these are set, editor(1) is used.

       Darcs  will  sometimes  invoke  a pager if it deems output to be too long to fit onscreen.
       Darcs will use the pager specified  by  $DARCS_PAGER  or  $PAGER.   If  neither  are  set,
       pager(1) will be used.

       Darcs  often creates temporary directories.  For example, the `darcs diff' command creates
       two for the working trees to be diffed.  By default temporary directories are  created  in
       /tmp,  or  if  that  doesn't  exist,  in  _darcs  (within  the current repo).  This can be
       overridden by specifying some other directory  in  the  file  _darcs/prefs/tmpdir  or  the
       environment variable $DARCS_TMPDIR or $TMPDIR.

       If  the  environment  variable  DARCS_KEEP_TMPDIR  is  defined,  darcs will not remove the
       temporary directories it creates.  This is intended primarily for debugging Darcs  itself,
       but  it can also be useful, for example, to determine why your test preference (see `darcs
       setpref') is failing when you run `darcs record', but working when run manually.

       Each patch is attributed to its author, usually  by  email  address  (for  example,  `Fred
       Bloggs  <>').   Darcs  looks in several places for this author string: the
       --author option, the files _darcs/prefs/author (in the repository) and ~/.darcs/author (in
       your  home  directory), and the environment variables $DARCS_EMAIL and $EMAIL.  If none of
       those  exist,  Darcs  will  prompt  you  for  an   author   string   and   write   it   to
       _darcs/prefs/author.   Note that if if you have more than one email address, note that you
       can put them all in ~/.darcs/author, one author per line.  Darcs will still prompt you for
       an author, but it allows you to select from the list, or to type in an alternative.

       On  Unix,  the  `darcs  send'  command relies on sendmail(8).  The `--sendmail-command' or
       $SENDMAIL environment variable can be used to provide an explicit path  to  this  program;
       otherwise the standard locations /usr/sbin/sendmail and /usr/lib/sendmail will be tried.

       Repositories  of  the  form  [user@]host:[dir]  are taken to be remote repositories, which
       Darcs accesses with the external program ssh(1).

       The environment variable $DARCS_SSH can be used to  specify  an  alternative  SSH  client.
       Arguments  may  be  included,  separated by whitespace.  The value is not interpreted by a
       shell, so shell constructs cannot be used; in particular,  it  is  not  possible  for  the
       program name to contain whitespace by using quoting or escaping.

       When  reading from a remote repository, Darcs will attempt to run `darcs transfer-mode' on
       the remote host.  This will fail if the remote host only has Darcs  1  installed,  doesn't
       have Darcs installed at all, or only allows SFTP.

       If  transfer-mode fails, Darcs will fall back on scp(1) and sftp(1).  The commands invoked
       can be customized with the environment variables $DARCS_SCP and $DARCS_SFTP  respectively,
       which  behave  like  $DARCS_SSH.   If  the  remote  end  allows  only  sftp,  try  setting

       If this environment variable is set, it will be used as the port number for all SSH  calls
       made  by  Darcs (when accessing remote repositories over SSH).  This is useful if your SSH
       server does  not  run  on  the  default  port,  and  your  SSH  client  does  not  support
       ssh_config(5).    OpenSSH   users  will  probably  prefer  to  put  something  like  `Host
       * Port 443' into their ~/.ssh/config file.

       If Darcs was built with libcurl, the environment  variables  HTTP_PROXY,  HTTPS_PROXY  and
       FTP_PROXY can be set to the URL of a proxy in the form


       In  which  case  libcurl  will  use the proxy for the associated protocol (HTTP, HTTPS and
       FTP).  The environment variable ALL_PROXY can be used  to  set  a  single  proxy  for  all
       libcurl requests.

       If  the  environment  variable NO_PROXY is a comma-separated list of host names, access to
       those hosts will bypass proxies defined by the above variables.  For example, it is  quite
       common to avoid proxying requests to machines on the local network with


       For  compatibility  with  lynx et al, lowercase equivalents of these environment variables
       (e.g. $http_proxy) are also understood  and  are  used  in  preference  to  the  uppercase

       If Darcs was not built with libcurl, all these environment variables are silently ignored,
       and there is no way to use a web proxy.

       If  Darcs  was  built  with  libcurl,  and  you  are  using  a  web  proxy  that  requires
       authentication,  you  can set the $DARCS_PROXYUSERPWD environment variable to the username
       and password expected by the proxy, separated by a colon.  This  environment  variable  is
       silently ignored if Darcs was not built with libcurl.


       This  file  contains  a  list  of extended regular expressions, one per line.  A file path
       matching any of these expressions is assumed to  contain  binary  data  (not  text).   The
       entries in ~/.darcs/binaries (if it exists) supplement those in this file.

       Blank  lines,  and lines beginning with an octothorpe (#) are ignored.  See regex(7) for a
       description of extended regular expressions.

       This file contains a list of extended regular expressions,  one  per  line.  A  file  path
       matching  any  of  these  expressions will be filtered out during `darcs add', or when the
       `--look-for-adds' flag is passed  to  `darcs  whatsnew'  and  `record'.   The  entries  in
       ~/.darcs/boring (if it exists) supplement those in this file.

       Blank  lines,  and lines beginning with an octothorpe (#) are ignored.  See regex(7) for a
       description of extended regular expressions.


       At you can find a list of known bugs in Darcs.  Unknown bugs can be
       reported  at  that  site  (after  creating  an  account)  or  by  emailing  the  report to


       A user manual is included with Darcs, in PDF and HTML form.   It  can  also  be  found  at


       Darcs  is  free  software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the
       GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2,
       or (at your option) any later version.

                                        2.8.4 (+ 1 patch)                                DARCS(1)