Provided by: mysql-server-core-5.6_5.6.16-1~exp1_amd64 bug


       mysql_upgrade - check and upgrade MySQL tables


       mysql_upgrade [options]


       mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current
       version of MySQL Server.  mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can
       take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.

       mysql_upgrade should be executed each time you upgrade MySQL.

       If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table
       check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be
       repaired, see Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes” for manual table
       repair strategies.

           On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run mysql_upgrade with
           administrator privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator
           and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute

           You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an
           upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

           Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your
           MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for
           instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your
           installation and how to handle them.

       To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running, and then invoke it like this:

           shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

       After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to
       the system tables take effect.

       mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair tables and to upgrade
       the system tables:

           mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --auto-repair
           mysql < fix_priv_tables
           mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --fix-db-names --fix-table-names

       Notes about the preceding commands:

       ·   Because mysql_upgrade invokes mysqlcheck with the --all-databases option, it processes
           all tables in all databases, which might take a long time to complete. Each table is
           locked and therefore unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed. Check
           and repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large tables.

       ·   For details about what checks the --check-upgrade option entails, see the description
           of the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE statement (see Section, “CHECK
           TABLE Syntax”).

       ·   fix_priv_tables represents a script generated internally by mysql_upgrade that
           contains SQL statements to upgrade the tables in the mysql database.

       All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This
       ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can
       tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.

       mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in
       the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all tables have been checked for
       this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the
       check regardless, use the --force option.

       If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client
       RPMs.  mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the
       latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.5.3, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM

       mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions,
       see Section 5.1.10, “Server-Side Help”.

       mysql_upgrade runs by default as the MySQL root user. If the root password is expired when
       you run mysql_upgrade, you will see a message that your password is expired and that
       mysql_upgrade failed as a result. To correct this, reset the root password to unexpire it
       and run mysql_upgrade again:

           shell> mysql -u root -p
           Enter password: ****  <- enter root password here
           mysql> SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('root-password');
           mysql> quit
           shell> mysql_upgrade

       mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line
       or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an option file. Other options are passed
       to mysqlcheck. For example, it might be necessary to specify the --password[=password]
       option.  mysql_upgrade also supports the options for processing option files described at
       Section, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling”.

       ·   --help

           Display a short help message and exit.

       ·   --basedir=path

           The path to the MySQL installation directory. This option is accepted for backward
           compatibility but ignored. It is removed in MySQL 5.7.

       ·   --datadir=path

           The path to the data directory. This option is accepted for backward compatibility but
           ignored. It is removed in MySQL 5.7.

       ·   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       ·   --debug-info, -T

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program

       ·   --default-auth=plugin

           The client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.3.7, “Pluggable

           This option was added in MySQL 5.6.2.

       ·   --force

           Ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and force execution of mysqlcheck even if
           mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version of MySQL.

       ·   --plugin-dir=path

           The directory in which to look for plugins. It may be necessary to specify this option
           if the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin but
           mysql_upgrade does not find it. See Section 6.3.7, “Pluggable Authentication”.

           This option was added in MySQL 5.6.2.

       ·   --tmpdir=path, -t path

           The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary files.

       ·   --upgrade-system-tables, -s

           Upgrade only the system tables, do not upgrade data.

       ·   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The default user name is

       ·   --verbose

           Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

       ·   --version-check, -k

           Check the version of the server to which mysql_upgrade is connecting to verify that it
           is the same as the version for which mysql_upgrade was built. If not, mysql_upgrade
           exits. This option is enabled by default; to disable the check, use
           --skip-version-check. This option was added in MySQL 5.6.12.

       ·   --write-binlog

           Cause binary logging to be enabled while mysql_upgrade runs. In MySQL 5.6.6 and
           earlier, this was the default behavior. (To disable binary logging during the upgrade,
           it was necessary to use the inverse of this option, by starting the program with
           --skip-write-binlog.) Beginning with MySQL 5.6.7, binary logging by mysql_upgrade is
           disabled by default (Bug #14221043), and you must invoke the program explicitly with
           --write-binlog if you want its actions to be written to the binary log. (Also
           beginning with MySQL 5.6.7, the --skip-write-binlog option effectively does nothing.)

           Running mysql_upgrade is not recommended with a MySQL Server that is running with
           global transaction identifiers enabled (Bug #13833710). This is because enabling GTIDs
           means that any updates which mysql_upgrade might need to perform on system tables
           using a nontransactional storage engine such as MyISAM to fail. See Section,
           “Restrictions on Replication with GTIDs”, for more information.


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