Provided by: graphviz_2.36.0-0ubuntu3_amd64 bug

NAME

       gvpr - graph pattern scanning and processing language

SYNOPSIS

       gvpr [-icnqV?]  [ -o outfile ] [ -a args ] [ 'prog' | -f progfile ] [ files ]

DESCRIPTION

       gvpr  (previously known as gpr) is a graph stream editor inspired by awk.  It copies input
       graphs to its output, possibly transforming their structure and attributes,  creating  new
       graphs,  or  printing  arbitrary  information.   The  graph  model  is  that  provided  by
       libcgraph(3).  In particular, gvpr reads and writes graphs using the dot language.

       Basically, gvpr traverses each input graph, denoted by $G, visiting each  node  and  edge,
       matching  it with the predicate‐action rules supplied in the input program.  The rules are
       evaluated in order.  For each predicate evaluating to true, the  corresponding  action  is
       performed.  During the traversal, the current node or edge being visited is denoted by $.

       For  each input graph, there is a target subgraph, denoted by $T, initially empty and used
       to accumulate chosen entities, and an output graph, $O, used for final processing and then
       written  to  output.   By default, the output graph is the target graph.  The output graph
       can be set in the program or, in a limited sense, on the command line.

OPTIONS

       The following options are supported:

       -a args
              The string args is split into  whitespace‐separated  tokens,  with  the  individual
              tokens  available  as  strings  in  the  gvpr  program as ARGV[0],...,ARGV[ARGC-1].
              Whitespace characters within single or double quoted substrings, or preceded  by  a
              backslash,  are ignored as separators.  In general, a backslash character turns off
              any special meaning of the following character.  Note that the tokens derived  from
              multiple -a flags are concatenated.

       -c     Use the source graph as the output graph.

       -i     Derive  the  node‐induced  subgraph extension of the output graph in the context of
              its root graph.

       -o outfile
              Causes the output stream to be written to the specified file; by default, output is
              written to stdout.

       -f progfile
              Use  the  contents of the specified file as the program to execute on the input. If
              progfile contains a slash character, the name is taken as the pathname of the file.
              Otherwise,  gvpr  will  use  the  directories specified in the environment variable
              GVPRPATH to look for the file. If -f is not given, gvpr will  use  the  first  non‐
              option argument as the program.

       -q     Turns off warning messages.

       -n     Turns  off  graph read-ahead. By default, the variable $NG is set to the next graph
              to be processed. This requires a read of  the  next  graph  before  processing  the
              current  graph,  which may block if the next graph is only generated in response to
              some action pertaining to the processing of the current graph.

       -V     Causes the program to print version information and exit.

       -?     Causes the program to print usage information and exit.

OPERANDS

       The following operand is supported:

       files   Names of files containing 1 or more graphs in the dot language.  If no  -f  option
               is  given,  the first name is removed from the list and used as the input program.
               If the list of files is empty, stdin will be used.

PROGRAMS

       A gvpr program consists of a list of predicate‐action clauses, having one of the forms:

              BEGIN { action }

              BEG_G { action }

              N [ predicate ] { action }

              E [ predicate ] { action }

              END_G { action }

              END { action }

       A program can contain at most one of each of the BEGIN, END_G and END clauses.  There  can
       be  any  number  of  BEG_G, N and E statements, the first applied to graphs, the second to
       nodes, the third to edges.  These are separated into blocks,  a  block  consisting  of  an
       optional  BEG_G  statement  and  all N and E statements up to the next BEG_G statement, if
       any.  The top‐level semantics of a gvpr program are:

              Evaluate the BEGIN clause, if any.
              For each input graph G {
                  For each block {
                      Set G as the current graph and current object.
                      Evaluate the BEG_G clause, if any.
                      For each node and edge in G {
                          Set the node or edge as the current object.
                          Evaluate the N or E clauses, as appropriate.
                      }
                  }
                  Set G as the current object.
                  Evaluate the END_G clause, if any.
              }
              Evaluate the END clause, if any.

       The actions of the BEGIN, BEG_G, END_G and END clauses are performed when the clauses  are
       evaluated.   For  N or E clauses, either the predicate or action may be omitted.  If there
       is no predicate with an action, the  action  is  performed  on  every  node  or  edge,  as
       appropriate.   If  there  is no action and the predicate evaluates to true, the associated
       node or edge is added to the target graph.

       The blocks are evaluated in the order in which they occur.  Within a block, the N  clauses
       (E  clauses,  respectively)  are  evaluated in the order in which the occur. Note, though,
       that within a block, N or E clauses may be interlaced, depending on the traversal order.

