Provided by: graphviz_2.36.0-0ubuntu3_amd64 bug

NAME

       dot - filter for drawing directed graphs
       neato - filter for drawing undirected graphs
       twopi - filter for radial layouts of graphs
       circo - filter for circular layout of graphs
       fdp - filter for drawing undirected graphs
       sfdp - filter for drawing large undirected graphs
       patchwork - filter for tree maps

SYNOPSIS

       dot [options] [files]
       neato [options] [files]
       twopi [options] [files]
       circle [options] [files]
       fdp [options] [files]
       sfdp [options] [files]
       patchwork [options] [files]

DESCRIPTION

       These  are  a  collection of programs for drawing graphs.  There is actually only one main
       program; the specific layout algorithms implemented as plugins. Thus, they  largely  share
       all  of  the same command-line options.  dot draws directed graphs.  It works well on DAGs
       and other graphs that can be drawn as hierarchies.

       neato draws undirected graphs using ``spring'' models (see Kamada and  Kawai,  Information
       Processing Letters 31:1, April 1989).

       twopi  draws graphs using a radial layout (see G. Wills, Symposium on Graph Drawing GD'97,
       September, 1997).  Basically, one node is chosen as the center and put at the origin.  The
       remaining  nodes are placed on a sequence of concentric circles centered about the origin,
       each a fixed radial distance from the previous circle.  All  nodes  distance  1  from  the
       center  are  placed  on  the  first  circle; all nodes distance 1 from a node on the first
       circle are placed on the second circle; and so forth.

       circo draws graphs using a circular layout (see Six and Tollis, GD '99 and ALENEX '99, and
       Kaufmann  and  Wiese,  GD  '02.)  The tool identifies biconnected components and draws the
       nodes of the component on a circle. The block‐cutpoint tree  is  then  laid  out  using  a
       recursive  radial  algorithm.  Edge  crossings within a circle are minimized by placing as
       many edges on the circle's perimeter as possible.  In  particular,  if  the  component  is
       outerplanar, the component will have a planar layout.

       If a node belongs to multiple non‐trivial biconnected components, the layout puts the node
       in one of them. By default, this is the first non‐trivial component found  in  the  search
       from the root component.

       fdp  draws  undirected  graphs  using  a  ``spring''  model. It relies on a force‐directed
       approach in the spirit of Fruchterman and Reingold  (cf.  Software‐Practice  &  Experience
       21(11), 1991, pp. 1129‐1164).

       sfdp  also draws undirected graphs using the ``spring'' model described above, but it uses
       a multi-scale approach to produce layouts of large graphs in a reasonably short time.

       patchwork draws the graph as a squarified  treemap  (see  M.  Bruls  et  al.,  "Squarified
       treemaps",  Proc.  Joint  Eurographics  and  IEEE  TCVG  Symp. on Visualization, 2000, pp.
       33-42). The clusters of the graph are used to specify the tree.

OUTPUT FORMATS

       Graphviz uses an extensible plugin mechanism for its output  renderers,  so  to  see  what
       output  formats  your installation of dot supports you can use ``dot -Txxx'' (where xxx is
       an unlikely format) and check the warning message.  Also, The  plugin  mechanism  supports
       multiple  implementations of the output formats.  To see what variants are available, use,
       for example: ``dot -Tpng:'' and to force a particular variant,  use,  for  example:  ``dot
       -Tpng:gd''

       Traditionally, Graphviz supports the following:
       -Tps (PostScript),
       -Tsvg -Tsvgz (Structured Vector Graphics),
       -Tfig (XFIG graphics),
       -Tpng -Tgif (bitmap graphics),
       -Timap  (imagemap files for httpd servers for each node or edge that has a non‐null "href"
       attribute.),
       -Tcmapx (client‐side imagemap for use in html and xhtml).
       Additional  less  common  or  more  special‐purpose  output  formats  can  be   found   at
       //http://www.graphviz.org/content/output-formats.

       Alternative  plugins  providing  support  for  a given output format can be found from the
       error message resulting from appending a ':' to the format. e.g. -Tpng: The  first  plugin
       listed is always the default.

