Provided by: gmt_4.5.11-1build1_amd64 bug


       grdreformat - Converting between different grid file formats.


       grdreformat                                       ingrdfile[=id[/scale/offset[/NaNvalue]]]
       outgrdfile[=id[/scale/offset[/NaNvalue]]]  [  -N  ]  [  -Rwest/east/south/north[r]   ]   [
       -f[i|o]colinfo ] [ -V ]


       grdreformat reads a grid file in one format and writes it out using another format.  As an
       option the user may select a subset of the data to be  written  and  to  specify  scaling,
       translation, and NaN-value.

              The  grid  file  to  be  read.   Append  format  =id code if not a standard COARDS-
              compliant netCDF grid file.  If =id is set (see below), you may  optionally  append
              scale  and offset.  These options will scale the data and then offset them with the
              specified amounts after reading.
              If scale and offset are supplied you may also append a value that represents  'Not-
              a-Number' (for floating-point grids this is unnecessary since the IEEE NaN is used;
              however integers need a value which means no data available.)

              The grid file to be written.  Append format =id code  if  not  a  standard  COARDS-
              compliant  netCDF  grid file.  If =id is set (see below), you may optionally append
              scale and offset.  These options are particularly practical when storing  the  data
              as  integers, first removing an offset and then scaling down the values.  Since the
              scale and offset are applied in reverse order when reading, this  does  not  affect
              the data values (except for round-offs).
              If  scale and offset are supplied you may also append a value that represents 'Not-
              a-Number' (for floating-point grids this is unnecessary since the IEEE NaN is used;
              however integers need a value which means no data available.)


       -N     Suppress  the writing of the GMT header structure.  This is useful when you want to
              write a native grid to be used by grdraster.  It only applies to native  grids  and
              is ignored for netCDF output.

       -R     xmin, xmax, ymin, and ymax specify the Region of interest.  For geographic regions,
              these limits correspond to west, east, south, and north and you may specify them in
              decimal  degrees  or in [+-]dd:mm[][W|E|S|N] format.  Append r if lower left
              and upper right map coordinates are given instead of w/e/s/n.  The  two  shorthands
              -Rg and -Rd stand for global domain (0/360 and -180/+180 in longitude respectively,
              with -90/+90 in latitude).  Alternatively, specify the name  of  an  existing  grid
              file  and  the  -R  settings  (and grid spacing, if applicable) are copied from the
              grid.  For calendar  time  coordinates  you  may  either  give  (a)  relative  time
              (relative  to  the  selected  TIME_EPOCH and in the selected TIME_UNIT; append t to
              -JX|x), or (b) absolute time of the form [date]T[clock] (append T  to  -JX|x).   At
              least  one  of  date and clock must be present; the T is always required.  The date
              string must be of the form [-]yyyy[-mm[-dd]] (Gregorian calendar) or yyyy[-Www[-d]]
              (ISO  week  calendar),  while  the clock string must be of the form hh:mm:ss[.xxx].
              The use of delimiters and their type and positions must  be  exactly  as  indicated
              (however, input, output and plot formats are customizable; see gmtdefaults).

       -V     Selects  verbose  mode,  which  will  send progress reports to stderr [Default runs

       -f     Special formatting of input and/or output  columns  (time  or  geographical  data).
              Specify  i  or  o  to  make  this apply only to input or output [Default applies to
              both].  Give one or more columns (or column ranges) separated by commas.  Append  T
              (absolute calendar time), t (relative time in chosen TIME_UNIT since TIME_EPOCH), x
              (longitude), y (latitude), or f (floating point) to each  column  or  column  range
              item.  Shorthand -f[i|o]g means -f[i|o]0x,1y (geographic coordinates).


       By  default, grids will be written as floating point data stored in binary files using the
       netCDF format and meta-data structure. This format is conform the COARDS conventions.  GMT
       versions  prior  to  4.1  produced netCDF files that did not conform to these conventions.
       Although these files are still supported, their use is deprecated.  To  write  other  than
       floating  point  COARDS-compliant  netCDF  files,  append  the  =id suffix to the filename
       When reading files, grdreformat and other GMT programs will  automatically  recognize  any
       type  of  netCDF grid file. These can be in either COARDS-compliant or pre-4.1 format, and
       contain floating-point or integer data. To read other types of grid files, append the  =id
       suffix to the filename ingrdfile.