       Predicates and actions are sequences of statements in  the  C  dialect  supported  by  the
       expr(3)  library.   The  only difference between predicates and actions is that the former
       must have a type that may  interpreted  as  either  true  or  false.   Here  the  usual  C
       convention  is  followed, in which a non‐zero value is considered true. This would include
       non‐empty strings and non‐empty references to nodes, edges, etc. However, if a string  can
       be converted to an integer, this value is used.

       In addition to the usual C base types (void, int, char, float, long, unsigned and double),
       gvpr provides string as a synonym for char*, and the  graph‐based  types  node_t,  edge_t,
       graph_t  and  obj_t.   The obj_t type can be viewed as a supertype of the other 3 concrete
       types; the correct base type is maintained dynamically.  Besides  these  base  types,  the
       only other supported type expressions are (associative) arrays.

       Constants  follow  C  syntax,  but strings may be quoted with either "..." or '...'.  gvpr
       accepts C++ comments as well as cpp‐type comments.  For the latter, if a line begins  with
       a '#' character, the rest of the line is ignored.

       A  statement  can be a declaration of a function, a variable or an array, or an executable
       statement. For declarations, there is a single scope. Array declarations have the form:

               type array [ type0 ]

       where  type0  is optional. If it is supplied, the  parser  will  enforce  that  all  array
       subscripts  have  the  specified  type. If it is not supplied, objects of all types can be
       used as subscripts.  As in C, variables and arrays must be  declared.  In  particular,  an
       undeclared  variable  will  be  interpreted as the name of an attribute of a node, edge or
       graph, depending on the context.

       Executable statements can be one of the following:

              { [ statement ... ] }
              expression                                              // commonly var = expression
              if( expression ) statement [ else statement ]
              for( expression ; expression ; expression ) statement
              for( array [ var ]) statement
              forr( array [ var ]) statement
              while( expression ) statement
              switch( expression ) case statements
              break [ expression ]
              continue [ expression ]
              return [ expression ]
       Items in brackets are optional.

       In the second form of the for statement and the forr statement, the variable var is set to
       each  value  used  as an index in the specified array and then the associated statement is
       evaluated. For numeric  and  string  indices,  the  indices  are  returned  in  increasing
       (decreasing) numeric or lexicographic order for for (forr, respectively). This can be used
       for sorting.

       Function definitions can only appear in the BEGIN clause.

       Expressions include the usual C expressions.  String comparisons using == and != treat the
       right  hand operand as a pattern for the purpose of regular expression matching.  Patterns
       use ksh(1) file match pattern  syntax.   (For  simple  string  equality,  use  the  strcmp
       function.

       gvpr  will  attempt to use an expression as a string or numeric value as appropriate. Both
       C-like casts and function templates will cause conversions to be performed, if possible.

       Expressions of graphical type (i.e., graph_t, node_t, edge_t, obj_t) may be followed by  a
       field  reference  in  the form of .name. The resulting value is the value of the attribute
       named name of  the  given  object.   In  addition,  in  certain  contexts  an  undeclared,
       unmodified  identifier  is  taken  to be an attribute name. Specifically, such identifiers
       denote attributes of the current node or edge, respectively, in N and E clauses,  and  the
       current graph in BEG_G and END_G clauses.

       As  usual  in  the  libcgraph(3)  model,  attributes are string‐valued.  In addition, gvpr
       supports certain pseudo‐attributes of graph objects, not necessarily string‐valued.  These
       reflect intrinsic properties of the graph objects and cannot be set by the user.

       head : node_t
              the head of an edge.

       tail : node_t
              the tail of an edge.

       name : string
              the  name  of  an  edge,  node  or  graph. The name of an edge has the form "<tail‐
              name><edge‐op><head‐name>[<key>]", where <edge‐op> is "->"  or  "--"  depending  on
              whether  the graph is directed or not. The bracket part [<key>] only appears if the
              edge has a non‐trivial key.

       indegree : int
              the indegree of a node.

       outdegree : int
              the outdegree of a node.

       degree : int
              the degree of a node.

       root : graph_t
              the root graph of an object. The root of a root graph is itself.

       parent : graph_t
              the parent graph of a subgraph. The parent of a root graph is NULL

       n_edges : int
              the number of edges in the graph

       n_nodes : int
              the number of nodes in the graph

       directed : int
              true (non‐zero) if the graph is directed

       strict : int
              true (non‐zero) if the graph is strict

BUILT‐IN FUNCTIONS

       The following functions are built into gvpr. Those functions returning references to graph
       objects return NULL in case of failure.

