Provided by: perl-doc_5.18.2-2ubuntu1_all bug

NAME

       perldiag - various Perl diagnostics

DESCRIPTION

       These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of desperation):

           (W) A warning (optional).
           (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
           (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
           (F) A fatal error (trappable).
           (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
           (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
           (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).

       The majority of messages from the first three classifications above (W, D & S) can be
       controlled using the "warnings" pragma.

       If a message can be controlled by the "warnings" pragma, its warning category is included
       with the classification letter in the description below.  E.g. "(W closed)" means a
       warning in the "closed" category.

       Optional warnings are enabled by using the "warnings" pragma or the -w and -W switches.
       Warnings may be captured by setting $SIG{__WARN__} to a reference to a routine that will
       be called on each warning instead of printing it.  See perlvar.

       Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled with the
       "warnings" pragma or the -X switch.

       Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator.  See "eval" in perlfunc.  In
       almost all cases, warnings may be selectively disabled or promoted to fatal errors using
       the "warnings" pragma.  See warnings.

       The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or lower-case.  Some of
       these messages are generic.  Spots that vary are denoted with a %s or other printf-style
       escape.  These escapes are ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other
       than letters.  To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a letter.

       accept() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket.  Did you forget to check the
           return value of your socket() call?  See "accept" in perlfunc.

       Allocation too large: %x
           (X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.

       '%c' allowed only after types %s
           (F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only after
           certain types.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
           (W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl keyword, and
           you have used the name without qualification for calling one or the other.  Perl
           decided to call the builtin because the subroutine is not imported.

           To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand before the
           subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.  Alternatively, you can import
           the subroutine (or pretend that it's imported with the "use subs" pragma).

           To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the "CORE::" prefix on the operator
           (e.g. "CORE::log($x)") or declare the subroutine to be an object method (see
           "Subroutine Attributes" in perlsub or attributes).

       Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
           (F) You wrote something like "tr/a-z-0//" which doesn't mean anything at all.  To
           include a "-" character in a transliteration, put it either first or last.  (In the
           past, "tr/a-z-0//" was synonymous with "tr/a-y//", which was probably not what you
           would have expected.)

       Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
           (S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way you thought.
           Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying a missing quote, operator,
           parenthesis pair or declaration.

       Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
           (S ambiguous) "%", "&", and "*" are both infix operators (modulus, bitwise and, and
           multiplication) and initial special characters (denoting hashes, subroutines and
           typeglobs), and you said something like "*foo * foo" that might be interpreted as
           either of them.  We assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it
           more clear -- in the example given, you might write "*foo * foo()" if you really meant
           to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.

       Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
           (W ambiguous) You wrote something like "@{foo}", which might be asking for the
           variable @foo, or it might be calling a function named foo, and dereferencing it as an
           array reference.  If you wanted the variable, you can just write @foo.  If you wanted
           to call the function, write "@{foo()}" ... or you could just not have a variable and a
           function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.

       Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
       Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
           (W ambiguous) You wrote something like "${foo[2]}" (where foo represents the name of a
           Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number 2 of the array named @foo, in
           which case please write $foo[2], or you might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref
           to the function named foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns.  If you
           meant that, write "${foo([2])}".

           In regular expressions, the "${foo[2]}" syntax is sometimes necessary to disambiguate
           between array subscripts and character classes.  "/$length[2345]/", for instance, will
           be interpreted as $length followed by the character class "[2345]".  If an array
           subscript is what you want, you can avoid the warning by changing "/${length[2345]}/"
           to the unsightly "/${\$length[2345]}/", by renaming your array to something that does
           not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning off warnings with "no
           warnings 'ambiguous';".

       Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
           (S ambiguous) You wrote something like "-foo", which might be the string "-foo", or a
           call to the function "foo", negated.  If you meant the string, just write "-foo".  If
           you meant the function call, write "-foo()".

       '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redirection, and found
           that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using '<'.  Only one
           STDIN stream to a customer, please.

       '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redirection, and thinks
           you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another command.  You
           need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you from piping into a
           program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two streams, such as

               open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
               while (<STDIN>) {
                   print;
                   print OUT;
               }
               close OUT;

       Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
           (W misc) The pattern match ("//"), substitution ("s///"), and transliteration
           ("tr///") operators work on scalar values.  If you apply one of them to an array or a
           hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value (the length of an array, or
           the population info of a hash) and then work on that scalar value.  This is probably
           not what you meant to do.  See "grep" in perlfunc and "map" in perlfunc for
           alternatives.

       Arg too short for msgsnd
           (F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).

       %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
           (F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a subroutine with an
           ampersand, such as:

               $foo{$bar}
               $ref->{"susie"}[12]
               &do_something

       %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
           (F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element, such as:

               $foo{$bar}
               $ref->{"susie"}[12]

           or a hash or array slice, such as:

               @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
               @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}

       %s argument is not a subroutine name
           (F) The argument to exists() for "exists &sub" must be a subroutine name, and not a
           subroutine call.  "exists &sub()" will generate this error.

       Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
           (W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that expected a
           numeric value instead.  If you're fortunate the message will identify which operator
           was so unfortunate.

       Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
           (W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you forgot the
           ) that closes the argument list.  (Layers take care of transforming data between
           external and internal representations.)  Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
           point and did not attempt to push this layer.  If your program didn't explicitly
           request the failing operation, it may be the result of the value of the environment
           variable PERLIO.

       Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
           (D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots.  This
           is now heavily deprecated.

       A sequence of multiple spaces in a charnames alias definition is deprecated
           (D) You defined a character name which had multiple space characters in a row.  Change
           them to single spaces.  Usually these names are defined in the ":alias" import
           argument to "use charnames", but they could be defined by a translator installed into
           $^H{charnames}.  See "CUSTOM ALIASES" in charnames.

       assertion botched: %s
           (X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.

       Assertion failed: file "%s"
           (X) A general assertion failed.  The file in question must be examined.

       Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
           (F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under "use v5.16;") the special
           variable $[, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.

       Assignment to both a list and a scalar
           (F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments must either
           both be scalars or both be lists.  Otherwise Perl won't know which context to supply
           to the right side.

       A thread exited while %d threads were running
           (W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main thread)
           exited while there were still other threads running.  Usually it's a good idea first
           to collect the return values of the created threads by joining them, and only then to
           exit from the main thread.  See threads.

       Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
           (F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in the current set
           of allowed keys of a restricted hash.

       Attempt to bless into a reference
           (F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be the name of the
           package to bless the resulting object into.  You've supplied instead a reference to
           something: perhaps you wrote

               bless $self, $proto;

           when you intended

               bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;

           If you actually want to bless into the stringified version of the reference supplied,
           you need to stringify it yourself, for example by:

               bless $self, "$proto";

       Attempt to clear deleted array
           (S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.  Freed values are not
           supposed to be visible to Perl code.  This can also happen if XS code calls "av_clear"
           from a custom magic callback on the array.

       Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
           (F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key which is not in
           its key set.

       Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
           (F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been declared readonly
           from a restricted hash.

       Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
           (S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will be
           garbage collected on exit.  An SV was discovered to be outside any of those arenas.

       Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
           (S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of strings to optimize
           the storage and access of hash keys and other strings.  This indicates someone tried
           to decrement the reference count of a string that can no longer be found in the table.

       Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
           (S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps() routine.
           This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before the free_tmps() routine
           gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps() routine will be freeing an
           unreferenced scalar when it does try to free it.

       Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
           (S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.

       Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
           (S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it would
           go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier, and should have been
           freed, and in fact, probably was freed.  This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was
           called too many times, or that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV
           was mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.

       Attempt to join self
           (F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an impossible task.  You
           may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need to move the join() to some other
           thread.

       Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
           (W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a function, or a
           computed expression) to the "p" pack() template.  This means the result contains a
           pointer to a location that could become invalid anytime, even before the end of the
           current statement.  Use literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack()
           template to avoid this warning.

       Attempt to reload %s aborted.
           (F) You tried to load a file with "use" or "require" that failed to compile once
           already.  Perl will not try to compile this file again unless you delete its entry
           from %INC.  See "require" in perlfunc and "%INC" in perlvar.

       Attempt to set length of freed array
           (W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed.  You can do
           this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index of an array and
           later assigning through that reference.  For example

               $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
               $$r = 503

       Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
           (W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used as an
           lvalue, which is pretty strange.  Perhaps you forgot to dereference it first.  See
           "substr" in perlfunc.