       The  -P  switch can be used to produce a graph of all output variants supported by plugins
       in the local installation of graphviz.

GRAPH FILE LANGUAGE

       Here is a synopsis of the graph file language,  normally  using  the  extension  .gv,  for
       graphs:

       [strict] (graph|digraph) name { statement‐list }
       is  the  top‐level  graph.  If  the  graph  is strict, then multiple edges are not allowed
       between the same pairs of nodes.  If it is a directed graph, indicated  by  digraph,  then
       the edgeop must be "->". If it is an undirected graph then the edgeop must be "--".

       Statements may be:

       name=val;
       node [name=val];
       edge [name=val];
       Set  default  graph,  node,  or  edge  attribute name to val.  Any subgraph, node, or edge
       appearing after this inherits the new default attributes.

       n0 [name0=val0,name1=val1,...];
       Creates node n0 (if it does not already exist) and sets its attributes  according  to  the
       optional list.

       n0 edgeop n1 edgeop ... edgeop nn [name0=val0,name1=val1,...];
       Creates  edges  between  nodes  n0, n1, ..., nn and sets their attributes according to the
       optional list.  Creates nodes as necessary.

       [subgraph name] { statement‐list }
       Creates a subgraph.  Subgraphs may be used in place of n0, ..., nn in the above statements
       to  create  edges.   [subgraph  name] is optional; if missing, the subgraph is assigned an
       internal name.

       Comments may be /*C‐like*/ or //C++‐like.

       Attribute names and  values  are  ordinary  (C‐style)  strings.   The  following  sections
       describe attributes that control graph layout.

       A     more    complete    description    of    the    language    can    be    found    at
       http://www.graphviz.org/content/dot-language.

GRAPH, NODE AND EDGE ATTRIBUTES

       Graphviz uses the name=value attributes, attached to graphs, subgraphs, nodes  and  edges,
       to  tailor  the  layout  and  rendering.  We list the more prominent attributes below. The
       complete list is available at http://www.graphviz.org/content/attrs.

  Graph Attributes
       size="x,y" specifies the maximum bounding box of drawing in inches.

       ratio=f sets the aspect ratio to f which may be a floating point number,  or  one  of  the
       keywords fill, compress, or auto.

       layout=engine  indicates the preferred layout engine ("dot", "neato", fdp" etc) overriding
       the default from the basename of the command or the -K commandline option.

       margin=f sets the page margin (included in the page size).

       nodesep=f sets the minimum separation between nodes.

       ranksep=f sets the minimum separation between ranks.

       ordering=out constrains order of out‐edges in a subgraph according to their file sequence.

       rankdir=LR|RL|BT requests a left‐to‐right, right‐to‐left, or bottom‐to‐top, drawing.

       rank=same (or min or max) in a subgraph constrains the rank assignment of its nodes.    If
       a  subgraph's  name has the prefix cluster, its nodes are drawn in a distinct rectangle of
       the layout.  Clusters may be nested.

       rotate=90 sets landscape mode.  (orientation=land is backward compatible but obsolete.)

       center=n a non‐zero value centers the drawing on the page.

       color=colorvalue sets foreground color (bgcolor for background).

       href="url" the default url for image map files; in PostScript files, the base URL for  all
       relative URLs, as recognized by Acrobat Distiller 3.0 and up.

       URL="url" ("URL" is a synonym for "href".)

       stylesheet="file.css"  includes  a  reference to a stylesheet in -Tsvg and -Tsvgz outputs.
       Ignored by other formats.

       splines If set to true, edges are drawn as splines.  If set to polyline, edges  are  drawn
       as  polylines.  If set to ortho, edges are drawn as orthogonal polylines.  In all of these
       cases, the nodes may not overlap.  If splines=false or splines=line, edges  are  drawn  as
       line segments.  The default is true for dot, and false for all other layouts.

       (neato‐specific attributes)
       start=val.   Requests  random initial placement and seeds the random number generator.  If
       val is not an integer, the process ID or current time is used as the seed.

       epsilon=n.  Sets the cutoff for the solver.  The default is 0.1.