   Graphs and subgraph
       graph(s : string, t : string) : graph_t
              creates  a  graph  whose  name  is  s  and whose type is specified by the string t.
              Ignoring case, the characters U,  D,  S,  N  have  the  interpretation  undirected,
              directed,  strict,  and  non‐strict,  respectively. If t is empty, a directed, non‐
              strict graph is generated.

       subg(g : graph_t, s : string) : graph_t
              creates a subgraph in graph g with name s. If the subgraph already  exists,  it  is
              returned.

       isSubg(g : graph_t, s : string) : graph_t
              returns the subgraph in graph g with name s, if it exists, or NULL otherwise.

       fstsubg(g : graph_t) : graph_t
              returns the first subgraph in graph g, or NULL if none exists.

       nxtsubg(sg : graph_t) : graph_t
              returns the next subgraph after sg, or NULL.

       isDirect(g : graph_t) : int
              returns true if and only if g is directed.

       isStrict(g : graph_t) : int
              returns true if and only if g is strict.

       nNodes(g : graph_t) : int
              returns the number of nodes in g.

       nEdges(g : graph_t) : int
              returns the number of edges in g.

   Nodes
       node(sg : graph_t, s : string) : node_t
              creates a node in graph g of name s. If such a node already exists, it is returned.

       subnode(sg : graph_t, n : node_t) : node_t
              inserts the node n into the subgraph g. Returns the node.

       fstnode(g : graph_t) : node_t
              returns the first node in graph g, or NULL if none exists.

       nxtnode(n : node_t) : node_t
              returns the next node after n in the root graph, or NULL.

       nxtnode_sg(sg : graph_t, n : node_t) : node_t
              returns the next node after n in sg, or NULL.

       isNode(sg : graph_t, s : string) : node_t
              looks for a node in (sub)graph sg of name s. If such a node exists, it is returned.
              Otherwise, NULL is returned.

       isSubnode(sg : graph_t, n : node_t) : int
              returns non-zero if node n is in (sub)graph sg, or zero otherwise.

       indegreeOf(sg : graph_t, n : node_t) : int
              returns the indegree of node n in (sub)graph sg.

       outdegreeOf(sg : graph_t, n : node_t) : int
              returns the outdegree of node n in (sub)graph sg.

       degreeOf(sg : graph_t, n : node_t) : int
              returns the degree of node n in (sub)graph sg.

   Edges
       edge(t : node_t, h : node_t, s : string) : edge_t
              creates an edge with tail node t, head node h and name s in the root graph. If  the
              graph  is  undirected,  the distinction between head and tail nodes is unimportant.
              If such an edge already exists, it is returned.

       edge_sg(sg : graph_t, t : node_t, h : node_t, s : string) : edge_t
              creates an edge with tail node t, head node h and name s in (sub)graph sg (and  all
              parent  graphs).  If the graph is undirected, the distinction between head and tail
              nodes is unimportant.  If such an edge already exists, it is returned.

       subedge(g : graph_t, e : edge_t) : edge_t
              inserts the edge e into the subgraph g. Returns the edge.

       isEdge(t : node_t, h : node_t, s : string) : edge_t
              looks for an edge with tail node t, head node  h  and  name  s.  If  the  graph  is
              undirected, the distinction between head and tail nodes is unimportant.  If such an
              edge exists, it is returned. Otherwise, NULL is returned.

       isEdge_sg(sg : graph_t, t : node_t, h : node_t, s : string) : edge_t
              looks for an edge with tail node t, head node h and name s in (sub)graph sg. If the
              graph  is  undirected,  the distinction between head and tail nodes is unimportant.
              If such an edge exists, it is returned. Otherwise, NULL is returned.

       isSubedge(g : graph_t, e : edge_t) : int
              returns non-zero if edge e is in (sub)graph sg, or zero otherwise.

       fstout(n : node_t) : edge_t
              returns the first outedge of node n in the root graph.

       fstout_sg(sg : graph_t, n : node_t) : edge_t
              returns the first outedge of node n in (sub)graph sg.

       nxtout(e : edge_t) : edge_t
              returns the next outedge after e in the root graph.

       nxtout_sg(sg : graph_t, e : edge_t) : edge_t
              returns the next outedge after e in graph sg.

       fstin(n : node_t) : edge_t
              returns the first inedge of node n in the root graph.

       fstin_sg(sg : graph_t, n : node_t) : edge_t
              returns the first inedge of node n in graph sg.

       nxtin(e : edge_t) : edge_t
              returns the next inedge after e in the root graph.

       nxtin_sg(sg : graph_t, e : edge_t) : edge_t
              returns the next inedge after e in graph sg.

       fstedge(n : node_t) : edge_t
              returns the first edge of node n in the root graph.

       fstedge_sg(sg : graph_t, n : node_t) : edge_t
              returns the first edge of node n in graph sg.

       nxtedge(e : edge_t, node_t) : edge_t
              returns the next edge after e in the root graph.

       nxtedge_sg(sg : graph_t, e : edge_t, node_t) : edge_t
              returns the next edge after e in the graph sg.

       opp(e : edge_t, node_t) : node_t
              returns the node on the edge e not equal to n.  Returns NULL if n is not a node  of
              e.  This can be useful when using fstedge and nxtedge to enumerate the neighbors of
              n.