       Attribute "locked" is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "locked" attribute on
           a code reference.  The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no effect since 5005
           threads were removed, and will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.

       Attribute "unique" is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "unique" attribute on
           an array, hash or scalar reference.  The :unique attribute has had no effect since
           Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.

       av_reify called on tied array
           (S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got very confused
           about @_ or @DB::args being tied.

       Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
           (F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or shmctl().
           In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively, sizeof(struct msqid_ds *),
           sizeof(struct semid_ds *), and sizeof(struct shmid_ds *).

       Bad evalled substitution pattern
           (F) You've used the "/e" switch to evaluate the replacement for a substitution, but
           perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate, most likely an unexpected right
           brace '}'.

       Bad filehandle: %s
           (F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol has no
           filehandle associated with it.  Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or did it in another
           package.

       Bad free() ignored
           (S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
           malloc()ed in the first place.  Mandatory, but can be disabled by setting environment
           variable "PERL_BADFREE" to 0.

           This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard" dynamic
           linking, like "AIX" and "OS/2".  It is a bug of "Berkeley DB" which is left unnoticed
           if "DB" uses forgiving system malloc().

       Bad hash
           (P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.

       Badly placed ()'s
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh instead of Perl.  Check the #!
           line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       Bad name after %s
           (F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't finish the
           symbol.  In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes, so

               $var = 'myvar';
               $sym = mypack::$var;

           is not the same as

               $var = 'myvar';
               $sym = "mypack::$var";

       Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
           (F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the plugin API.

       Bad realloc() ignored
           (S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had never been
           malloc()ed in the first place.  Mandatory, but can be disabled by setting the
           environment variable "PERL_BADFREE" to 1.

       Bad symbol for array
           (P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that wasn't a symbol
           table entry.

       Bad symbol for dirhandle
           (P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something that wasn't a
           symbol table entry.

       Bad symbol for filehandle
           (P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that wasn't a
           symbol table entry.

       Bad symbol for hash
           (P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that wasn't a symbol
           table entry.

       Bareword found in conditional
           (W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional, which
           often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the last argument of the
           previous construct, for example:

               open FOO || die;

           It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as a bareword:

               use constant TYPO => 1;
               if (TYOP) { print "foo" }

           The "strict" pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.

       Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
           (F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a subroutine identifier,
           in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>" symbol.  Perhaps you need to predeclare a
           subroutine?

       Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
           (W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form "Foo::", but the compiler saw
           no other uses of that namespace before that point.  Perhaps you need to predeclare a
           package?

       BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
           (F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.  Compilation
           stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.

       BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
           (F) Perl found a "BEGIN {}" subroutine (or a "use" directive, which implies a "BEGIN
           {}") after one or more compilation errors had already occurred.  Since the intended
           environment for the "BEGIN {}" could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since
           subsequent code likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.

       \1 better written as $1
           (W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.  The use of
           backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a substitution, but
           stylistically it's better to use the variable form because other Perl programmers will
           expect it, and it works better if there are more than 9 backreferences.

       Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
           (W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295) and
           therefore non-portable between systems.  See perlport for more on portability
           concerns.

       bind() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket.  Did you forget to check the
           return value of your socket() call?  See "bind" in perlfunc.

       binmode() on closed filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.  Check your
           control flow and number of arguments.

       "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" or "\b[{]" instead in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
       "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" or "\B[{]" instead in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W deprecated) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a "\b" or "\B" is now
           deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl itself in a future release.  You can
           either precede the brace with a backslash, or enclose it in square brackets; the
           latter is the way to go if the pattern delimiters are "{}".

       Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
           (W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.

       Bizarre copy of %s
           (P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.

       Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
           (W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS.  While Perl was preparing to iterate over
           %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition which was too long, so it was
           truncated to the string shown.

       Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
           (P) When starting a new thread or return values from a thread, Perl encountered an
           invalid data type.

       Callback called exit
           (F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv() exited by calling
           exit.

       %s() called too early to check prototype
           (W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the parser saw a
           definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check that the call conforms to
           the prototype.  You need to either add an early prototype declaration for the
           subroutine in question, or move the subroutine definition ahead of the call to get
           proper prototype checking.  Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
           function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid the warning.
           See perlsub.

       Cannot compress integer in pack
           (F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress.  The BER compressed
           integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted to compress
           Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
           (F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative.  The BER compressed integer format can
           only be used with positive integers.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
           (F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it, then tried
           to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.  The access triggers Perl to
           autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion from that type of
           reference to a typeglob.

       Cannot copy to %s
           (P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot be
           directly assigned to.

       Cannot find encoding "%s"
           (S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle, either with
           open() or binmode().

       Cannot set tied @DB::args
           (F) "caller" tried to set @DB::args, but found it tied.  Tying @DB::args is not
           supported.  (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)

       Cannot tie unreifiable array
           (P) You somehow managed to call "tie" on an array that does not keep a reference count
           on its arguments and cannot be made to do so.  Such arrays are not even supposed to be
           accessible to Perl code, but are only used internally.

       Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
           (F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer.  The BER compressed integer
           format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted to compress
           something else.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Can't bless non-reference value
           (F) Only hard references may be blessed.  This is how Perl "enforces" encapsulation of
           objects.  See perlobj.

       Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
           (F) You called "break", but you're in a "foreach" block rather than a "given" block.
           You probably meant to use "next" or "last".

       Can't "break" outside a given block
           (F) You called "break", but you're not inside a "given" block.

       Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
           (F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the object reference
           or package name contains an undefined value.  Something like this will reproduce the
           error:

               $BADREF = undef;
               process $BADREF 1,2,3;
               $BADREF->process(1,2,3);

       Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
           (F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run.  It ordinarily finds
           this out from the object reference you supply, but you didn't supply an object
           reference in this case.  A reference isn't an object reference until it has been
           blessed.  See perlobj.

       Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
           (F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the object reference
           or package name contains an expression that returns a defined value which is neither
           an object reference nor a package name.  Something like this will reproduce the error:

               $BADREF = 42;
               process $BADREF 1,2,3;
               $BADREF->process(1,2,3);

       Can't chdir to %s
           (F) You called "perl -x/foo/bar", but /foo/bar is not a directory that you can chdir
           to, possibly because it doesn't exist.

       Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
           (P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for nosuid.

       Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
           (F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries (typeglobs), can't
           be forced to stop being what they are.  So you can't say things like:

               *foo += 1;

           You CAN say

               $foo = *foo;
               $foo += 1;

           but then $foo no longer contains a glob.

       Can't "continue" outside a when block
           (F) You called "continue", but you're not inside a "when" or "default" block.

       Can't create pipe mailbox
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  The process is suffering from exhausted quotas or other
           plumbing problems.

       Can't declare %s in "%s"
           (F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or "state"
           variables.  They must have ordinary identifiers as names.

       Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
           (F) You have used a "default" block that is neither inside a "foreach" loop nor a
           "given" block.  (Note that this error is issued on exit from the "default" block, so
           you won't get the error if you use an explicit "continue".)

       Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
           (S inplace) You tried to use the -i switch on a special file, such as a file in /dev,
           a FIFO or an uneditable directory.  The file was ignored.

       Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
           (S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.

       Can't do inplace edit without backup
           (F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading from a
           deleted (but still opened) file.  You have to say "-i.bak", or some such.

       Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
           (S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14 characters and
           Perl was unable to create a unique filename during inplace editing with the -i switch.
           The file was ignored.

       Can't do waitpid with flags
           (F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid() without
           flags is emulated.

       Can't emulate -%s on #! line
           (F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.  For
           example, it'd be kind of silly to put a -x on the #!  line.

       Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
           (F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian, or it has a
           very strange pointer size.  Packing and unpacking big- or little-endian floating point
           values and pointers may not be possible.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Can't exec "%s": %s
           (W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named program
           for the indicated reason.  Typical reasons include: the permissions were wrong on the
           file, the file wasn't found in $ENV{PATH}, the executable in question was compiled for
           another architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't
           be run for similar reasons.  (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)

       Can't exec %s
           (F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's what the
           #! line said.  If that's not what you wanted, you may need to mention "perl" on the #!
           line somewhere.

       Can't execute %s
           (F) You used the -S switch, but the copies of the script to execute found in the PATH
           did not have correct permissions.

       Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
           (F) A string of a form "CORE::word" was given to prototype(), but there is no builtin
           with the name "word".

       Can't find %s character property "%s"
           (F) You used "\p{}" or "\P{}" but the character property by that name could not be
           found.  Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?  See "Properties accessible
           through \p{} and \P{}" in perluniprops for a complete list of available official
           properties.

       Can't find label %s
           (F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible for us
           to go to.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Can't find %s on PATH
           (F) You used the -S switch, but the script to execute could not be found in the PATH.

       Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
           (F) You used the -S switch, but the script to execute could not be found in the PATH,
           or at least not with the correct permissions.  The script exists in the current
           directory, but PATH prohibits running it.

       Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
           (F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines.  This message means that the closing
           delimiter was omitted.  Because bracketed quotes count nesting levels, the following
           is missing its final parenthesis:

               print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);

           If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included unseen
           whitespace before or after your closing tag or there may not be a linebreak after it.
           A good programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters (or lack
           of characters).  See perlop for the full details on here-documents.

       Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
           (F) You may have tried to use "\p" which means a Unicode property (for example
           "\p{Lu}" matches all uppercase letters).  If you did mean to use a Unicode property,
           see "Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}" in perluniprops for a complete list
           of available properties.  If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the
           "\p", either by "\\p" (just the "\p") or by "\Q\p" (the rest of the string, or until
           "\E").

       Can't fork: %s
           (F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.

       Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
           (W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried after five
           seconds.

       Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
           (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  This arises because of the difference between access
           checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.  Under VMS, access checks are
           done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other
           protections can be taken into account.  Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat
           buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec,
           to the access-checking routine.  It will try to retrieve the filespec using the device
           name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only if you haven't made a
           subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine, because the device name is overwritten
           with each call.  If this warning appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-
           checking routine gave up and returned FALSE, just to be conservative.  (Note: The
           access-checking routine knows about the Perl "stat" operator and file tests, so you
           shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some
           internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)

       Can't get pipe mailbox device name
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl can't
           retrieve its name for later use.

       Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your mailbox
           buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.

       Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
           (F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach loop.  You
           can't get there from here.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
           (F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like a block,
           except that it isn't a proper block.  This usually occurs if you tried to jump out of
           a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
           (F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the comparison sub for a
           sort(), or from a similar callback (such as the reduce() function in List::Util).

       Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
           (F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string" or block.

       Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
           (F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine call for
           another.  It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth.  In general you should be
           calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
           (W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD signal (sometimes
           known as SIGCLD) disabled.  Since disabling this signal will interfere with proper
           determination of exit status of child processes, Perl has reset the signal to its
           default value.  This situation typically indicates that the parent program under which
           Perl may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.

       Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
           (F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers.  It is a fatal error to attempt to
           kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric process identifier.

       Can't "last" outside a loop block
           (F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block, except that
           there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current block.  Note that an "if"
           or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to
           sort(), map() or grep().  You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
           though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once.  See
           "last" in perlfunc.

       Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
           (F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a package, but failed
           because the package stash has no name.

       Can't load '%s' for module %s
           (F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.  This may either
           mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is incompatible with your old
           dynamic extensions (which is known to happen between major versions of perl), or (more
           likely) that your dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
           that is installed on your system.  You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
           extensions.

       Can't localize lexical variable %s
           (F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a lexical
           variable using "my" or "state".  This is not allowed.  If you want to localize a
           package variable of the same name, qualify it with the package name.

       Can't localize through a reference
           (F) You said something like "local $$ref", which Perl can't currently handle, because
           when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref pointed to after the scope of
           the local() is finished, it can't be sure that $ref will still be a reference.

       Can't locate %s
           (F) You said to "do" (or "require", or "use") a file that couldn't be found.  Perl
           looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless the file name
           included the full path to the file.  Perhaps you need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT
           environment variable to say where the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to
           add the library name to @INC.  Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file.  See
           "require" in perlfunc and lib.

       Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
           (F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload, but there is
           no function to autoload.  Most probable causes are a misprint in a function/method
           name or a failure to "AutoSplit" the file, say, by doing "make install".

       Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
           (F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like for example,
           foo.so or bar.dll, but the DynaLoader module was unable to locate this library.  See
           DynaLoader.

       Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
           (F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package functioning as
           a class, but that package doesn't define that particular method, nor does any of its
           base classes.  See perlobj.

       Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
           (W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem to
           exist.

       Can't locate PerlIO%s
           (F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist, e.g. open(FH,
           ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").

       Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
           (F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.

       Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
           (W) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request that
           symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the process, but that
           functionality is not available on this platform.  Whilst the module likely will still
           work, this may prevent the perl interpreter from loading other XS-based extensions
           which need to link directly to functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated
           file.

       Can't modify %s in %s
           (F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to change it,
           such as with an auto-increment.

       Can't modify nonexistent substring
           (P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed a NULL.

       Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
           (F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as such.  See
           "Lvalue subroutines" in perlsub.

       Can't msgrcv to read-only var
           (F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive buffer.

       Can't "next" outside a loop block
           (F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but there isn't a
           current block.  Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish" block,
           as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep().  You can usually double the
           curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies will be considered a
           block that loops once.  See "next" in perlfunc.

       Can't open %s
           (F) You tried to run a perl built with MAD support with the PERL_XMLDUMP environment
           variable set, but the file named by that variable could not be opened.

       Can't open %s: %s
           (S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the "<>" filehandle, either
           implicitly under the "-n" or "-p" command-line switches, or explicitly, failed for the
           indicated reason.  Usually this is because you don't have read permission for a file
           which you named on the command line.

           (F) You tried to call perl with the -e switch, but /dev/null (or your operating
           system's equivalent) could not be opened.

       Can't open a reference
           (W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing, using the 3-arg
           open() syntax:

               open FH, '>', $ref;

           but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of open is not
           supported.

       Can't open bidirectional pipe
           (W pipe) You tried to say "open(CMD, "|cmd|")", which is not supported.  You can try
           any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as IPC::Open2.
           Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using ">", and then read it in under a
           different file handle.

       Can't open error file %s as stderr
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redirection, and
           couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on the command line for writing.

       Can't open input file %s as stdin
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redirection, and
           couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the command line for reading.

       Can't open output file %s as stdout
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redirection, and
           couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on the command line for writing.

       Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redirection, and
           couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.

       Can't open perl script "%s": %s
           (F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.

           If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the shell's $PATH
           search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so you don't have to type the
           path or "`which $scriptname`".

       Can't read CRTL environ
           (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl tried to read an element of %ENV from the CRTL's
           internal environment array and discovered the array was missing.  You need to figure
           out where your CRTL misplaced its environ or define PERL_ENV_TABLES (see perlvms) so
           that environ is not searched.

       Can't "redo" outside a loop block
           (F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but there isn't a
           current block.  Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish" block,
           as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep().  You can usually double the
           curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies will be considered a
           block that loops once.  See "redo" in perlfunc.

       Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
           (S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup file.  Perl was
           unable to remove the original file to replace it with the modified file.  The file was
           left unmodified.

       Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
           (S inplace) The rename done by the -i switch failed for some reason, probably because
           you don't have write permission to the directory.

       Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to reopen it
           to accept binary data.  Alas, it failed.

       Can't reset %ENV on this system
           (F) You called "reset('E')" or similar, which tried to reset all variables in the
           current package beginning with "E".  In the main package, that includes %ENV.
           Resetting %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.

       Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
           (F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed to a
           subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package.  If the method name is
           "???", this is an internal error.

       Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
           (F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as temporary or readonly
           values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue.  This is not allowed.

       Can't return outside a subroutine
           (F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where there was no
           subroutine call to return out of.  See perlsub.

       Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
           (F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine, but you
           called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant to return only one
           value.  You probably meant to write parentheses around the call to the subroutine,
           which tell Perl that the call should be in list context.

       Can't stat script "%s"
           (P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it open already.
           Bizarre.

       Can't take log of %g
           (F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a negative number or
           zero.  There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard with Perl, though, if you
           really want to do that for the negative numbers.

       Can't take sqrt of %g
           (F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a negative number.
           There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard with Perl, though, if you really
           want to do that.

       Can't undef active subroutine
           (F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running.  You can, however, redefine
           it while it's running, and you can even undef the redefined subroutine while the old
           routine is running.  Go figure.

       Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
           (P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it into a more
           specialized kind of SV.  The top several SV types are so specialized, however, that
           they cannot be interconverted.  This message indicates that such a conversion was
           attempted.

       Can't use '%c' after -mname
           (F) You tried to call perl with the -m switch, but you put something other than "="
           after the module name.

       Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
           (F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol table that
           doesn't have a name.  Symbol tables can become anonymous for example by undefining
           stashes: "undef %Some::Package::".

       Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
           (F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must be a defined
           value.  This helps to delurk some insidious errors.

       Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
           (F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs".  Symbolic references are
           disallowed.  See perlref.

       Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
           (F) The first time the "%!" hash is used, perl automatically loads the Errno.pm
           module.  The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to provide symbolic names for
           $! errno values.

       Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
           (F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian byte-order at
           the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not allowed.  See "pack" in
           perlfunc.

       Can't use %s for loop variable
           (F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.

       Can't use global %s in "%s"
           (F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable.  This is not
           allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely the global
           variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have variables in your program that
           looked like magical variables but weren't.

       Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
           (F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type that is already inside a
           group with a byte-order modifier.  For example you cannot force little-endianness on a
           type that is inside a big-endian group.

       Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
           (F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.  You mentioned
           $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator, and the variable had earlier
           been declared as a lexical variable.  Either qualify the sort variable with the
           package name, or rename the lexical variable.

       Can't use %s ref as %s ref
           (F) You've mixed up your reference types.  You have to dereference a reference of the
           type needed.  You can use the ref() function to test the type of the reference, if
           need be.

       Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
           (F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which "use strict" blocks to
           prevent it happening accidentally.  See "Symbolic references" in perlref.  This can be
           triggered by an "@" or "$" in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating
           a variable, for example in "user @$twitter_id", which says to treat the contents of
           $twitter_id as an array reference; use a "\" to have a literal "@" symbol followed by
           the contents of $twitter_id: "user \@$twitter_id".

       Can't use subscript on %s
           (F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a subscript.  But to the
           left of the brackets was an expression that didn't look like a hash or array
           reference, or anything else subscriptable.

       Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
           (W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates a
           reference to its argument.  The use of backslash to indicate a backreference to a
           matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.  Trying to do
           this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints out looking like
           SCALAR(0xdecaf).  Use the $1 form instead.

       Can't weaken a nonreference
           (F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference.  Only references can
           be weakened.

       Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
           (F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a "foreach" loop nor a "given"
           block.  (Note that this error is issued on exit from the "when" block, so you won't
           get the error if the match fails, or if you use an explicit "continue".)

       Can't x= to read-only value
           (F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with an
           assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.  Perhaps you need to
           copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.

       Character following "\c" must be ASCII
           (F)(W deprecated, syntax) In "\cX", X must be an ASCII character.  It is planned to
           make this fatal in all instances in Perl v5.20.  In the cases where it isn't fatal,
           the character this evaluates to is derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this
           character with 0x40.

           Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well, and using non-
           printable ones will be deprecated starting in v5.18.

       Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
           (W pack) You said

               pack("C", $x)

           where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the "C" format is only for encoding
           native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC, and so on) and not for Unicode
           characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant

               pack("C", $x & 255)

           If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the "U" format instead.

       Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
           (W pack) You said

               pack("U0W", $x)

           where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255.  However, "U0"-mode expects all
           values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you meant:

               pack("U0W", $x & 255)

       Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
           (W pack) You said

               pack("c", $x)

           where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the "c" format is only for
           encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC, and so on) and not for
           Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant

               pack("c", $x & 255);

           If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the "U" format instead.

       Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
           (W unpack) You tried something like

              unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")

           where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value below 256), but a
           higher value was provided instead.  Perl uses the value modulus 256 instead, as if you
           had provided:

              unpack("H", "\x{a1}")

       Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
           (W pack) You tried something like

              pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")

           where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a value below
           256), but some of the characters had a higher value.  Perl uses the character values
           modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:

              pack("u", "\x{f3}b")

       Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
           (W unpack) You tried something like

              unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")

           where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a value below
           256), but some of the characters had a higher value.  Perl uses the character values
           modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:

              unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")

       "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
           (D deprecated, syntax) The "\cX" construct is intended to be a way to specify non-
           printable characters.  You used it with a "{" which evaluates to ";", which is
           printable.  It is planned to remove the ability to specify a semi-colon this way in
           Perl 5.20.  Just use a semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".

       "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
           (W syntax) The "\cX" construct is intended to be a way to specify non-printable
           characters.  You used it for a printable one, which is better written as simply
           itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word characters.

       Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
           (F) Creating a new thread inside the "s///" operator is not supported.

       close() on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.

       closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
           (W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really a dirhandle.
           Check your control flow.

       Closure prototype called
           (F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute handler is the
           prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.  This subroutine cannot be
           called.

       Code missing after '/'
           (F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'.  There must be another template
           code following the slash.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
       Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, all \p{} matches fail; all \P{} matches succeed
           (S utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.

           Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, up to the limit of
           what is storable in an unsigned integer on your system, but these may not be accepted
           by other languages/systems.  At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code
           points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher.  Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
           larger than a 32 bit word.

           None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode code point.
           For example,

               chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/

           will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode.  But

               chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/

           will match.

           This may be counterintuitive at times, as both these fail:

            chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/      # Fails.
            chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/     # Also fails!

           and both these succeed:

            chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/      # Succeeds.
            chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/     # Also succeeds!

       %s: Command not found
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh or another shell shell instead of
           Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.  The #!
           line at the top of your file could look like

             #!/usr/bin/perl -w

       Compilation failed in require
           (F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a "require" statement.  Perl uses this
           generic message when none of the errors that it encountered were severe enough to halt
           compilation immediately.

       Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
           (W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex situations where
           back-tracking is required.  Recursion depth is limited to 32766, or perhaps less in
           architectures where the stack cannot grow arbitrarily.  ("Simple" and "medium"
           situations are handled without recursion and are not subject to a limit.)  Try
           shortening the string under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with "while")
           rather than in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
           that it is simpler or backtracks less.  (See perlfaq2 for information on Mastering
           Regular Expressions.)

       cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
           (W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call cond_broadcast() on a
           variable which wasn't locked.  The cond_broadcast() function is used to wake up
           another thread that is waiting in a cond_wait().  To ensure that the signal isn't sent
           before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling
           thread first to wait for a lock on variable.  This lock attempt will only succeed
           after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.

       cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
           (W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call cond_signal() on a
           variable which wasn't locked.  The cond_signal() function is used to wake up another
           thread that is waiting in a cond_wait().  To ensure that the signal isn't sent before
           the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
           first to wait for a lock on variable.  This lock attempt will only succeed after the
           other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.

       connect() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket.  Did you forget to check the
           return value of your socket() call?  See "connect" in perlfunc.

       Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
           (F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading (see overload) or a
           custom charnames handler (see "CUSTOM TRANSLATORS" in charnames) returned an undefined
           value.

       Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
           (F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an overloaded
           constant.  Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding overload pragma?.

       Constant(%s) unknown
           (F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define an overloaded
           constant, or when trying to find the character name specified in the "\N{...}" escape.
           Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding overload pragma?.

       Constant is not %s reference
           (F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the "use constant" pragma) is being
           dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.  The message indicates
           the type of reference that was expected.  This usually indicates a syntax error in
           dereferencing the constant value.  See "Constant Functions" in perlsub and constant.

       Constant subroutine %s redefined
           (W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
           inlining.  See "Constant Functions" in perlsub for commentary and workarounds.

       Constant subroutine %s undefined
           (W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for inlining.
           See "Constant Functions" in perlsub for commentary and workarounds.

       Copy method did not return a reference
           (F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy.  See "Copy Constructor" in overload.

       &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
           (F) You tried to call a subroutine in the "CORE::" namespace with &foo syntax or
           through a reference.  Some subroutines in this package cannot yet be called that way,
           but must be called as barewords.  Something like this will work:

               BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
               shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array

       CORE::%s is not a keyword
           (F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.

       corrupted regexp pointers
           (P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular expression compiler
           gave it.

       corrupted regexp program
           (P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a valid magic
           number.

       Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
           (P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.