       (twopi‐specific attributes)
       root=ctr. This specifies the node to  be  used  as  the  center  of  the  layout.  If  not
       specified,  twopi  will randomly pick one of the nodes that are furthest from a leaf node,
       where a leaf node is a node of degree 1. If no leaf nodes exists,  an  arbitrary  node  is
       picked as center.

       ranksep=val.  Specifies  the  radial distance in inches between the sequence of rings. The
       default is 0.75.

       overlap=mode. This specifies what twopi should  do  if  any  nodes  overlap.  If  mode  is
       "false",  the  program uses Voronoi diagrams to adjust the nodes to eliminate overlaps. If
       mode is "scale", the layout is uniformly scaled up, preserving node sizes, until nodes  no
       longer  overlap.  The  latter  technique  removes  overlaps  while preserving symmetry and
       structure, while the former removes overlaps more compactly but destroys  symmetries.   If
       mode is "true" (the default), no repositioning is done.

       (circo‐specific attributes)
       root=nodename.  Specifies  the name of a node occurring in the root block. If the graph is
       disconnected, the root node attribute can be used to specify additional root blocks.

       mindist=value. Sets the minimum separation between all nodes. If not specified then  circo
       uses a default value of 1.0.

       (fdp‐specific attributes)
       K=val. Sets the default ideal node separation in the layout.

       maxiter=val. Sets the maximum number of iterations used to layout the graph.

       start=val.  Adjusts  the random initial placement of nodes with no specified position.  If
       val is is an integer, it is used as the seed for the random number generator.  If  val  is
       not an integer, a random system‐generated integer, such as the process ID or current time,
       is used as the seed.

  Node Attributes
       height=d or width=d sets minimum height or width.  Adding fixedsize=true forces  these  to
       be the actual size (text labels are ignored).

       shape=record polygon epsf builtin_shape
       builtin_polygon  can  be  plaintext ellipse oval circle egg triangle box diamond trapezium
       parallelogram house hexagon octagon note tab box3d component, among others.  (Polygons are
       defined  or  modified  by  the  following  node  attributes:  regular, peripheries, sides,
       orientation, distortion and skew.)  epsf uses the node's shapefile attribute as  the  path
       name of an external EPSF file to be automatically loaded for the node shape.

       See http://www.graphviz.org/content/node-shapes for a complete description of node shapes.

       label=text  where  text  may  include escaped newlines \n, \l, or \r for center, left, and
       right justified lines.  The string '\N' value will be replaced  by  the  node  name.   The
       string '\G' value will be replaced by the graph name.  Record labels may contain recursive
       box lists delimited by { | }.  Port identifiers in labels are set off by angle brackets  <
       >.  In the graph file, use colon (such as, node0:port28).

       Graphviz  also  supports special HTML-like labels for constructing complex node content. A
       full‐description of these is given at http://www.graphviz.org/content/node-shapes#html.

       fontsize=n sets the label type size to n points.

       fontname=name sets the label font family name.

       color=colorvalue sets the outline color, and the default fill color  if  style=filled  and
       fillcolor is not specified.

       fillcolor=colorvalue  sets  the  fill  color  when  style=filled.   If  not specified, the
       fillcolor when style=filled defaults to be the same as the outline color.

       fontcolor=colorvalue sets the label text color.

       A colorvalue may be "h,s,v" (hue, saturation, brightness) floating point numbers between 0
       and  1,  or  an  X11  color name such as white black red green blue yellow magenta cyan or
       burlywood, or a "#rrggbb" (red, green, blue, 2 hex characters each) value.

       style=filled solid dashed dotted bold invis or any Postscript code.

       href="url" sets the url  for  the  node  in  imagemap,  PostScript  and  SVG  files.   The
       substrings  '\N'  and  '\G'  are  substituted  in  the  same  manner as for the node label
       attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the node label string.

