Provided by: gmt_4.5.11-1build1_amd64 bug


       originator - Associate seamounts with hotspot point sources


       originator [infile(s)] -Estage_file -Fhs_file [ -C ] [ -Dd_km ] [ -H[i][nrec] ] [ -L[flag]
       ] [ -Nupper_age ] [ -Qr/t ] [ -S[n_hs] ] [ -T ] [ -V ]  -Wmaxdist ] [ -Z ] [ -:[i|o]  ]  [
       -bi[s|S|d|D[ncol]|c[var1/...]] ]


       originator  reads  (longitude, latitude, height, radius, crustal_age) records from infiles
       [or standard input] and uses the given Absolute Plate Motion (APM)  stage  poles  and  the
       list of hotspot locations to determine the most likely origin (hotspot) for each seamount.
       It does so by calculating flowlines back in time and determining the closest  approach  to
       all  hotspots.  The output consists of the input records with four additional fields added
       for each of the n_hs closest hotspots.  The four fields are the hotspot  id  (e.g.,  HWI),
       the  stage  id  of the flowline segment that came closest, the pseudo-age of the seamount,
       and the closest distance to the hotspot (in km).  See option -: on how to read  (latitude,
       longitude,height, radius, crustal_age) files.
            No  space  between  the option flag and the associated arguments.  Use upper case for
       the option flags and lower case for modifiers.

              Seamount data file(s) to be analyzed.  If not given, standard input is read.

       -E     Give file with rotation parameters.  This file must contain  one  record  for  each
              rotation; each record must be of the following format:

                   lon lat tstart [tstop] angle [ khat a b c d e f g df ]

              where  tstart  and  tstop  are in Myr and lon lat angle are in degrees.  tstart and
              tstop are the ages of the old and young ends of a stage.  If -C is set then a total
              reconstruction rotation is expected and tstop is implicitly set to 0 and should not
              be specified in the file.  If a covariance matrix C for the rotation  is  available
              it  must be specified in a format using the nine optional terms listed in brackets.
              Here, C = (g/khat)*[ a b d; b c e; d e f ] which shows  C  made  up  of  three  row
              vectors.   If the degrees of freedom (df) in fitting the rotation is 0 or not given
              it is set to 10000.  Blank lines and records whose first column contains # will  be

       -F     Give  file  with  hotspot  locations.   This  file must contain one record for each
              hotspot to be considered; each record must be of the following format:

                   lon lat hs_abbrev hs_id r t_off t_on create fit plot name

              E.g., for Hawaii this may look like

              205  20   HWI  1    25   0    90   Y    Y    Y    Hawaii

              Most applications only need the first 4 columns which thus represents  the  minimal
              hotspot  information  record  type.   The  abbreviation may be maximum 3 characters
              long.  The id must be an integer from 1-32.   The  positional  uncertainty  of  the
              hotspot  is  given by r (in km).  The t_off and t_on variables are used to indicate
              the active time-span of the hotspot.  The create,  fit,  and  plot  indicators  are
              either  Y or N and are used by some programs to indicate if the hotspot is included
              in the ID-grids used to determine rotations, if the hotspot chain will be  used  to
              determine  rotations,  and if the hotspot should be included in various plots.  The
              name is a 32-character maximum text string with the full hotspot name.  Blank lines
              and records whose first column contains # will be ignored.


       -C     Expect   Total   Reconstruction  Rotations  rather  than  Forward  Stage  Rotations
              [Default].  File format is similar to the stage pole format except that the  tstart
              column is not present (assumed to be 0 Ma).

       -D     Sets the flowline sampling interval in km.  [Default is 5].

       -H     Input  file(s) has header record(s).  If used, the default number of header records
              is N_HEADER_RECS.  Use -Hi if only input data should have header  records  [Default
              will  write  out header records if the input data have them]. Blank lines and lines
              starting with # are always skipped.

       -L     Output closest approach for nearest hotspot only  (ignores  -S).   Choose  -Lt  for
              (time,  dist,  z) [Default], -Lw for (omega, dist, z), and -Ll for (lon, lat, time,
              dist, z).  Normally, dist is in km; use upper case modifiers TWL  to  get  dist  in
              spherical degrees.

       -N     Set the maximum age to extend the oldest stage back in time [no extension].


       Input files only has (x,y,z); specify constant values for r,t that
              will be implied for each record.

       -S     Set the number of closest hotspots to report [Default is 1].

       -T     Truncate seamount ages exceeding the upper age set with -N [no truncation].

       -V     Selects  verbose  mode,  which  will  send progress reports to stderr [Default runs

       -W     Only report those seamounts whose flowlines came  within  maxdist  to  any  hotspot
              [Default reports all seamounts].

       -Z     Use the hotspot ID number rather than the name tag in output records.

       -:     Toggles  between (longitude,latitude) and (latitude,longitude) input and/or output.
              [Default is (longitude,latitude)].  Append i to select input only or  o  to  select
              output only.  [Default affects both].

       -bi    Selects  binary  input.   Append  s  for  single precision [Default is d (double)].
              Uppercase S or D will force byte-swapping.  Optionally, append ncol, the number  of
              columns  in your binary input file if it exceeds the columns needed by the program.
              Or append c if the input  file  is  netCDF.  Optionally,  append  var1/var2/...  to
              specify the variables to be read.  [Default is 5 input columns].


       To  find  the  likely  (hotspot)  origins of the seamounts represented by the (x,y,z,r,tc)
       points in the file seamounts.d, using the DC85.d Euler poles  and  the  pac_hs.d  list  of
       possible hotspots, and report the 2 most likely hotspot candidates for each seamount, run

       originator seamounts.d -S 2 -E DC85.d -F pac_hs.d > origins.d


       Data  coordinates  are  assumed  to  be  geodetic  and  will automatically be converted to
       geocentric before  spherical  rotations  are  performed.   We  convert  back  to  geodetic
       coordinates  for  output.   Note:  If  your data already are geocentric, you can avoid the
       conversion by using --ELLIPSOID=sphere.


       GMT(1),   project(1),   grdrotater(1),   grdspotter(1),   mapproject(1),   backtracker(1),


       Wessel, P., 1999, "Hotspotting" tools released, EOS Trans. AGU, 80 (29), p. 319.