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       hotspotter - Create CVA image from seamount flowlines


       hotspotter    [infile(s)]   -Estage_file   -GCVAgrid   -Ixinc[unit][=|+][/yinc[unit][=|+]]
       -Rwest/east/south/north[r] [ -C ] [ -Dfactor ] [ -F ] [ -H[i][nrec] ] [ -Nupper_age ] [ -S
       ] [ -T ] [ -V ] [ -:[i|o] ] [ -bi[s|S|d|D[ncol]|c[var1/...]] ]


       hotspotter  reads  (longitude, latitude, amplitude, radius, age) records from infiles  [or
       standard input] and calculates flowlines using the specified stage pole (Euler) rotations.
       These flowlines are convolved with the shape of the seamount (using a Gaussian shape given
       amplitude and radius = 6 sigma) and added up to give a Cumulative Volcano  Amplitude  grid
       (CVA).  See option -: on how to read (latitude,longitude,...) files.
            No  space  between  the option flag and the associated arguments.  Use upper case for
       the option flags and lower case for modifiers.

              Data file(s) to be processed.  If not given, standard input is read.

       -E     Give file with rotation parameters.  This file must contain  one  record  for  each
              rotation; each record must be of the following format:

                   lon lat tstart [tstop] angle [ khat a b c d e f g df ]

              where  tstart  and  tstop  are in Myr and lon lat angle are in degrees.  tstart and
              tstop are the ages of the old and young ends of a stage.  If -C is set then a total
              reconstruction rotation is expected and tstop is implicitly set to 0 and should not
              be specified in the file.  If a covariance matrix C for the rotation  is  available
              it  must be specified in a format using the nine optional terms listed in brackets.
              Here, C = (g/khat)*[ a b d; b c e; d e f ] which shows  C  made  up  of  three  row
              vectors.   If the degrees of freedom (df) in fitting the rotation is 0 or not given
              it is set to 10000.  Blank lines and records whose first column contains # will  be

       -G     Specify name for output grid file.

       -I     x_inc  [and  optionally  y_inc]  is  the  grid spacing. Optionally, append a suffix
              modifier.  Geographical (degrees) coordinates: Append m to indicate arc minutes  or
              c  to indicate arc seconds.  If one of the units e, k, i, or n is appended instead,
              the increment is assumed to be given  in  meter,  km,  miles,  or  nautical  miles,
              respectively,  and  will  be  converted  to the equivalent degrees longitude at the
              middle latitude of the region (the conversion depends on ELLIPSOID).  If /y_inc  is
              given  but set to 0 it will be reset equal to x_inc; otherwise it will be converted
              to degrees latitude.  All coordinates: If = is appended then the corresponding  max
              x  (east)  or y (north) may be slightly adjusted to fit exactly the given increment
              [by default the increment may be  adjusted  slightly  to  fit  the  given  domain].
              Finally, instead of giving an increment you may specify the number of nodes desired
              by appending + to the supplied integer argument; the increment is then recalculated
              from  the number of nodes and the domain.  The resulting increment value depends on
              whether you have selected  a  gridline-registered  or  pixel-registered  grid;  see
              Appendix  B  for details.  Note: if -Rgrdfile is used then grid spacing has already
              been initialized; use -I to override the values.

       -R     west, east, south, and north specify the Region of interest, and  you  may  specify
              them  in  decimal  degrees  or  in [+-]dd:mm[][W|E|S|N] format.  Append r if
              lower left and upper right map coordinates are given instead of w/e/s/n.   The  two
              shorthands  -Rg  and  -Rd stand for global domain (0/360 and -180/+180 in longitude
              respectively, with -90/+90 in latitude). Alternatively,  specify  the  name  of  an
              existing grid file and the -R settings (and grid spacing, if applicable) are copied
              from the grid.


       -C     Expect  Total  Reconstruction  Rotations  rather  than  Forward   Stage   Rotations
              [Default].   File format is similar to the stage pole format except that the tstart
              column is not present (assumed to be 0 Ma).

       -D     Modify the sampling interval along flowlines.  Default [0.5] gives approximately  2
              points  within  each  grid  box.   Smaller  factors gives higher resolutions at the
              expense of longer processing time.

       -F     Force pixel registration [Default is grid registration].

       -H     Input file(s) has header record(s).  If used, the default number of header  records
              is  N_HEADER_RECS.   Use -Hi if only input data should have header records [Default
              will write out header records if the input data have them]. Blank lines  and  lines
              starting with # are always skipped.

       -N     Set  the upper age to assign seamounts whose crustal age is unknown (i.e., NaN) [no
              upper age].

       -S     Normalize the resulting CVA grid to percentages of the CVA maximum.

       -T     Truncate seamount ages exceeding the upper age set with -N [no truncation].

       -V     Selects verbose mode, which will send progress  reports  to  stderr  [Default  runs

       -:     Toggles  between (longitude,latitude) and (latitude,longitude) input and/or output.
              [Default is (longitude,latitude)].  Append i to select input only or  o  to  select
              output only.  [Default affects both].

       -bi    Selects  binary  input.   Append  s  for  single precision [Default is d (double)].
              Uppercase S or D will force byte-swapping.  Optionally, append ncol, the number  of
              columns  in your binary input file if it exceeds the columns needed by the program.
              Or append c if the input  file  is  netCDF.  Optionally,  append  var1/var2/...  to
              specify the variables to be read.  [Default is 5 input columns].


       To create a CVA image from the Pacific (x,y,z,r,t) data in the file seamounts.d, using the
       DC85.d Euler poles, run

       hotspotter seamounts.d -E DC85.d -G CVA.grd -R 130/260/-66/60 -I 10m -N 145 -T -V

       This file can then be plotted with grdimage.


       Data coordinates are assumed to  be  geodetic  and  will  automatically  be  converted  to
       geocentric  before  spherical  rotations  are  performed.   We  convert  back  to geodetic
       coordinates for output.  Note: If your data already are  geocentric,  you  can  avoid  the
       conversion by using --ELLIPSOID=sphere.


       GMT(1),    grdimage(1),    grdrotater(1),    grdspotter(1),   project(1),   mapproject(1),
       backtracker(1), originator(1)


       Wessel, P., 1999, "Hotspotting" tools released, EOS Trans. AGU, 80 (29), p. 319.