       URL="url" ("URL" is a synonym for "href".)

       target="target" is a target string for client‐side imagemaps and SVG, effective when nodes
       have  a  URL.   The target string is used to determine which window of the browser is used
       for the URL.  Setting it to "_graphviz" will open a  new  window  if  it  doesn't  already
       exist, or reuse it if it does.  If the target string is empty, the default, then no target
       attribute is included in the output.  The substrings '\N' and '\G' are substituted in  the
       same  manner  as  for  the  node  label  attribute.   Additionally  the  substring '\L' is
       substituted with the node label string.

       tooltip="tooltip" is a tooltip string for client‐side imagemaps and  SVG,  effective  when
       nodes  have  a  URL.   The tooltip string defaults to be the same as the label string, but
       this attribute permits nodes without labels to still have tooltips thus permitting  denser
       graphs.   The  substrings '\N' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the node
       label attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L'  is  substituted  with  the  node  label
       string.

       The following attributes apply only to polygon shape nodes:

       regular=n  if  n  is non‐zero then the polygon is made regular, i.e. symmetric about the x
       and  y  axis,  otherwise  the  polygon  takes  on  the  aspect   ratio   of   the   label.
       builtin_polygons  that  are  not  already  regular  are  made  regular  by this attribute.
       builtin_polygons that are already regular are not affected  (i.e.   they  cannot  be  made
       asymmetric).

       peripheries=n  sets  the  number  of periphery lines drawn around the polygon.  This value
       supersedes the number of periphery lines of builtin_polygons.

       sides=n sets the number of sides  to  the  polygon.  n<3  results  in  an  ellipse.   This
       attribute is ignored by builtin_polygons.

       orientation=f  sets the orientation of the first apex of the polygon counterclockwise from
       the vertical, in degrees.  f may be a floating point number.  The orientation of labels is
       not  affected  by  this  attribute.  This attribute is added to the initial orientation of
       builtin_polygons.

       distortion=f sets the amount of broadening of the top and narrowing of the bottom  of  the
       polygon  (relative  to  its  orientation).   Floating  point  values between -1 and +1 are
       suggested.  This attribute is ignored by builtin_polygons.

       skew=f sets the amount of right‐displacement of  the  top  and  left‐displacement  of  the
       bottom of the polygon (relative to its orientation).  Floating point values between -1 and
       +1 are suggested.  This attribute is ignored by builtin_polygons.

       (circo‐specific attributes)
       root=true/false. This specifies that the block containing the given node be treated as the
       root of the spanning tree in the layout.

       (fdp‐specific attributes)
       pin=val. If val is "true", the node will remain at its initial position.

  Edge Attributes
       minlen=n  where  n  is an integer factor that applies to the edge length (ranks for normal
       edges, or minimum node separation for flat edges).

       weight=n where n is the integer cost of the edge.  Values greater than 1 tend  to  shorten
       the edge.  Weight 0 flat edges are ignored for ordering nodes.

       label=text  where  text  may include escaped newlines \n, \l, or \r for centered, left, or
       right justified lines.  If the substring '\T' is found in a label it will be  replaced  by
       the  tail_node name.  If the substring '\H' is found in a label it will be replaced by the
       head_node name.  If the substring '\E' value is found in a label it will be  replaced  by:
       tail_node_name->head_node_name  If  the  substring  '\G'  is  found  in a label it will be
       replaced by the graph name.  or by: tail_node_name--head_node_name for undirected graphs.

       fontsize=n sets the label type size to n points.

       fontname=name sets the label font family name.

       fontcolor=colorvalue sets the label text color.

       style=solid dashed dotted bold invis

       color=colorvalue sets the line color for edges.

       color=colorvaluelist a ':' separated list of colorvalue creates parallel edges,  one  edge
       for each color.

       dir=forward back both none controls arrow direction.

       tailclip,headclip=false disables endpoint shape clipping.

       href="url"  sets  the  url  for  the  node  in  imagemap,  PostScript  and SVG files.  The
       substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as  for  the  edge
       label  attribute.   Additionally  the  substring  '\L'  is substituted with the edge label
       string.