   Graph I/O
       write(g : graph_t) : void
              prints g in dot format onto the output stream.

       writeG(g : graph_t, fname : string) : void
              prints g in dot format into the file fname.

       fwriteG(g : graph_t, fd : int) : void
              prints g in dot format onto the open stream denoted by the integer fd.

       readG(fname : string) : graph_t
              returns a graph read from the file fname. The graph should be in dot format. If  no
              graph can be read, NULL is returned.

       freadG(fd : int) : graph_t
              returns the next graph read from the open stream fd.  Returns NULL at end of file.

   Graph miscellany
       delete(g : graph_t, x : obj_t) : void
              deletes  object  x from graph g.  If g is NULL, the function uses the root graph of
              x.  If x is a graph or subgraph, it is closed unless x is locked.

       isIn(g : graph_t, x : obj_t) : int
              returns true if x is in subgraph g.

       cloneG(g : graph_t, s : string) : graph_t
              creates a clone of graph g with name of s.  If s is "", the created graph  has  the
              same name as g.

       clone(g : graph_t, x : obj_t) : obj_t
              creates a clone of object x in graph g.  In particular, the new object has the same
              name/value attributes and structure as the original object.  If an object with  the
              same  key  as  x  already exists, its attributes are overlaid by those of x and the
              object is returned.  If an edge is cloned, both endpoints  are  implicitly  cloned.
              If  a  graph is cloned, all nodes, edges and subgraphs are implicitly cloned.  If x
              is a graph, g may be NULL, in which case the cloned  object  will  be  a  new  root
              graph. In this case, the call is equivalent to cloneG(x,"").

       copy(g : graph_t, x : obj_t) : obj_t
              creates a copy of object x in graph g, where the new object has the same name/value
              attributes as the original object.  If an object with the same  key  as  x  already
              exists, its attributes are overlaid by those of x and the object is returned.  Note
              that this is a shallow copy. If x is a graph, none of its nodes, edges or subgraphs
              are  copied  into  the  new  graph.  If  x is an edge, the endpoints are created if
              necessary, but they are not cloned.  If x is a graph, g may be NULL, in which  case
              the cloned object will be a new root graph.

       copyA(src : obj_t, tgt : obj_t) : int
              copies the attributes of object src to object tgt, overwriting any attribute values
              tgt may initially have.

       induce(g : graph_t) : void
              extends g to its node‐induced subgraph extension in its root graph.

       hasAttr(src : obj_t, name : string) : int
              returns non-zero if object src has an attribute whose name is name.  It  returns  0
              otherwise.

       isAttr(g : graph_t, kind : string, name : string) : int
              returns  non-zero  if  an  attribute  name has been defined in g for objects of the
              given kind. For nodes, edges, and  graphs,  kind  should  be  "N",  "E",  and  "G",
              respectively.  It returns 0 otherwise.

       aget(src : obj_t, name : string) : string
              returns  the  value of attribute name in object src. This is useful for those cases
              when name conflicts with one of the keywords such as  "head"  or  "root".   If  the
              attribute  has not been declared in the graph, the function will initialize it with
              a default value of "". To avoid this, one should use the hasAttr or isAttr function
              to check that the attribute exists.

       aset(src : obj_t, name : string, value : string) : int
              sets  the  value  of  attribute name in object src to value.  Returns 0 on success,
              non‐zero on failure. See aget above.

       getDflt(g : graph_t, kind : string, name : string) : string
              returns the default value of attribute name in objects in g of the given kind.  For
              nodes,  edges,  and graphs, kind should be "N", "E", and "G", respectively.  If the
              attribute has not been declared in the graph, the function will initialize it  with
              a  default  value of "". To avoid this, one should use the isAttr function to check
              that the attribute exists.

       setDflt(g : graph_t, kind : string, name : string, value : string) : int
              sets the default value of attribute name to value in objects  in  g  of  the  given
              kind. For nodes, edges, and graphs, kind should be "N", "E", and "G", respectively.
              Returns 0 on success, non‐zero on failure. See getDflt above.

       fstAttr(g : graph_t, kind : string) : string
              returns the name of the first attribute of objects in g  of  the  given  kind.  For
              nodes, edges, and graphs, kind should be "N", "E", and "G", respectively.  If there
              are no attributes, the string "" is returned.

       nxtAttr(g : graph_t, kind : string, name : string) : string
              returns the name of the next attribute of objects in g of the given kind after  the
              attribute  name.   The  argument name must be the name of an existing attribute; it
              will typically be the return value of an previous call to fstAttr or nxtAttr.   For
              nodes, edges, and graphs, kind should be "N", "E", and "G", respectively.  If there
              are no attributes left, the string "" is returned.