       Corrupted regexp opcode %d > %d
           (F) This is either an error in Perl, or, if you're using one, your custom regular
           expression engine.  If not the latter, report the problem through the perlbug utility.

       Count after length/code in unpack
           (F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but you have also
           specified an explicit size for the string.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
       Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
           (W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100 times
           more than it has returned.  This probably indicates an infinite recursion, unless
           you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which case it indicates something else.

           This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the perl binary, setting the C
           pre-processor macro "PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN" to the desired value.

       defined(@array) is deprecated
           (D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it checks for an
           undefined scalar value.  If you want to see if the array is empty, just use "if
           (@array) { # not empty }" for example.

       defined(%hash) is deprecated
           (D deprecated) "defined()" is not usually right on hashes and has been discouraged
           since 5.004.

           Although "defined %hash" is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it becomes true in
           several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators, weak references, stash names,
           even remaining true after "undef %hash".  These things make "defined %hash" fairly
           useless in practice.

           If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean context (see
           "Scalar values" in perldata):

               if (%hash) {
                  # not empty
               }

           If you had "defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX" to check whether such a package variable exists
           then that's never really been reliable, and isn't a good way to enquire about the
           features of a package, or whether it's loaded, etc.

       (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You used something like "(?(DEFINE)...|..)" which is illegal.  The most likely
           cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside of the "...." part.

           The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.

       %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
           (F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file there are neither
           package declarations nor a $VERSION.

       Delimiter for here document is too long
           (F) In a here document construct like "<<FOO", the label "FOO" is too long for Perl to
           handle.  You have to be seriously twisted to write code that triggers this error.

       Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
           (D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to "my $x if 0".  There has been a long-
           standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable not to be cleared at scope exit
           when its declaration includes a false conditional.  Some people have exploited this
           bug to achieve a kind of static variable.  Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't
           want people relying on this behavior.  You can achieve a similar static effect by
           declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg

               sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }

           becomes

               { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }

           Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use "state" variables to have lexicals that
           are initialized only once (see feature):

               sub f { state $x; return $x++ }

       DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
           (F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is just being
           DESTROYed.  Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than to create a dangling
           reference.

       Did not produce a valid header
           See Server error.

       %s did not return a true value
           (F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that it compiled
           correctly and ran its initialization code correctly.  It's traditional to end such a
           file with a "1;", though any true value would do.  See "require" in perlfunc.

       (Did you mean &%s instead?)
           (W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.

       (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
           (W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global variable.  You have
           declared it again in the same lexical scope, which seems superfluous.

       (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
           (W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.  On the
           other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.

       Died
           (F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of "die """) or you called it
           with no args and $@ was empty.

       Document contains no data
           See Server error.

       %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
           (F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not define a $VERSION.

       '/' does not take a repeat count
           (F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.  See "pack" in
           perlfunc.

       Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
           (P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.

       do_study: out of memory
           (P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.

       (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
           (S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s found
           where operator expected".  It often means a subroutine or module name is being
           referenced that hasn't been declared yet.  This may be because of ordering problems in
           your file, or because of a missing "sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement.
           If you're referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to
           define the subroutine or package before the current location.  You can use an empty
           "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.

       dump() better written as CORE::dump()
           (W misc) You used the obsolescent "dump()" built-in function, without fully qualifying
           it as "CORE::dump()".  Maybe it's a typo.  See "dump" in perlfunc.

       dump is not supported
           (F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.

       Duplicate free() ignored
           (S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had already been freed.

       Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
           (W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type in a pack
           template.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       elseif should be elsif
           (S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's ugly.  Your
           code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named "elseif" for the class
           returned by the following block.  This is unlikely to be what you want.

       Empty \%c{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) "\p" and "\P" are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as described in
           perlunicode and perlre.  You used "\p" or "\P" in a regular expression without
           specifying the property name.

       entering effective %s failed
           (F) While under the "use filetest" pragma, switching the real and effective uids or
           gids failed.

       %ENV is aliased to %s
           (F) You're running under taint mode, and the %ENV variable has been aliased to another
           hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the program's environment.  This is
           potentially insecure.

       Error converting file specification %s
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Because Perl may have to deal with file specifications
           in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a single form when it must operate
           on them directly.  Either you've passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or
           you've found a case the conversion routines don't handle.  Drat.

       Escape literal pattern white space under /x
           (D deprecated) You compiled a regular expression pattern with "/x" to ignore white
           space, and you used, as a literal, one of the characters that Perl plans to eventually
           treat as white space.  The character must be escaped somehow, or it will work
           differently on a future Perl that does treat it as white space.  The easiest way is to
           insert a backslash immediately before it, or to enclose it with square brackets.  This
           change is to bring Perl into conformance with Unicode recommendations.  Here are the
           five characters that generate this warning: U+0085 NEXT LINE, U+200E LEFT-TO-RIGHT
           MARK, U+200F RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK, U+2028 LINE SEPARATOR, and U+2029 PARAGRAPH
           SEPARATOR.

       Eval-group in insecure regular expression
           (F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression that
           contains the "(?{ ... })" zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.  See "(?{ code })" in
           perlre, and perlsec.

       Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
           (F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the "(?{ ... })" zero-width
           assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains interpolated values.
           Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.  If you insist, you may still do
           this by using the "re 'eval'" pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
           interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval().  See "(?{ code })" in
           perlre.

       Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
           (F) A regular expression contained the "(?{ ... })" zero-width assertion, but that
           construct is only allowed when the "use re 'eval'" pragma is in effect.  See "(?{ code
           })" in perlre.

       EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming any text.
           Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.

           The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.

       Excessively long <> operator
           (F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a Perl
           identifier.  If you're just trying to glob a long list of filenames, try using the
           glob() operator, or put the filenames into a variable and glob that.

       exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
           (F) The "exec" function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian OS.  See
           perlport.

       Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
           (F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.

       Exiting eval via %s
           (W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop
           control statement.

       Exiting format via %s
           (W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
           loop control statement.

       Exiting pseudo-block via %s
           (W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
           subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control statement.  See
           "sort" in perlfunc.

       Exiting subroutine via %s
           (W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
           loop control statement.

       Exiting substitution via %s
           (W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as a return,
           a goto, or a loop control statement.

       Expecting close bracket in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You wrote something like

            (?13

           to denote a capturing group of the form "(?PARNO)", but omitted the ")".

       Experimental "%s" subs not enabled
           (F) To use lexical subs, you must first enable them:

               no warnings 'experimental::lexical_subs';
               use feature 'lexical_subs';
               my sub foo { ... }

       Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
           (W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string.  This has the effect of
           blessing the reference into the package main.  This is usually not what you want.
           Consider providing a default target package, e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');

       %s: Expression syntax
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh instead of Perl.  Check the #!
           line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       %s failed--call queue aborted
           (F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK, CHECK, INIT, or END
           subroutine.  Processing of the remainder of the queue of such routines has been
           prematurely ended.

       False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal character, not
           another character class like "\d" or "[:alpha:]".  The "-" in your false range is
           interpreted as a literal "-".  Consider quoting the "-", "\-".  The <-- HERE shows
           whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Something untoward happened in a VMS system service or
           RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details.  The filename in "at %s"
           and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of the Perl source code is
           distressed.

       fcntl is not implemented
           (F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl().  What is this, a PDP-11 or
           something?

       FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
           (F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which is not possible.

       Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
           (W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator which can't
           encode values above 63.  So there is no point in asking for a line length bigger than
           that.  Perl will behave as if you specified "u63" as the format.

       Filehandle %s opened only for input
           (W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle.  If you intended it to be a read-
           write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<"
           or nothing.  If you intended only to write the file, use ">" or ">>".  See "open" in
           perlfunc.

       Filehandle %s opened only for output
           (W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If you intended it
           to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>"
           instead of with ">".  If you intended only to read from the file, use "<".  See "open"
           in perlfunc.  Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also
           known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).

       Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
           (W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id as STDOUT
           or STDERR.  This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR previously.

       Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
           (W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id as STDIN.
           This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.

       Final $ should be \$ or $name
           (F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be a literal
           dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that happens to be missing.  So
           you have to put either the backslash or the name.

       flock() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed some time
           before now.  Check your control flow.  flock() operates on filehandles.  Are you
           attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the same name?

       Format not terminated
           (F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot.  Perl got to the end of
           your file without finding such a line.