       URL="url" ("URL" is a synonym for "href".)

       target="target" is a target string for client‐side imagemaps and SVG, effective when edges
       have  a  URL.   If  the  target  string is empty, the default, then no target attribute is
       included in the output.  The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted  in  the
       same  manner  as  for  the  edge  label  attribute.   Additionally  the  substring '\L' is
       substituted with the edge label string.

       tooltip="tooltip" is a tooltip string for client‐side imagemaps effective when edges  have
       a  URL.   The  tooltip  string  defaults  to  be  the  same as the edge label string.  The
       substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as  for  the  edge
       label  attribute.   Additionally  the  substring  '\L'  is substituted with the edge label
       string.

       arrowhead,arrowtail=none, normal, inv, dot, odot, invdot, invodot, tee,  empty,  invempty,
       open, halfopen, diamond, odiamond, box, obox, crow.

       arrowsize (norm_length=10,norm_width=5, inv_length=6,inv_width=7,dot_radius=2)

       headlabel,taillabel=string  for  port  labels.  labelfontcolor,labelfontname,labelfontsize
       for head and tail labels.  The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the
       same  manner  as  for  the  edge  label  attribute.   Additionally  the  substring '\L' is
       substituted with the edge label string.

       headhref="url" sets the url for the head port in imagemap, PostScript and SVG files.   The
       substrings  '\T',  '\H',  '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the edge
       label attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L'  is  substituted  with  the  edge  label
       string.

       headURL="url" ("headURL" is a synonym for "headhref".)

       headtarget="headtarget"  is  a  target string for client‐side imagemaps and SVG, effective
       when edge heads have a URL.  The headtarget string is used to determine  which  window  of
       the  browser  is  used  for the URL.  If the headtarget string is empty, the default, then
       headtarget defaults to the same value as target for the edge.  The substrings '\T',  '\H',
       '\E'  and  '\G'  are  substituted  in  the  same  manner  as for the edge label attribute.
       Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string.

       headtooltip="tooltip" is a tooltip string for client‐side imagemaps  effective  when  head
       ports  have  a  URL.   The tooltip string defaults to be the same as the headlabel string.
       The substrings '\T', '\H', and '\E' are substituted in the same manner  as  for  the  edge
       label  attribute.   Additionally  the  substring  '\L'  is substituted with the edge label
       string.

       tailhref="url" sets the url for the tail port in imagemap, PostScript and SVG files.   The
       substrings  '\T',  '\H',  '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the edge
       label attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L'  is  substituted  with  the  edge  label
       string.

       tailURL="url" ("tailURL" is a synonym for "tailhref".)

       tailtarget="tailtarget"  is  a  target string for client‐side imagemaps and SVG, effective
       when edge tails have a URL.  The tailtarget string is used to determine  which  window  of
       the  browser  is  used  for the URL.  If the tailtarget string is empty, the default, then
       tailtarget defaults to the same value as target for the edge.  The substrings '\T',  '\H',
       '\E'  and  '\G'  are  substituted  in  the  same  manner  as for the edge label attribute.
       Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string.

       tailtooltip="tooltip" is a tooltip string for client‐side imagemaps  effective  when  tail
       ports  have  a  URL.   The tooltip string defaults to be the same as the taillabel string.
       The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same  manner  as  for  the
       edge  label attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label
       string.

       labeldistance and labelangle (in degrees CCW) specify  the  placement  of  head  and  tail
       labels.

       decorate draws line from edge to label.

       samehead,sametail  aim  edges  having  the  same value to the same port, using the average
       landing point.

       constraint=false causes an edge to be ignored for rank assignment.

       layer=id or id:id or "all" sets the edge's active  layers.   The  empty  string  means  no
       layers (invisible).

       (neato‐specific attributes)
       w=f  sets  the weight (spring constant) of an edge to the given floating point value.  The
       default is 1.0; greater values make the edge tend more toward its optimal length.

       len=f sets the optimal length of an edge.  The default is 1.0.

       (fdp‐specific attributes)
       weight=f sets the weight of an edge to the given floating point value. The default is 1.0;
       greater values make the edge tend more toward its optimal length.

COMMAND‐LINE OPTIONS

       -G sets a default graph attribute.
       -N sets a default node attribute.
       -E sets a default edge attribute.  Example: -Gsize="7,8" -Nshape=box -Efontsize=8

       -lfile  loads  custom  PostScript  library  files.   Usually these define custom shapes or
       styles.  If -l is given by itself, the standard library is omitted.

       -Tlang sets the output language as described above.