       compOf(g : graph_t, n : node_t) : graph_t
              returns the connected component of the graph g containing node n, as a subgraph  of
              g.  The  subgraph only contains the nodes. One can use induce to add the edges. The
              function fails and returns NULL if n is not in g.  Connectivity  is  based  on  the
              underlying undirected graph of g.

       kindOf(obj : obj_t) : string
              returns an indication of the type of obj.  For nodes, edges, and graphs, it returns
              "N", "E", and "G", respectively.

       lock(g : graph_t, v : int) : int
              implements graph locking on root graphs. If the integer v is positive, the graph is
              set  so  that  future  calls to delete have no immediate effect.  If v is zero, the
              graph is unlocked. If there has been a call  to  delete  the  graph  while  it  was
              locked, the graph is closed.  If v is negative, nothing is done.  In all cases, the
              previous lock value is returned.

   Strings
       sprintf(fmt : string, ...) : string
              returns the  string  resulting  from  formatting  the  values  of  the  expressions
              occurring after fmt according to the printf(3) format fmt

       gsub(str : string, pat : string) : string

       gsub(str : string, pat : string, repl : string) : string
              returns  str  with  all  substrings  matching  pat  deleted  or  replaced  by repl,
              respectively.

       sub(str : string, pat : string) : string

       sub(str : string, pat : string, repl : string) : string
              returns str with the leftmost substring matching pat deleted or replaced  by  repl,
              respectively.  The  characters  '^'  and  '$' may be used at the beginning and end,
              respectively, of pat to anchor the pattern to the beginning or end of str.

       substr(str : string, idx : int) : string

       substr(str : string, idx : int, len : int) : string
              returns the substring of str starting at position idx to the end of the  string  or
              of  length  len,  respectively.  Indexing starts at 0. If idx is negative or idx is
              greater than the length of str, a fatal error  occurs.  Similarly,  in  the  second
              case,  if  len  is negative or idx + len is greater than the length of str, a fatal
              error occurs.

       strcmp(s1 : string, s2 : string) : int
              provides the standard C function strcmp(3).

       length(s : string) : int
              returns the length of string s.

       index(s : string, t : string) : int

       rindex(s : string, t : string) : int
              returns the index of the character in string s where the leftmost (rightmost)  copy
              of string t can be found, or -1 if t is not a substring of s.

       match(s : string, p : string) : int
              returns  the index of the character in string s where the leftmost match of pattern
              p can be found, or -1 if no substring of s matches p.

       toupper(s : string) : string
              returns a version of s with the alphabetic characters converted to upper-case.

       tolower(s : string) : string
              returns a version of s with the alphabetic characters converted to lower-case.

       canon(s : string) : string
              returns a version of s appropriate to be used as an identifier in a dot file.

       html(g : graph_t, s : string) : string
              returns a ``magic'' version  of s as an HTML string. This will typically be used to
              attach an HTML-like label to a graph object. Note that the returned string lives in
              g. In particular, it will be freed when g is closed, and to act as an HTML  string,
              it  has  to  be  used with an object of g. In addition, note that the angle bracket
              quotes should not be part of s. These will be added if g is written in concrete DOT
              format.

       ishtml(s : string) : int
              returns non-zero if and only if s is an HTML string.

       xOf(s : string) : string
              returns the string "x" if s has the form "x,y", where both x and y are numeric.

       yOf(s : string) : string
              returns the string "y" if s has the form "x,y", where both x and y are numeric.

       llOf(s : string) : string
              returns the string "llx,lly" if s has the form "llx,lly,urx,ury", where all of llx,
              lly, urx, and ury are numeric.

       urOf(s)
              urOf(s : string)  :  string  returns  the  string  "urx,ury"  if  s  has  the  form
              "llx,lly,urx,ury", where all of llx, lly, urx, and ury are numeric.

       sscanf(s : string, fmt : string, ...) : int
              scans  the  string s, extracting values according to the sscanf(3) format fmt.  The
              values are stored in the addresses following fmt, addresses  having  the  form  &v,
              where v is some declared variable of the correct type.  Returns the number of items
              successfully scanned.

       split(s : string, arr : array, seps : string) : int

       split(s : string, arr : array) : int

       tokens(s : string, arr : array, seps : string) : int

       tokens(s : string, arr : array) : int
              The split function breaks the string s  into  fields,  while  the  tokens  function
              breaks  the  string  into tokens.  A field consists of all non-separator characters
              between two separator characters or the beginning or end of  the  string.  Thus,  a
              field  may  be  the  empty  string.  A  token is a maximal, non-empty substring not
              containing a separator character.  The separator characters are those given in  the
              seps  argument.   If  seps  is  not  provided,  the  default value is " \t\n".  The
              functions return the number of fields or tokens.