       Format %s redefined
           (W redefine) You redefined a format.  To suppress this warning, say

               {
                   no warnings 'redefine';
                   eval "format NAME =...";
               }

       Found = in conditional, should be ==
           (W syntax) You said

               if ($foo = 123)

           when you meant

               if ($foo == 123)

           (or something like that).

       %s found where operator expected
           (S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.  If it sees
           what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator, it gives you this
           warning.  Usually it indicates that an operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a
           semicolon.

       gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
           (S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.

       gethostent not implemented
           (F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably because if it
           did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname on the Internet.

       get%sname() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.  Did you
           forget to check the return value of your socket() call?

       getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
           (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  The call to "sys$getuai" underlying the "getpwnam"
           operator returned an invalid UIC.

       getsockopt() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket.  Did you forget to
           check the return value of your socket() call?  See "getsockopt" in perlfunc.

       given is experimental
           (S experimental::smartmatch) "given" depends on both a lexical $_ and smartmatch, both
           of which are experimental, so its behavior may change or even be removed in any future
           release of perl.  See the explanation under "Experimental Details on given and when"
           in perlsyn.

       Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
           (F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
           must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"), declared beforehand using
           "our", or explicitly qualified to say which package the global variable is in (using
           "::").

       glob failed (%s)
           (S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for "glob" and
           "<*.c>".  Usually, this means that you supplied a "glob" pattern that caused the
           external program to fail and exit with a nonzero status.  If the message indicates
           that the abnormal exit resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C
           shell) is broken.  If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
           config.sh:  If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it were csh (e.g.
           "full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'"); otherwise, make them all empty (except that "d_csh"
           should be 'undef') so that Perl will think csh is missing.  In either case, after
           editing config.sh, run "./Configure -S" and rebuild Perl.

       Glob not terminated
           (F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting a term, so
           it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not finding it.  Chances
           are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in the line, and you really meant a
           "less than".

       gmtime(%f) too large
           (W overflow) You called "gmtime" with a number that was larger than it can reliably
           handle and "gmtime" probably returned the wrong date.  This warning is also triggered
           with NaN (the special not-a-number value).

       gmtime(%f) too small
           (W overflow) You called "gmtime" with a number that was smaller than it can reliably
           handle and "gmtime" probably returned the wrong date.

       Got an error from DosAllocMem
           (P) An error peculiar to OS/2.  Most probably you're using an obsolete version of
           Perl, and this should not happen anyway.

       goto must have label
           (F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an unspecified
           destination.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Goto undefined subroutine%s
           (F) You tried to call a subroutine with "goto &sub" syntax, but the indicated
           subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it has since been undefined.

       ()-group starts with a count
           (F) A ()-group started with a count.  A count is supposed to follow something: a
           template character or a ()-group.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
       m/%s/
           (F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning they must start
           with a non-digit word character. A common cause of this error is using (?&0) instead
           of (?0). See perlre.

       %s had compilation errors.
           (F) The final summary message when a "perl -c" fails.

       Had to create %s unexpectedly
           (S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
           existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on an emergency
           basis to prevent a core dump.

       Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
           (D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots.  This
           is now heavily deprecated.

       %s has too many errors
           (F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.  Further
           error messages would likely be uninformative.

       Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
           (W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295)
           and therefore non-portable between systems.  See perlport for more on portability
           concerns.

       -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
           (S inplace) The "-i" option was passed on the command line, indicating that the script
           is intended to edit files inplace, but no files were given.  This is usually a
           mistake, since editing STDIN inplace doesn't make sense, and can be confusing because
           it can make perl look like it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from
           STDIN.  You should either pass a filename to edit, or remove "-i" from the command
           line.  See perlrun for more details.

       Identifier too long
           (F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to about 250
           characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound names (like $A::B).
           You've exceeded Perl's limits.  Future versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these
           arbitrary limitations.

       Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes "(\N{...})" may return a zero-length
           sequence.  When such an escape is used in a character class its behaviour is not well
           defined.  Check that the correct escape has been used, and the correct charname
           handler is in scope.

       Illegal binary digit %s
           (F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.

       Illegal binary digit %s ignored
           (W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
           Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the offending digit.

       Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
           (W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.  Legal
           characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.

       Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
           (F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it would any other
           whitespace, which means you should never see this error when Perl was built using
           standard options.  For some reason, your version of Perl appears to have been built
           without this support.  Talk to your Perl administrator.

       Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
           (W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.  Legal
           characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.

       Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
           (F) When using the "sub" keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine, you must always
           specify a block of code.  See perlsub.

       Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
           (F) A subroutine was not declared correctly.  See perlsub.

       Illegal division by zero
           (F) You tried to divide a number by 0.  Either something was wrong in your logic, or
           you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.

       Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
           (W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a
           hexadecimal number.  Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped before the
           illegal character.

       Illegal modulus zero
           (F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder.  Most numbers don't take
           to this kindly.

       Illegal number of bits in vec
           (F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of two from 1 to
           32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).

       Illegal octal digit %s
           (F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.

       Illegal octal digit %s ignored
           (W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.  Interpretation of
           the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.

       Illegal pattern in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You wrote something like

            (?+foo)

           The "+" is valid only when followed by digits, indicating a capturing group.  See
           "(?PARNO)".

       Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
           (X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the following switches:
           -[CDIMUdmtw].

       Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
           (W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl tried to read the CRTL's internal
           environ array, and encountered an element without the "=" delimiter used to separate
           keys from values.  The element is ignored.

       Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
           (W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl tried to read a logical name or CLI
           symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and didn't see the expected
           delimiter between key and value, so the line was ignored.

       (in cleanup) %s
           (W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised the indicated
           exception.  Since destructors are usually called by the system at arbitrary points
           during execution, and often a vast number of times, the warning is issued only once
           for any number of failures that would otherwise result in the same message being
           repeated.

           Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the "G_KEEPERR" flag could also result in
           this warning.  See "G_KEEPERR" in perlcall.

       In '(*VERB...)', splitting the initial '(*' is deprecated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
       m/%s/
           (D regexp, deprecated) The two-character sequence "(*" in this context in a regular
           expression pattern should be an indivisible token, with nothing intervening between
           the "(" and the "*", but you separated them.  Due to an accident of implementation,
           this prohibition was not enforced, but we do plan to forbid it in a future Perl
           version.  This message serves as giving you fair warning of this pending change.

       In '(?...)', splitting the initial '(?' is deprecated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
       m/%s/
           (D regexp, deprecated) The two-character sequence "(?" in this context in a regular
           expression pattern should be an indivisible token, with nothing intervening between
           the "(" and the "?", but you separated them.  Due to an accident of implementation,
           this prohibition was not enforced, but we do plan to forbid it in a future Perl
           version.  This message serves as giving you fair warning of this pending change.

       Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) There was a syntax error within the "(?[ ])".  This can happen if the expression
           inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are too many or few operands
           for the number of operators.  Perl is not smart enough to give you a more precise
           indication as to what is wrong.

       Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
           (F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not C3-consistent, and you
           have enabled the C3 MRO for this class.  See the C3 documentation in mro for more
           information.

       In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
           (F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC.  Internally, v-strings are stored as Unicode code
           points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC.  The UTF-EBCDIC encoding is limited to
           code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).

       Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input text.  You
           should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns either consume text or
           fail.

           The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.

       Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
           (F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization of scalar
           variables in scalar context.  Re-write "state ($a) = 42" as "state $a = 42" to change
           from list to scalar context.  Constructions such as "state (@a) = foo()" will be
           supported in a future perl release.

       Insecure dependency in %s
           (F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.  The tainting
           mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid, or when you specify -T to
           turn it on explicitly.  The tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly
           or indirectly from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust.  If any
           such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error.  See perlsec for
           more information.

       Insecure directory in %s
           (F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid script if
           $ENV{PATH} contains a directory that is writable by the world.  Also, the PATH must
           not contain any relative directory.  See perlsec.

       Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
           (F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid script if
           any of $ENV{PATH}, $ENV{IFS}, $ENV{CDPATH}, $ENV{ENV}, $ENV{BASH_ENV} or $ENV{TERM}
           are derived from data supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user.  The script must
           set the path to a known value, using trustworthy data.  See perlsec.