       -n[1|2] (no‐op) If set, neato assumes nodes have already been  positioned  and  all  nodes
       have  a  pos  attribute  giving the positions.  It then performs an optional adjustment to
       remove node‐node overlap, depending on the value of the overlap  attribute,  computes  the
       edge  layouts, depending on the value of the splines attribute, and emits the graph in the
       appropriate format.  If num is supplied, the following actions occur:
           num = 1
       Equivalent to -n.
           num > 1
       Use node positions as specified, with no adjustment to remove node‐node overlaps, and  use
       any  edge  layouts  already specified by the pos attribute.  neato computes an edge layout
       for any edge that does not have a pos attribute.  As usual, edge layout is guided  by  the
       splines attribute.

       -Klayout override the default layout engine implied by the command name.

       -O automatically generate output filenames based on the input filename and the -T format.

       -P generate a graph of the currently available plugins.

       -v (verbose) prints various information useful for debugging.

       -c configure plugins.

       -m memory test (observe no growth with top, kill when done).

       -qlevel set level of message suppression. The default is 1.

       -sfscale scale input by fscale, the default is 72.

       -y invert y coordinate in output.

       -V (version) prints version information and exits.

       -? prints the usage and exits.

       A   complete   description   of  the  available  command‐line  options  can  be  found  at
       http://www.graphviz.org/content/command-line-invocation.

EXAMPLES

       digraph test123 {
               a -> b -> c;
               a -> {x y};
               b [shape=box];
               c [label="hello\nworld",color=blue,fontsize=24,
                    fontname="Palatino-Italic",fontcolor=red,style=filled];
               a -> z [label="hi", weight=100];
               x -> z [label="multi-line\nlabel"];
               edge [style=dashed,color=red];
               b -> x;
               {rank=same; b x}
       }

       graph test123 {
               a -- b -- c;
               a -- {x y};
               x -- c [w=10.0];
               x -- y [w=5.0,len=3];
       }

CAVEATS

       Edge splines can overlap unintentionally.

       Flat edge labels are slightly broken.  Intercluster edge labels are totally broken.

       Because unconstrained optimization is employed, node boxes can possibly overlap  or  touch
       unrelated edges.  All existing spring embedders seem to have this limitation.

       Apparently  reasonable  attempts to pin nodes or adjust edge lengths and weights can cause
       instability.

AUTHORS

       Stephen C. North <north@research.att.com>
       Emden R. Gansner <erg@research.att.com>
       John C. Ellson <ellson@research.att.com>
       Yifan Hu <yifanhu@research.att.com>

       The bitmap driver (PNG, GIF etc) is by Thomas Boutell, <http://www.boutell.com/gd>

       The Truetype font renderer is from the Freetype Project (David Turner, Robert Wilhelm, and
       Werner Lemberg) (who can be contacted at freetype-devel@lists.lrz-muenchen.de).

SEE ALSO

       This  man  page  contains  only  a small amount of the information related to the Graphviz
       layout    programs.    The    most    complete    information    can    be    found     at
       http://www.graphviz.org/Documentation.php, especially in the on‐line reference pages. Most
       of these documents are also available in the doc and doc/info subtrees in the  source  and
       binary distributions.

       dotty(1),tcldot(n),xcolors(1),libgraph(3).

       E. R. Gansner, S. C. North,  K. P. Vo, "DAG ‐ A Program to Draw Directed Graphs", Software
       ‐ Practice and Experience 17(1), 1988, pp. 1047‐1062.
       E. R. Gansner, E. Koutsofios, S. C. North,  K. P. Vo, "A Technique  for  Drawing  Directed
       Graphs," IEEE Trans. on Soft. Eng. 19(3), 1993, pp. 214‐230.
       S.  North and E. Koutsofios, "Applications of graph visualization", Graphics Interface 94,
       pp. 234‐245.
       E.R. Gansner and E. Koutsofios and S. C. North, "Drawing Graphs with  dot,"  Available  at
       http://www.graphviz.org/pdf/dotguide.pdf.
       S. C. North, "NEATO User's Manual".  Available http://www.graphviz.org/pdf/neatoguide.pdf.

                                           12 July 2013                                    DOT(1)