              The fields and tokens are stored in the argument array. The array must  be  string-
              valued  and, if an index type is specified, it must be int. The entries are indexed
              by consecutive integers, starting at 0. Any values already stored in the array will
              be either overwritten, or still be present after the function returns.

   I/O
       print(...) : void
              print(  expr,  ...  )  prints a string representation of each argument in turn onto
              stdout, followed by a newline.

       printf(fmt : string, ...) : int

       printf(fd : int, fmt : string, ...) : int
              prints the string resulting from formatting the values of the expressions following
              fmt  according  to the printf(3) format fmt.  Returns 0 on success.  By default, it
              prints on stdout.  If the optional integer fd is given, output is  written  on  the
              open stream associated with fd.

       scanf(fmt : string, ...) : int

       scanf(fd : int, fmt : string, ...) : int
              scans  in  values  from  an input stream according to the scanf(3) format fmt.  The
              values are stored in the addresses following fmt, addresses  having  the  form  &v,
              where  v  is some declared variable of the correct type.  By default, it reads from
              stdin.  If the optional integer fd is given, input is read  from  the  open  stream
              associated with fd.  Returns the number of items successfully scanned.

       openF(s : string, t : string) : int
              opens  the file s as an I/O stream. The string argument t specifies how the file is
              opened. The arguments are the same as for the C function fopen(3).  It  returns  an
              integer denoting the stream, or -1 on error.

              As  usual,  streams  0,  1  and  2  are  already open as stdin, stdout, and stderr,
              respectively. Since gvpr may use stdin to read the input graphs,  the  user  should
              avoid using this stream.

       closeF(fd : int) : int
              closes  the  open  stream denoted by the integer fd.  Streams  0, 1 and 2 cannot be
              closed.  Returns 0 on success.

       readL(fd : int) : string
              returns the next line read from the input stream fd. It returns the empty string ""
              on end of file. Note that the newline character is left in the returned string.

   Math
       exp(d : double) : double
              returns e to the dth power.

       log(d : double) : double
              returns the natural log of d.

       sqrt(d : double) : double
              returns the square root of the double d.

       pow(d : double, x : double) : double
              returns d raised to the xth power.

       cos(d : double) : double
              returns the cosine of d.

       sin(d : double) : double
              returns the sine of d.

       atan2(y : double, x : double) : double
              returns the arctangent of y/x in the range -pi to pi.

       MIN(y : double, x : double) : double
              returns the minimum of y and x.

       MAX(y : double, x : double) : double
              returns the maximum of y and x.

   Associative Arrays
       # arr : int
              returns the number of elements in the array arr.

       idx in arr : int
              returns  1  if  a  value has been set for index idx in the array arr.  It returns 0
              otherwise.

       unset(v : array, idx) : int
              removes the item indexed by idx. It returns 1 if the item existed, 0 otherwise.

       unset(v : array) : void
              re-initializes the array.

   Miscellaneous
       exit(v : int) : void
              causes gvpr to exit with the exit code v.

       system(cmd : string) : int
              provides the standard C function system(3).  It executes cmd in  the  user's  shell
              environment, and returns the exit status of the shell.

       rand() : double
              returns a pseudo‐random double between 0 and 1.

       srand() : int

       srand(v : int) : int
              sets  a seed for the random number generator. The optional argument gives the seed;
              if it is omitted, the current time is used. The previous seed  value  is  returned.
              srand should be called before any calls to rand.

       colorx(color : string, fmt : string) : string
              translates a color from one format to another. The color argument should be a color
              in one of the recognized string representations. The fmt value  should  be  one  of
              "RGB", "RGBA", "HSV", or "HSVA".  An empty string is returned on error.

BUILT‐IN VARIABLES

       gvpr  provides  certain special, built‐in variables, whose values are set automatically by
       gvpr depending on the context. Except as noted, the user cannot modify their values.

       $ : obj_t
              denotes the current object (node, edge, graph) depending on the context.  It is not
              available in BEGIN or END clauses.

       $F : string
              is the name of the current input file.

       $G : graph_t
              denotes  the  current  graph  being  processed. It is not available in BEGIN or END
              clauses.

       $NG : graph_t
              denotes the next graph to be processed. If $NG is NULL, the current graph $G is the
              last  graph.  Note  that  if  the  input comes from stdin, the last graph cannot be
              determined until the input pipe is closed.  It is not available  in  BEGIN  or  END
              clauses, or if the -n flag is used.

       $O : graph_t
              denotes  the  output graph. Before graph traversal, it is initialized to the target
              graph. After traversal and any END_G actions, if it refers to  a  non‐empty  graph,
              that  graph  is printed onto the output stream.  It is only valid in N, E and END_G
              clauses.  The output graph may be set by the user.