       id   GMT 3 netCDF legacy formats
       cb   GMT netCDF format (byte) (deprecated)
       cs   GMT netCDF format (short) (deprecated)
       ci   GMT netCDF format (int) (deprecated)
       cf   GMT netCDF format (float) (deprecated)
       cd   GMT netCDF format (double) (deprecated)

       id   GMT native binary formats
       bm   GMT native, C-binary format (bit-mask)
       bb   GMT native, C-binary format (byte)
       bs   GMT native, C-binary format (short)
       bi   GMT native, C-binary format (int)
       bf   GMT native, C-binary format (float)
       bd   GMT native, C-binary format (double)

       id   GMT 4 netCDF standard
       nb   GMT netCDF format (byte)   (COARDS-compliant)
       ns   GMT netCDF format (short)  (COARDS-compliant)
       ni   GMT netCDF format (int)    (COARDS-compliant)
       nf   GMT netCDF format (float)  (COARDS-compliant) [DEFAULT]
       nd   GMT netCDF format (double) (COARDS-compliant)

       id   Misc formats
       rb   SUN rasterfile format (8-bit standard)
       rf   GEODAS grid format GRD98 (NGDC)
       sf   Golden Software Surfer format 6 (float)
       sd   Golden Software Surfer format 7 (double, read-only)
       af   Atlantic Geoscience Center format AGC (float)
       gd   Import through GDAL (convert to float) -- NON-STANDARD


       The  standard  format  used  for  grdfiles  is  based on netCDF and conforms to the COARDS
       conventions. Files written in this format can be read by numerous third-party programs and
       are  platform-independent.  Some  disk-space  can be saved by storing the data as bytes or
       shorts in stead of integers. Use the scale and offset parameters to make this work without
       loss of data range or significance. For more details, see Appendix B.

       Multi-variable grid files
       By  default,  GMT  programs  will read the first 2-dimensional grid contained in a COARDS-
       compliant netCDF file.  Alternatively, use ingrdfile?varname (ahead of any optional suffix
       =id)  to  specify  the  requested  variable  varname.   Since  ?  has special meaning as a
       wildcard, escape this meaning by placing the full filename and suffix between quotes.

       Multi-dimensional grids
       To extract one layer or level from a  3-dimensional  grid  stored  in  a  COARDS-compliant
       netCDF  file, append both the name of the variable and the index associated with the layer
       (starting at zero) in the  form:  ingrdfile?varname[layer].   Alternatively,  specify  the
       value   associated   with   that   layer   using   parentheses   in   stead  of  brackets:
       In a similar way layers can be extracted from 4- or even 5-dimensional grids. For example,
       if  a  grid has the dimensions (parameter, time, depth, latitude, longitude), a map can be
       selected by using: ingridfile?varname(parameter,time,depth).
       Since question marks, brackets and parentheses have special meanings on the command  line,
       escape these meanings by placing the full filename and suffix between quotes.


       For  binary native GMT files the size of the GMT grdheader block is hsize = 892 bytes, and
       the total size of the file is hsize + nx * ny * item_size, where item_size is the size  in
       bytes of each element (1, 2, 4).  Bit grids are stored using 4-byte integers, each holding
       32 bits, so for these files the size equation is modified by using ceil  (nx  /  32)  *  4
       instead  of  nx.   Note  that  these files are platform-dependent. Files written on Little
       Endian machines  (e.g.,  PCs)  can  not  be  read  on  Big  Endian  machines  (e.g.,  most
       workstations).   Also  note  that  it  is  not possible for GMT to determine uniquely if a
       4-byte grid is float or int; in such cases it is best to use the =ID mechanism to  specify
       the  file  format.  In all cases a native grid is considered to be signed (i.e., there are
       no provision for unsigned short ints or unsigned bytes).  For header and grid details, see
       Appendix B.


       Regardless  of  the  precision of the input data, GMT programs that create grid files will
       internally hold the grids in 4-byte floating point  arrays.   This  is  done  to  conserve
       memory and furthermore most if not all real data can be stored using 4-byte floating point
       values.  Data with higher  precision  (i.e.,  double  precision  values)  will  lose  that
       precision  once  GMT  operates  on  the  grid  or  writes out new grids.  To limit loss of
       precision when processing data you should always consider normalizing the  data  prior  to


       To  extract  the second layer from a 3-dimensional grid named temp from a COARDS-compliant
       netCDF file climate.grd:

       grdreformat climate.grd?temp[1] temp.grd -V

       To create a 4-byte native floating  point  grid  from  the  COARDS-compliant  netCDF  file

       grdreformat data.grd ras_data.b4=bf -V

       To  make  a  2-byte  short  integer  file, scale it by 10, subtract 32000, setting NaNs to
       -9999, do

       grdreformat values.grd shorts.i2=bs/10/-32000/-9999 -V

       To create a Sun standard 8-bit rasterfile  for  a  subset  of  the  data  file  image.grd,
       assuming the range in image.grd is 0-1 and we need 0-255, run

       grdreformat image.grd -R-60/-40/-40/-30 image.ras8=rb/255/0 -V

       To convert etopo2.grd to etopo2.i2 that can be used by grdraster, try

       grdreformat etopo2.grd etopo2.i2=bs -N -V


       GMT(1), grdmath(1)