Provided by: apache2-utils_2.4.7-1ubuntu4_amd64 bug


       htpasswd - Manage user files for basic authentication


       htpasswd  [  -c  ]  [ -i ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] [ -D ] [ -v ] passwdfile

       htpasswd -b [ -c ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost  ]  [  -D  ]  [  -v  ]  passwdfile
       username password

       htpasswd -n [ -i ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] username

       htpasswd -nb [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] username password


       htpasswd  is used to create and update the flat-files used to store usernames and password
       for basic authentication of HTTP users. If htpasswd cannot access  a  file,  such  as  not
       being  able  to  write  to  the output file or not being able to read the file in order to
       update it, it returns an error status and makes no changes.

       Resources available from the Apache HTTP server can be restricted to just the users listed
       in  the  files  created  by htpasswd. This program can only manage usernames and passwords
       stored in a flat-file. It can encrypt and display password information for  use  in  other
       types of data stores, though. To use a DBM database see dbmmanage or htdbm.

       htpasswd  encrypts  passwords  using  either bcrypt, a version of MD5 modified for Apache,
       SHA1, or the system's crypt() routine. Files managed by htpasswd may contain a mixture  of
       different  encoding types of passwords; some user records may have bcrypt or MD5-encrypted
       passwords while others in the same file may have passwords encrypted with crypt().

       This manual page only lists the command line arguments.  For  details  of  the  directives
       necessary  to  configure user authentication in httpd see the Apache manual, which is part
       of the Apache distribution or can be found at


       -b     Use batch mode; i.e., get the password from the command line rather than  prompting
              for it. This option should be used with extreme care, since the password is clearly
              visible on the command line. For script use see the -i option.

       -i     Read the password from stdin without verification (for script usage).

       -c     Create the passwdfile. If passwdfile already exists, it is rewritten and truncated.
              This option cannot be combined with the -n option.

       -n     Display  the results on standard output rather than updating a file. This is useful
              for generating password records acceptable to Apache for inclusion in non-text data
              stores.  This  option  changes the syntax of the command line, since the passwdfile
              argument (usually the first one) is omitted. It cannot  be  combined  with  the  -c

       -m     Use MD5 encryption for passwords. This is the default (since version 2.2.18).

       -B     Use  bcrypt  encryption  for  passwords.  This  is  currently considered to be very

       -C     This flag is only allowed in combination with -B (bcrypt encryption). It  sets  the
              computing  time  used  for  the bcrypt algorithm (higher is more secure but slower,
              default: 5, valid: 4 to 31).

       -d     Use crypt() encryption for passwords. This is not supported by the httpd server  on
              Windows  and  Netware.  This  algorithm limits the password length to 8 characters.
              This algorithm is insecure  by  today's  standards.  It  used  to  be  the  default
              algorithm until version 2.2.17.

       -s     Use  SHA  encryption  for passwords. Facilitates migration from/to Netscape servers
              using the LDAP Directory Interchange Format (ldif). This algorithm is  insecure  by
              today's standards.

       -p     Use  plaintext  passwords.  Though htpasswd will support creation on all platforms,
              the httpd daemon will only accept plain text passwords on Windows and Netware.

       -D     Delete user. If the username exists in the specified  htpasswd  file,  it  will  be

       -v     Verify  password.  Verify  that the given password matches the password of the user
              stored in the specified htpasswd file.

              Name of the file to contain the user name and password. If -c is given,  this  file
              is  created  if  it  does  not already exist, or rewritten and truncated if it does

              The username to create or update in passwdfile. If username does not exist in  this
              file, an entry is added. If it does exist, the password is changed.

              The  plaintext  password to be encrypted and stored in the file. Only used with the
              -b flag.


       htpasswd  returns  a  zero  status  ("true")  if  the  username  and  password  have  been
       successfully  added or updated in the passwdfile. htpasswd returns 1 if it encounters some
       problem accessing files, 2 if there was a syntax problem with the command line, 3  if  the
       password  was  entered  interactively  and  the  verification entry didn't match, 4 if its
       operation was interrupted, 5 if a value is too  long  (username,  filename,  password,  or
       final   computed  record),  6  if  the  username  contains  illegal  characters  (see  the
       Restrictions section), and 7 if the file is not a valid password file.


             htpasswd /usr/local/etc/apache/.htpasswd-users jsmith

       Adds or modifies the password for user jsmith. The user is prompted for the password.  The
       password  will  be encrypted using the modified Apache MD5 algorithm. If the file does not
       exist, htpasswd will do nothing except return an error.

             htpasswd -c /home/doe/public_html/.htpasswd jane

       Creates a new file and stores a record in it for user jane. The user is prompted  for  the
       password.  If  the file exists and cannot be read, or cannot be written, it is not altered
       and htpasswd will display a message and return an error status.

             htpasswd -db /usr/web/.htpasswd-all jones Pwd4Steve

       Encrypts the password from the command line (Pwd4Steve) using the crypt()  algorithm,  and
       stores it in the specified file.


       Web password files such as those managed by htpasswd should not be within the Web server's
       URI space -- that is, they should not be fetchable with a browser.

       This program is not safe as a setuid executable. Do not make it setuid.

       The use of the -b option is discouraged, since when it is used  the  unencrypted  password
       appears on the command line.

       When  using  the  crypt() algorithm, note that only the first 8 characters of the password
       are used to form the password. If the supplied password is longer,  the  extra  characters
       will be silently discarded.

       The  SHA  encryption  format does not use salting: for a given password, there is only one
       encrypted representation. The crypt()  and  MD5  formats  permute  the  representation  by
       prepending  a  random  salt  string, to make dictionary attacks against the passwords more

       The SHA and crypt() formats are insecure by today's standards.


       On the Windows platform, passwords encrypted with htpasswd are limited to no more than 255
       characters in length. Longer passwords will be truncated to 255 characters.

       The MD5 algorithm used by htpasswd is specific to the Apache software; passwords encrypted
       using it will not be usable with other Web servers.

       Usernames are limited to 255 bytes and may not include the character :.