       $T : graph_t
              denotes the current target graph. It is a subgraph of $G and is available  only  in
              N, E and END_G clauses.

       $tgtname : string
              denotes  the name of the target graph.  By default, it is set to "gvpr_result".  If
              used multiple times during the execution of gvpr, the name will be appended with an
              integer.  This variable may be set by the user.

       $tvroot : node_t
              indicates  the starting node for a (directed or undirected) depth‐first or breadth‐
              first traversal of the graph (cf. $tvtype below).  The default value  is  NULL  for
              each  input  graph.  After the traversal at the given root, if the value of $tvroot
              has changed, a new traversal will begin with the new value of  $tvroot.  Also,  set
              $tvnext below.

       $tvnext : node_t
              indicates  the  next  starting  node  for a (directed or undirected) depth‐first or
              breadth‐first traversal of the graph (cf. $tvtype below).  If a traversal  finishes
              and  the $tvroot has not been reset but the $tvnext has been set but not used, this
              node will be used as the next choice for $tvroot.  The default value  is  NULL  for
              each input graph.

       $tvedge : edge_t
              For  BFS  and DFS traversals, this is set to the edge used to arrive at the current
              node or edge. At the beginning of a traversal, or for other  traversal  types,  the
              value is NULL.

       $tvtype : tvtype_t
              indicates  how  gvpr traverses a graph. It can only take one of the constant values
              with the previx "TV_" described below.  TV_flat is the default.

              In the underlying graph library cgraph(3), edges in undirected graphs are given  an
              arbitrary  direction.  This  is  used  for  traversals,  such  as TV_fwd, requiring
              directed edges.

       ARGC : int
              denotes the number of arguments specified by the -a args command‐line argument.

       ARGV : string array
              denotes the array of arguments specified by the -a args command‐line argument.  The
              ith argument is given by ARGV[i].

BUILT‐IN CONSTANTS

       There are several symbolic constants defined by gvpr.

       NULL : obj_t
              a null object reference, equivalent to 0.

       TV_flat : tvtype_t
              a simple, flat traversal, with graph objects visited in seemingly arbitrary order.

       TV_ne : tvtype_t
              a traversal which first visits all of the nodes, then all of the edges.

       TV_en : tvtype_t
              a traversal which first visits all of the edges, then all of the nodes.

       TV_dfs : tvtype_t
       TV_postdfs : tvtype_t
       TV_prepostdfs : tvtype_t
              a  traversal  of  the graph using a depth‐first search on the underlying undirected
              graph.  To do the traversal, gvpr will check the value of $tvroot. If this has  the
              same  value that it had previously (at the start, the previous value is initialized
              to NULL.), gvpr will simply look for some unvisited node and traverse its connected
              component.  On the other hand, if $tvroot has changed, its connected component will
              be toured, assuming it has not been previously visited or, if $tvroot is NULL,  the
              traversal  will  stop. Note that using TV_dfs and $tvroot, it is possible to create
              an infinite loop.

              By default, the traversal is done in pre-order. That is, a node is  visited  before
              all  of  its  unvisited  edges. For TV_postdfs, all of a node's unvisited edges are
              visited before the node. For TV_prepostdfs, a node is  visited  twice,  before  and
              after all of its unvisited edges.

       TV_fwd : tvtype_t
       TV_postfwd : tvtype_t
       TV_prepostfwd : tvtype_t
              A  traversal  of  the  graph using a depth‐first search on the graph following only
              forward arcs.  The choice of roots for the traversal is the same as  described  for
              TV_dfs  above.   The  different order of visitation specified by TV_fwd, TV_postfwd
              and TV_prepostfwd are the same as  those  specified  by  the  analogous  traversals
              TV_dfs, TV_postdfs and TV_prepostdfs.

       TV_rev : tvtype_t
       TV_postrev : tvtype_t
       TV_prepostrev : tvtype_t
              A  traversal  of  the  graph using a depth‐first search on the graph following only
              reverse arcs.  The choice of roots for the traversal is the same as  described  for
              TV_dfs  above.   The  different order of visitation specified by TV_rev, TV_postrev
              and TV_prepostrev are the same as  those  specified  by  the  analogous  traversals
              TV_dfs, TV_postdfs and TV_prepostdfs.

       TV_bfs : tvtype_t
              A  traversal  of  the graph using a breadth‐first search on the graph ignoring edge
              directions. See the item on TV_dfs above for the role of $tvroot.

EXAMPLES

              gvpr -i 'N[color=="blue"]' file.gv

       Generate the node‐induced subgraph of all nodes with color blue.

              gvpr -c 'N[color=="blue"]{color = "red"}' file.gv

       Make all blue nodes red.

