Provided by: gmt_4.5.11-1build1_amd64 bug


       grdgradient  -  Compute directional derivative or gradient from 2-D grid file representing


       grdgradient  in_grdfile   -Gout_grdfile   [   -Aazim[/azim2]   ]   [   -D[c][o][n]   ]   [
       -E[s|p]azim/elev[/ambient/diffuse/specular/shine]    ]    [    -Lflag   ]   [   -M   ]   [
       -N[e][t][amp][/sigma[/offset]] ] [ -Sslopefile ] [ -V ]


       grdgradient may be used to compute the directional derivative in a given  direction  (-A),
       or the direction (-S) [and the magnitude (-D)] of the vector gradient of the data.
       Estimated values in the first/last row/column of output depend on boundary conditions (see

              2-D grid file from which to compute directional derivative.  (See GRID FILE FORMATS

       -G     Name  of  the  output  grid  file  for  the directional derivative.  (See GRID FILE
              FORMATS below).


       No space between the option flag and the associated arguments.

       -A     Azimuthal direction for a directional derivative; azim is  the  angle  in  the  x,y
              plane  measured  in degrees positive clockwise from north (the +y direction) toward
              east  (the  +x  direction).   The   negative   of   the   directional   derivative,
              -[dz/dx*sin(azim)  +  dz/dy*cos(azim)],  is  found; negation yields positive values
              when the slope of z(x,y) is downhill in the azim direction, the correct  sense  for
              shading  the  illumination of an image (see grdimage and grdview) by a light source
              above the x,y plane shining  from  the  azim  direction.   Optionally,  supply  two
              azimuths, -Aazim/azim2, in which case the gradients in each of these directions are
              calculated and the one  larger  in  magnitude  is  retained;  this  is  useful  for
              illuminating  data  with  two  directions  of  lineated  structures,  e.g., -A0/270
              illuminates from the north (top) and west (left).

       -D     Find the direction of the gradient of the data.  By  default,  the  directions  are
              measured  clockwise  from north, as azim in -A above.  Append c to use conventional
              Cartesian angles measured counterclockwise from the positive  x  (east)  direction.
              Append  o  to report orientations (0-180) rather than directions (0-360).  Append n
              to add 90 degrees to all angles (e.g., to give orientation of lineated features).

       -E     Compute Lambertian radiance appropriate to use  with  grdimage  and  grdview.   The
              Lambertian  Reflection  assumes  an  ideal surface that reflects all the light that
              strikes it and the surface appears equally  bright  from  all  viewing  directions.
              azim  and  elev  are  the azimuth and elevation of light vector. Optionally, supply
              ambient diffuse specular shine which are parameters that  control  the  reflectance
              properties  of  the  surface. Default values are: 0.55/ 0.6/0.4/10 To leave some of
              the values untouched, specify = as the new value.  For example  -E60/30/=/0.5  sets
              the  azim  elev  and  diffuse  to  60,  30 and 0.5 and leaves the other reflectance
              parameters untouched.  Append s to use a simpler Lambertian  algorithm.  Note  that
              with  this  form  you  only  have  to provide the azimuth and elevation parameters.
              Append p to use the Peucker piecewise linear   approximation  (simpler  but  faster
              algorithm;  in  this  case  the  azim and elev are hardwired to 315 and 45 degrees.
              This means that even if you provide other values they will be ignored.)

       -L     Boundary condition flag may be x or y or xy indicating data is periodic in range of
              x  or  y  or both, or flag may be g indicating geographical conditions (x and y are
              lon and lat).  [Default uses "natural" conditions (second partial derivative normal
              to edge is zero).]

       -M     By  default  the  units  of  grdgradient  are  in  units_of_z/  units_of_dx_and_dy.
              However,  the  user  may  choose  this  option  to  convert  dx,dy  in  degrees  of
              longitude,latitude   into   meters,  so  that  the  units  of  grdgradient  are  in

       -N     Normalization.  [Default:  no normalization.]  The actual gradients  g  are  offset
              and  scaled  to  produce normalized gradients gn with a maximum output magnitude of
              amp.  If amp is not given, default amp = 1.  If offset is not given, it is  set  to
              the average of g.  -N yields gn = amp * (g - offset)/max(abs(g
               -  offset)).  -Ne normalizes using a cumulative Laplace distribution yielding gn =
              amp * (1.0 - exp(sqrt(2) * (g - offset)/ sigma)) where sigma is estimated using the
              L1  norm  of  (g  - offset) if it is not given.   -Nt normalizes using a cumulative
              Cauchy distribution yielding gn = (2 * amp / PI) * atan( (g - offset)/ sigma) where
              sigma is estimated using the L2 norm of (g - offset) if it is not given.

       -S     Name  of  output grid file with scalar magnitudes of gradient vectors.  Requires -D
              but makes -G optional.

       -V     Selects verbose mode, which will send progress  reports  to  stderr  [Default  runs


       If  you  don't  know  what OPT(N) options to use to make an intensity file for grdimage or
       grdview, a good first try is -Ne 0.6.

       If you want to make several illuminated maps of subregions of a large data  set,  and  you
       need  the illumination effects to be consistent across all the maps, use the -N option and
       supply the same value of sigma and offset to grdgradient for each map.  A  good  guess  is
       offset = 0 and sigma found by grdinfo -L2 or -L1 applied to an unnormalized gradient grd.

       If you simply need the x- or y-derivatives of the grid, use grdmath.


       By  default  GMT  writes  out grid as single precision floats in a COARDS-complaint netCDF
       file format.  However, GMT is able to produce grid files in many other commonly used  grid
       file formats and also facilitates so called "packing" of grids, writing out floating point
       data as 2- or 4-byte integers. To specify the precision, scale and offset, the user should
       add  the  suffix =id[/scale/offset[/nan]], where id is a two-letter identifier of the grid
       type and precision, and scale and offset are  optional  scale  factor  and  offset  to  be
       applied  to  all  grid  values,  and nan is the value used to indicate missing data.  When
       reading grids, the format is generally automatically recognized. If not, the  same  suffix
       can  be  added  to  input grid file names.  See grdreformat(1) and Section 4.17 of the GMT
       Technical Reference and Cookbook for more information.

       When reading a netCDF file that contains multiple grids, GMT will read,  by  default,  the
       first  2-dimensional  grid  that  can  find in that file. To coax GMT into reading another
       multi-dimensional variable in the grid file, append  ?varname  to  the  file  name,  where
       varname  is the name of the variable. Note that you may need to escape the special meaning
       of ? in your shell program by putting a backslash in  front  of  it,  or  by  placing  the
       filename and suffix between quotes or double quotes.  The ?varname suffix can also be used
       for output grids to specify  a  variable  name  different  from  the  default:  "z".   See
       grdreformat(1)  and  Section  4.18  of  the  GMT Technical Reference and Cookbook for more
       information, particularly on how to read splices of 3-, 4-, or 5-dimensional grids.


       To make a file for illuminating the data in  geoid.grd  using  exp-  normalized  gradients
       imitating light sources in the north and west directions:

       grdgradient geoid.grd -A 0/270 -G gradients.grd -Ne0.6 -V

       To find the azimuth orientations of seafloor fabric in the file topo.grd:

       grdgradient topo.grd -Dno -G azimuths.grd -V


       Horn,  B.K.P., Hill-Shading and the Reflectance Map, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 69, No.
       1, January 1981, pp. 14-47. ( bkph/papers/Hill-Shading.pdf)


       GMT(1), gmtdefaults(1), grdhisteq(1), grdimage(1), grdview(1), grdvector(1)