Provided by: dirmngr_1.1.1-1.1_amd64 bug


       dirmngr - CRL and OCSP daemon


       dirmngr [options] command [args]


       Dirmngr  is  a server for managing and downloading certificate revocation lists (CRLs) for
       X.509 certificates and for downloading the certificates themselves. Dirmngr  also  handles
       OCSP  requests  as  an  alternative to CRLs. Dirmngr is either invoked internally by gpgsm
       (from GnuPG 2) or when running as a system daemon through the dirmngr-client tool.


       Commands are not distinguished from options execpt for the fact that only one  command  is

              Print  the program version and licensing information.  Note that you can abbreviate
              this command.

       --help, -h
              Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command-line options.   Not  that
              you can abbreviate this command.

              Run  in  server  mode  and  wait for commands on the stdin.  The default mode is to
              create a socket and listen for commands there.

              Run in background daemon mode and listen for commands on a socket.  Note that  this
              also  changes  the  default  home  directory  and  enables the internal certificate
              validation code.

              List the contents of the CRL cache on stdout. This  is  probably  only  useful  for
              debugging purposes.

       --load-crl file
              This  command  requires a filename as additional argument, and it will make dirmngr
              try to import the CRL in file into it's cache.  Note, that this is only possible if
              Dirmngr  is  able  to  retrieve the CA's certificate directly by its own means.  In
              general it is better to use gpgsm's --call-dirmngr loadcrl filename command so that
              gpgsm can help dirmngr.

       --fetch-crl url
              This  command  requires an URL as additional argument, and it will make dirmngr try
              to retrieve an import the CRL from that url into it's cache.  This is mainly useful
              for debugging purposes.  The dirmngr-client provides the same feature for a running

              This commands shuts  down  an  running  instance  of  Dirmngr.   This  command  has
              corrently no effect.

              This  command  removes  all  CRLs  from Dirmngr's cache.  Client requests will thus
              trigger reading of fresh CRLs.


       --options file
              Reads configuration from file instead of from the  default  per-user  configuration
              file.   The  default configuration file is named `dirmngr.conf' and expected in the
              home directory.

       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir.  This option is only effective when used
              on the command line.  The default depends on the running mode:

              With --daemon given on the commandline
                     the    directory    named    `/etc/dirmngr'    for    configuration   files,
                     `/var/lib/dirmngr/' for extra data and `/var/cache/dirmngr' for cached CRLs.

              Without --daemon given on the commandline
                     the directory named `.gnupg' directly below the home directory of  the  user
                     unless  the  environment  variable  GNUPGHOME has been set in which case its
                     value will be used.  All kind of data is stored below this directory.


              Outputs additional information while running.  You can increase  the  verbosity  by
              giving several verbose commands to dirmngr, such as -vv.

       --log-file file
              Append  all  logging output to file.  This is very helpful in seeing what the agent
              actually does.

       --debug-level level
              Select the debug level for investigating problems.  level may be a numeric value or
              by a keyword:

              none   No  debugging  at  all.   A  value of less than 1 may be used instead of the

              basic  Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be used  instead  of
                     the keyword.

                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be used instead of
                     the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be used instead of
                     the keyword.

              guru   All  of  the  debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8 may be used
                     instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash tracing files is only  enabled
                     if the keyword is used.

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to  the actual debugging flags is not specified and may
       change with newer releases of this program. They are however carefully  selected  to  best
       aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
              This  option  is only useful for debugging and the behaviour may change at any time
              without notice.  FLAGS are bit encoded and may be given in usual C-Syntax.

              Same as --debug=0xffffffff

       --debug-wait n
              When running in server mode, wait n seconds before entering the  actual  processing
              loop and print the pid.  This gives time to attach a debugger.




       --csh  Format  the  info  output  in  daemon  mode  for use with the standard Bourne shell
              respective the C-shell . The default ist to  guess  it  based  on  the  environment
              variable SHELL which is in almost all cases sufficient.

              Enabling  this  option  forces  loading  of  expired  CRLs; this is only useful for

              Entirely disables the use of LDAP.