              BEGIN { int n, e; int tot_n = 0; int tot_e = 0; }
              BEG_G {
                n = nNodes($G);
                e = nEdges($G);
                printf ("%d nodes %d edges %s\n", n, e, $G.name);
                tot_n += n;
                tot_e += e;
              }
              END { printf ("%d nodes %d edges total\n", tot_n, tot_e) }

       Version of the program gc.

              gvpr -c ""

       Equivalent to nop.

              BEG_G { graph_t g = graph ("merge", "S"); }
              E {
                node_t h = clone(g,$.head);
                node_t t = clone(g,$.tail);
                edge_t e = edge(t,h,"");
                e.weight = e.weight + 1;
              }
              END_G { $O = g; }

       Produces a strict version of the input graph,  where  the  weight  attribute  of  an  edge
       indicates how many edges from the input graph the edge represents.

              BEGIN {node_t n; int deg[]}
              E{deg[head]++; deg[tail]++; }
              END_G {
                for (deg[n]) {
                  printf ("deg[%s] = %d\n", n.name, deg[n]);
                }
              }

       Computes the degrees of nodes with edges.

              BEGIN {
                int i, indent;
                int seen[string];
                void prInd (int cnt) {
                  for (i = 0; i < cnt; i++) printf ("  ");
                }
              }
              BEG_G {

                 $tvtype = TV_prepostfwd;
                 $tvroot = node($,ARGV[0]);
              }
              N {
                if (seen[$.name]) indent--;
                else {
                  prInd(indent);
                    print ($.name);
                  seen[$.name] = 1;
                  indent++;
                }
              }

       Prints  the  depth-first  traversal  of  the  graph,  starting with the node whose name is
       ARGV[0], as an indented list.

ENVIRONMENT

       GVPRPATH
              Colon‐separated list of directories to be searched to find the  file  specified  by
              the  -f  option.  gvpr has a default list built in. If GVPRPATH is not defined, the
              default list is used. If  GVPRPATH  starts  with  colon,  the  list  is  formed  by
              appending  GVPRPATH  to  the default list. If GVPRPATH ends with colon, the list is
              formed by appending the default list to GVPRPATH. Otherwise, GVPRPATH is  used  for
              the list.

       On Windows systems, replace ``colon'' with ``semicolon'' in the previous paragraph.

BUGS AND WARNINGS

       Scripts  should  be  careful  deleting  nodes  during N{} and E{} blocks using BFS and DFS
       traversals as these rely on stacks and queues of nodes.

       When the program is given as a command line argument, the usual shell interpretation takes
       place,  which  may  affect some of the special names in gvpr. To avoid this, it is best to
       wrap the program in single quotes.

       If string constants contain pattern metacharacters  that  you  want  to  escape  to  avoid
       pattern  matching,  two backslashes will probably be necessary, as a single backslash will
       be lost when the string is originally scanned. Usually, it is simpler  to  use  strcmp  to
       avoid pattern matching.

       As  of  24  April 2008, gvpr switched to using a new, underlying graph library, which uses
       the simpler model that there is only one copy of a node, not one copy  for  each  subgraph
       logically  containing  it.  This  means  that  iterators such as nxtnode cannot traverse a
       subgraph using just a node argument. For this  reason,  subgraph  traversal  requires  new
       functions  ending in "_sg", which also take a subgraph argument. The versions without that
       suffix will always traverse the root graph.

       There is a single global scope, except for formal function parameters, and even these  can
       interfere  with  the  type system. Also, the extent of all variables is the entire life of
       the program.  It might be preferable for scope to  reflect  the  natural  nesting  of  the
       clauses,  or for the program to at least reset locally declared variables.  For now, it is
       advisable to use distinct names for all variables.

       If a function ends with a complex statement, such as an IF  statement,  with  each  branch
       doing a return, type checking may fail.  Functions should use a return at the end.

       The  expr  library  does  not  support  string  values  of  (char*)0.  This means we can't
       distinguish between "" and (char*)0 edge  keys.   For  the  purposes  of  looking  up  and
       creating  edges,  we  translate "" to be (char*)0, since this latter value is necessary in
       order to look up any edge with a matching head and tail.

       Related to this, strings converted to integers act like char pointers, getting the value 0
       or  1  depending  on  whether  the  string  consists  solely  of  zeroes or not. Thus, the
       ((int)"2") evaluates to 1.

       The language inherits the usual C problems such as dangling references and  the  confusion
       between '=' and '=='.

AUTHOR

       Emden R. Gansner <erg@research.att.com>

SEE ALSO

       awk(1), gc(1), dot(1), nop(1), expr(3), cgraph(3)

                                          29 August 2013                                  GVPR(1)