       Insecure user-defined property %s
           (F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression that
           contains a call to a user-defined character property function, i.e. "\p{IsFoo}" or
           "\p{InFoo}".  See "User-Defined Character Properties" in perlunicode and perlsec.

       Integer overflow in format string for %s
           (F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of "printf()" or "sprintf()"
           are too large.  The numbers must not overflow the size of integers for your
           architecture.

       Integer overflow in %s number
           (S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified either as a
           literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for your architecture, and has
           been converted to a floating point number.  On a 32-bit architecture the largest
           hexadecimal, octal or binary number representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF,
           037777777777, or 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively.  Note that Perl
           transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
           internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent operations.

       Integer overflow in srand
           (S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit in your
           architecture's integer representation.  The number has been replaced with the largest
           integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit architectures).  This means you may be getting
           less randomness than you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
           return the same sequence of random numbers.

       Integer overflow in version
       Integer overflow in version %d
           (W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the size of
           integers for your architecture.  This is not a warning because there is no rational
           reason for a version to try and use an element larger than typically 2**32.  This is
           usually caused by trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
           100/9.

       Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.  The <-- HERE shows
           whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.

       Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
           (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl keeps track of the number of times you've called
           "fork" and "exec", to determine whether the current call to "exec" should affect the
           current script or a subprocess (see "exec LIST" in perlvms).  Somehow, this count has
           become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating this "exec" as a request to
           terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.

       Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.  The <-- HERE shows
           whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.

       %s (...) interpreted as function
           (W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed by
           parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments found inside
           the parentheses.  See "Terms and List Operators (Leftward)" in perlop.

       Invalid %s attribute: %s
           (F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized by Perl or
           by a user-supplied handler.  See attributes.

       Invalid %s attributes: %s
           (F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not recognized by Perl
           or by a user-supplied handler.  See attributes.

       Invalid [] range "%*.*s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You wrote something like

            [z-a]

           in a regular expression pattern.  Ranges must be specified with the lowest code point
           first.  Instead write

            [a-z]

       Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s}
           (F) Only certain characters are valid for character names.  The indicated one isn't.
           See "CUSTOM ALIASES" in charnames.

       Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by <-- HERE in '%s
           (F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with the ":alias" option
           to "use charnames" and the specified character in the indicated name isn't valid.  See
           "CUSTOM ALIASES" in charnames.

       Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
           (W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.  See "sprintf" in
           perlfunc.

       Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) The numeric escape (for example "\xHH") of value < 256 didn't correspond to
           a single character through the conversion from the encoding specified by the encoding
           pragma.  The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.  The <--
           HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the escape was discovered.

       Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
       Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) The character constant represented by "..." is not a valid hexadecimal number.
           Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F, a - f
           in a hexadecimal number.

       Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
           (F) The module argument to perl's -m and -M command-line options cannot contain single
           colons in the module name, but only in the arguments after "=".  In other words,
           -MFoo::Bar=:baz is ok, but -MFoo:Bar=baz is not.

       Invalid mro name: '%s'
           (F) You tried to "mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")" or "use mro 'foo'", where "foo" is
           not a valid method resolution order (MRO).  Currently, the only valid ones supported
           are "dfs" and "c3", unless you have loaded a module that is a MRO plugin.  See mro and
           perlmroapi.

       Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
           (W utf8) You passed a negative number to "chr".  Negative numbers are not valid
           characters numbers, so it return the Unicode replacement character (U+FFFD).

       invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
           (S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags.  Call perl with the -D
           option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.  See also "-Dletters" in
           perlrun.

       Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character greater than the
           maximum character.  One possibility is that you forgot the "{}" from your ending
           "\x{}" - "\x" without the curly braces can go only up to "ff".  The <-- HERE shows
           whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
           (F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum character greater
           than the maximum character.  See perlop.

       Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
           (F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of an
           attribute list.  If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps
           that list was terminated too soon.  See attributes.

       Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
           (W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a colon
           or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.  If the previous
           attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too
           soon.

       Invalid strict version format (%s)
           (F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.  A "strict"
           version number is a positive decimal number (integer or decimal-fraction) without
           exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal v-string with a leading 'v' character and at
           least three components.  The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
           See the version module for more details on allowed version formats.

       Invalid type '%s' in %s
           (F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

           (W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be silently
           ignored.

       Invalid version format (%s)
           (F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.  A "lax" version
           number is a positive decimal number (integer or decimal-fraction) without
           exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal v-string.  If the v-string has fewer than
           three components, it must have a leading 'v' character.  Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
           optional.  Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
           component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or dotted-decimal
           component.  The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.  See the
           version module for more details on allowed version formats.

       Invalid version object
           (F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.  Perhaps the internals
           were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference was blessed into the
           "version" class.

       ioctl is not implemented
           (F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty strange for a
           machine that supports C.

       ioctl() on unopened %s
           (W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.  Check your
           control flow and number of arguments.

       IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
           (F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore you cannot use IO
           layers.  To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured with 'useperlio'.

       IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
           (F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality, neither as a system
           call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).

       $* is no longer supported
           (D deprecated, syntax) The special variable $*, deprecated in older perls, has been
           removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported.  In previous versions of perl the use
           of $* enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.

           Instead of using $* you should use the "/m" (and maybe "/s") regexp modifiers.  You
           can enable "/m" for a lexical scope (even a whole file) with "use re '/m'".  (In older
           versions: when $* was set to a true value then all regular expressions behaved as if
           they were written using "/m".)

       $# is no longer supported
           (D deprecated, syntax) The special variable $#, deprecated in older perls, has been
           removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported.  You should use the printf/sprintf
           functions instead.

       '%s' is not a code reference
           (W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant needs to
           be a code reference.  Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.

       '%s' is not an overloadable type
           (W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is unaware of.

       Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
           (P) The regular expression parser is confused.

       Label not found for "last %s"
           (F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop of that name,
           not even if you count where you were called from.  See "last" in perlfunc.

       Label not found for "next %s"
           (F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of that name, not
           even if you count where you were called from.  See "last" in perlfunc.

       Label not found for "redo %s"
           (F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of that name, not
           even if you count where you were called from.  See "last" in perlfunc.

       leaving effective %s failed
           (F) While under the "use filetest" pragma, switching the real and effective uids or
           gids failed.

       length/code after end of string in unpack
           (F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack length/code
           combination tried to obtain more data.  This results in an undefined value for the
           length.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       length() used on %s
           (W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you probably wanted a
           count of the items.

           Array size can be obtained by doing:

               scalar(@array);

           The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:

               scalar(keys %hash);

       Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
           (F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse (using
           lex_stuff_pvn or similar), but tried to insert a character that couldn't be part of
           the current input.  This is an inherent pitfall of the stuffing mechanism, and one of
           the reasons to avoid it.  Where it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is
           recommended.

       Lexing code internal error (%s)
           (F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a detectable way.

       listen() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket.  Did you forget to check the
           return value of your socket() call?  See "listen" in perlfunc.

       List form of piped open not implemented
           (F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments form of "open"
           does not support pipes, such as "open($pipe, '|-', @args)".  Use the two-argument
           "open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')" form instead.

       localtime(%f) too large
           (W overflow) You called "localtime" with a number that was larger than it can reliably
           handle and "localtime" probably returned the wrong date.  This warning is also
           triggered with NaN (the special not-a-number value).

       localtime(%f) too small
           (W overflow) You called "localtime" with a number that was smaller than it can
           reliably handle and "localtime" probably returned the wrong date.

       Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
           (F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can handle.
           This restriction may be eased in a future release.

       Lost precision when %s %f by 1
           (W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
           for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately, hence the target
           of "++" or "--" is unchanged.  Perl issues this warning because it has already
           switched from integers to floating point when values are too large for integers, and
           now even floating point is insufficient.  You may wish to switch to using Math::BigInt
           explicitly.

       lstat() on filehandle%s
           (W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle.  What did you mean by that?  lstat()
           makes sense only on filenames.  (Perl did a fstat() instead on the filehandle.)

       lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
           (W misc) Although attributes.pm allows this, turning the lvalue attribute on or off on
           a Perl subroutine that is already defined does not always work properly.  It may or
           may not do what you want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
           details subject to change between Perl versions.  Only do this if you really know what
           you are doing.

       lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
           (W misc) Using the ":lvalue" declarative syntax to make a Perl subroutine an lvalue
           subroutine after it has been defined is not permitted.  To make the subroutine an
           lvalue subroutine, add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the "sub foo
           :lvalue;" declaration before the definition.