              Entirely disables the use of HTTP.

              When looking for the location of a  CRL,  the  to  be  tested  certificate  usually
              contains  so  called  CRL Distribution Point (DP) entries which are URLs describing
              the way to access the CRL.  The first found DP entry is used.  With this option all
              entries using the HTTP scheme are ignored when looking for a suitable DP.

              This  is  similar  to  --ignore-http-dp  but ignores entries using the LDAP scheme.
              Both options may be combined resulting in ignoring DPs entirely.

              Ignore all OCSP URLs contained in the certificate.  The effect is to force the  use
              of the default responder.

              If the environment variable `http_proxy' has been set, use its value to access HTTP

       --http-proxy host[:port]
              Use host and port to access HTTP servers.  The use of this  options  overrides  the
              environment  variable  `http_proxy'  regardless whether --honor-http-proxy has been

       --ldap-proxy host[:port]
              Use host and port to connect to  LDAP  servers.   If  port  is  omitted,  port  389
              (standard LDAP port) is used.  This overrides any specified host and port part in a
              LDAP URL and will also be used if host and port have been omitted from the URL.

              Never use anything else but the  LDAP  "proxy"  as  configured  with  --ldap-proxy.
              Usually  dirmngr  tries to use other configured LDAP server if the connection using
              the "proxy" failed.

       --ldapserverlist-file file
              Read the list of LDAP servers to  consult  for  CRLs  and  certificates  from  file
              instead  of  the default per-user ldap server list file. The default value for file
              is `dirmngr_ldapservers.conf' or `ldapservers.conf' when running in --daemon mode.

              This server list file contains one LDAP server per line in the format


              Lines starting with a  '#' are comments.

              Note that as usual all strings entered are expected to be UTF-8 encoded.  Obviously
              this  will  lead to problems if the password has orginally been encoded as Latin-1.
              There is no other solution here than to put such a password in the binary  encoding
              into  the  file  (i.e.  non-ascii characters won't show up readable). ([The gpgconf
              tool might be helpful for frontends as it allows one  to  edit  this  configuration
              file using percent escaped strings.])

       --ldaptimeout secs
              Specify  the  number  of  seconds  to wait for an LDAP query before timing out. The
              default is currently 100 seconds.  0 will never timeout.

              This  options  makes  dirmngr  add  any  servers  it  discovers   when   validating
              certificates  against  CRLs  to  the  internal  list  of  servers  to  consult  for
              certificates and CRLs.

              This options is useful when trying  to  validate  a  certificate  that  has  a  CRL
              distribution  point  that  points  to  a  server  that is not already listed in the
              ldapserverlist. Dirmngr will always go to this server and try to download the  CRL,
              but  chances  are  high that the certificate used to sign the CRL is located on the
              same server. So if dirmngr doesn't add that new server to list, it will  often  not
              be able to verify the signature of the CRL unless the --add-servers option is used.

              Note: The current version of dirmngr has this option disabled by default.

              This option enables OCSP support if requested by the client.

              OCSP  requests  are rejected by default because they may violate the privacy of the
              user; for example it is possible to track the time when a user is reading a mail.

       --ocsp-responder url
              Use url as  the  default  OCSP  Responder  if  the  certificate  does  not  contain
              information about an assigned responder.  Note, that --ocsp-signer must also be set
              to a valid certificate.

       --ocsp-signer fpr|file
              Use the certificate with the fingerprint fpr to check the responses of the  default
              OCSP Responder.  Alternativly a filename can be given in which case the respinse is
              expected to be signed by one of the  certificates  described  in  that  file.   Any
              argument  which  contains  a  slash,  dot or tilde is considered a filename.  Usual
              filename expansion takes place: A tilde  at  the  start  followed  by  a  slash  is
              replaced  by the content of `HOME', no slash at start describes a relative filename
              which will be searched at the home directory.   To  make  sure  that  the  file  is
              searched  in  the  home  directory, either prepend the name with "./" or use a name
              which contains a dot.

              If a response has been signed by a certificate described by these  fingerprints  no
              further check upon the validity of this certificate is done.

              The  format  of the FILE is a list of SHA-1 fingerprint, one per line with optional
              colons between the bytes.  Empty lines and  lines  prefix  with  a  hash  mark  are

       --ocsp-max-clock-skew n
              The  number  of  seconds  a skew between the OCSP responder and them local clock is
              accepted.  Default is 600 (20 minutes).

       --ocsp-max-period n
              Seconds a response is at maximum considered valid  after  the  time  given  in  the
              thisUpdate field.  Default is 7776000 (90 days).

       --ocsp-current-period n
              The  number of seconds an OCSP response is considered valid after the time given in
              the NEXT_UPDATE datum.  Default is 10800 (3 hours).

       --max-replies n
              Do not return more that n items in one query.  The default is 10.

       --ignore-cert-extension oid
              Add oid to the list of ignored certificate extensions.  The oid is expected  to  be
              in  dotted  decimal  form,  like  This option may be used more than once.
              Critical flagged certificate extensions matching one of the OIDs in  the  list  are
              treated  as if they are actually handled and thus the certificate won't be rejected
              due to an unknown critical extension.  Use this option with care because extensions
              are usually flagged as critical for a reason.


       A  running  dirmngr  may  be  controlled by signals, i.e. using the kill command to send a
       signal to the process.

       Here is a list of supported signals:

       SIGHUP This signals flushes all internally cached CRLs as well as any cached certificates.
              Then  the  certificate  cache  is reinitialized as on startup.  Options are re-read
              from the configuration file.

              Shuts down the process but waits until all current requests are fulfilled.  If  the
              process  has received 3 of these signals and requests are still pending, a shutdown
              is forced.

       SIGINT Shuts down the process immediately.

              This prints some caching statistics to the log file.


       The way to start the dirmngr in the foreground (as done by tools if no dirmngr is  running
       in the background) is to use:

           dirmngr --server -v

       If a dirmngr is supposed to be used as a system wide daemon, it should be started like:

           dirmngr --daemon

       This  will force it to go into the backround, read the default certificates (including the
       trusted root certificates) and listen on a socket for client requests.  It does also print
       information  about  the  socket  used but they are only for compatibility reasons with old
       GnuPG versions and may be ignored.


       Dirmngr makes use of several directories when running in daemon mode:

              This is where all the configuration files are expected by default.

              This directory should be filled with certificates of Root CAs you are  trusting  in
              checking  the  CRLS  and  signing  OCSP  Reponses.   Usually  these  are  the  same
              certificates you use with the applications making use of dirmngr.  It  is  expected
              that each of these certificate files contain exactly one DER encoded certificate in
              a file with the suffix `.crt' or  `.der'.   dirmngr  reads  those  certificates  on
              startup  and  when  given  a SIGHUP.  Certificates which are not readable or do not
              make up a proper X.509 certificate are ignored; see the log file for details.

              Note that for OCSP responses the certificate specified  using  the  option  --ocsp-
              signer is always considered valid to sign OCSP requests.

              This  directory may contain extra certificates which are preloaded into the interal
              cache on startup.  This is convenient in cases you have a  couple  intermediate  CA
              certificates   or   certificates  ususally  used  to  sign  OCSP  reponses.   These
              certificates are first tried before going out to the net to look for  them.   These
              certificates must also be DER encoded and suffixed with `.crt' or `.der'.

              This directory keeps the socket file for accsing dirmngr services.  The name of the
              socket file will be `socket'.   Make  sure  that  this  directory  has  the  proper
              permissions  to let dirmngr create the socket file and that eligible users may read
              and write to that socket.

              This directory is used to store cached CRLs.  The `crls.d' part will be created  by
              dirmngr  if  it  does not exists but you need to make sure that the upper directory


       gpgsm(1), dirmngr-client(1)

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.   If  dirmngr  and
       the info program are properly installed at your site, the command

         info dirmngr

       should give you access to the complete manual including a menu structure and an index.