           See also attributes.pm.

       Malformed integer in [] in pack
           (F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits are permitted.
           See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Malformed integer in [] in unpack
           (F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits are permitted.
           See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
           (F) An error peculiar to OS/2.  PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form

               prefix1;prefix2

           or
               prefix1 prefix2

           with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2.  If "prefix1" is indeed a prefix of a builtin
           library search path, prefix2 is substituted.  The error may appear if components are
           not found, or are too long.  See "PERLLIB_PREFIX" in perlos2.

       Malformed prototype for %s: %s
           (F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype.  The syntax of function
           prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for obvious errors like invalid
           characters.  A more rigorous check is run when the function is called.

       Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
           (S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding rules, even
           though it had the UTF8 flag on.

           One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that you thought to
           be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy 8-bit data).  To guard against
           this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.

           If you use the ":encoding(UTF-8)" PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte sequences are
           handled gracefully, but if you use ":utf8", the flag is set without validating the
           data, possibly resulting in this error message.

           See also "Handling Malformed Data" in Encode.

       Malformed UTF-8 character immediately after '%s'
           (F) You said "use utf8", but the program file doesn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
           rules.  The message prints out the properly encoded characters just before the first
           bad one.  If "utf8" warnings are enabled, a warning is generated that gives more
           details about the type of malformation.

       Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N{%s} immediately after '%s'
           (F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.

       Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
           (F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding rules and
           perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.

       Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
           (F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding rules and perl
           was unable to guess how to make more progress.

       Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
           (F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding rules and
           perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.

       Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
           (F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while doing it Perl
           met a malformed Unicode surrogate.

       %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the regular
           expression engine didn't specifically check for that.  The <-- HERE shows whereabouts
           in the regular expression the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
           (F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending.  This usually indicates
           that your operating system tried to deliver signals too fast (with a very high
           priority), starving the perl process from resources it would need to reach a point
           where it can process signals safely.  (See "Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)" in
           perlipc.)

       "%s" may clash with future reserved word
           (W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4 interpreter,
           especially if the word that is being warned about is "use" or "my".

       '%' may not be used in pack
           (F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the checksumming process
           loses information, and you can't go the other way.  See "unpack" in perlfunc.

       Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
           (F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that doesn't
           resolve to a valid subroutine.  See overload.

       Method %s not permitted
           See Server error.

       Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
           (S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused by a missing
           delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually ended earlier on the current
           line.

       Misplaced _ in number
           (W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not separate two digits.

       Missing argument in %s
           (W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were supplied.

       Missing argument to -%c
           (F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow immediately after
           the switch, without intervening spaces.

       Missing braces on \N{}
       Missing braces on \N{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) Wrong syntax of character name literal "\N{charname}" within double-quotish
           context.  This can also happen when there is a space (or comment) between the "\N" and
           the "{" in a regex with the "/x" modifier.  This modifier does not change the
           requirement that the brace immediately follow the "\N".

       Missing braces on \o{}
           (F) A "\o" must be followed immediately by a "{" in double-quotish context.

       Missing comma after first argument to %s function
           (F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an "indirect object"
           before the argument list, this ain't one of them.

       Missing command in piped open
           (W pipe) You used the "open(FH, "| command")" or "open(FH, "command |")" construction,
           but the command was missing or blank.

       Missing control char name in \c
           (F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control character
           name.

       Missing name in "%s sub"
           (F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that they have a
           name with which they can be found.

       Missing $ on loop variable
           (F) Apparently you've been programming in csh too much.  Variables are always
           mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from one line to
           the next.

       (Missing operator before %s?)
           (S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s found
           where operator expected".  Often the missing operator is a comma.

       Missing right brace on \%c{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) Missing right brace in "\x{...}", "\p{...}", "\P{...}", or "\N{...}".

       Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
           (F) "\N" has two meanings.

           The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces, meaning the
           character (or sequence of characters) given by that name.  Thus "\N{ASTERISK}" is
           another way of writing "*", valid in both double-quoted strings and regular expression
           patterns.  In patterns, it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped "*" does.

           Starting in Perl 5.12.0, "\N" also can have an additional meaning (only) in patterns,
           namely to match a non-newline character.  (This is short for "[^\n]", and like "." but
           is not affected by the "/s" regex modifier.)

           This can lead to some ambiguities.  When "\N" is not followed immediately by a left
           brace, Perl assumes the "[^\n]" meaning.  Also, if the braces form a valid quantifier
           such as "\N{3}" or "\N{5,}", Perl assumes that this means to match the given quantity
           of non-newlines (in these examples, 3; and 5 or more, respectively).  In all other
           case, where there is a "\N{" and a matching "}", Perl assumes that a character name is
           desired.

           However, if there is no matching "}", Perl doesn't know if it was mistakenly omitted,
           or if "[^\n]{" was desired, and raises this error.  If you meant the former, add the
           right brace; if you meant the latter, escape the brace with a backslash, like so:
           "\N\{"

       Missing right curly or square bracket
           (F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing ones.  As a
           general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you were last editing.

       (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
           (S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s found
           where operator expected".  Don't automatically put a semicolon on the previous line
           just because you saw this message.

       Modification of a read-only value attempted
           (F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a constant.  You didn't,
           of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler catches that.  But an easy way to do the
           same thing is:

               sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
               mod(2);

           Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.

           Yet another way is to assign to a "foreach" loop VAR when VAR is aliased to a constant
           in the look LIST:

               $x = 1;
               foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
                   $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to
               }            # modify the 2

       Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
           (F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the subscript was
           probably negative, even counting from end of the array backwards.

       Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
           (P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't be created
           for some peculiar reason.

       Module name must be constant
           (F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".

       Module name required with -%c option
           (F) The "-M" or "-m" options say that Perl should load some module, but you omitted
           the name of the module.  Consult perlrun for full details about "-M" and "-m".

       More than one argument to '%s' open
           (F) The "open" function has been asked to open multiple files.  This can happen if you
           are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a list of arguments, but have
           forgotten to specify a piped open mode.  See "open" in perlfunc for details.

       msg%s not implemented
           (F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.

       Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
           (W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like $foo[1,2,3].  They're written
           like $foo[1][2][3], as in C.

       '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
           (F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not follow some
           unpack specification producing a numeric value.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       "my sub" not yet implemented
           (F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented.  Don't try that yet.

       "my" variable %s can't be in a package
           (F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense to try to
           declare one with a package qualifier on the front.  Use local() if you want to
           localize a package variable.

       Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
           (W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.  If you had a
           good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it again somehow to suppress
           the message.  The "our" declaration is provided for this purpose.

           NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c, %c, *c,
           &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered the same; if a
           program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it will not trigger this
           warning.

       \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
       m/%s/
           (F) The new (5.12) meaning of "\N" as "[^\n]" is not valid in a bracketed character
           class, for the same reason that "." in a character class loses its specialness: it
           matches almost everything, which is probably not what you want.

       \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or sequence was
           encountered.  This can happen in any of several ways that bypass the lexer, such as
           using single-quotish context, or an extra backslash in double-quotish:

               $re = '\N{SPACE}';  # Wrong!
               $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
               /$re/;

           Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:

               $re = "\N{SPACE}";  # ok
               /$re/;

           The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller components:

               $re = '\N';
               /${re}{SPACE}/;     # Wrong!

           It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it doesn't work
           here.  Instead use the solution above.

           Finally, the message also can happen under the "/x" regex modifier when the "\N" is
           separated by spaces from the "{", in which case, remove the spaces.

               /\N {SPACE}/x;      # Wrong!
               /\N{SPACE}/x;       # ok

       Need exactly 3 octal digits in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) Within "(?[   ])", all constants interpreted as octal need to be exactly 3 digits
           long.  This helps catch some ambiguities.  If your constant is too short, add leading
           zeros, like

            (?[ [ \078 ] ])     # Syntax error!
            (?[ [ \0078 ] ])    # Works
            (?[ [ \007 8 ] ])   # Clearer

           The maximum number this construct can express is "\777".  If you need a larger one,
           you need to use \o{} instead.  If you meant two separate things, you need to separate
           them

            (?[ [ \7776 ] ])        # Syntax error!
            (?[ [ \o{7776} ] ])     # One meaning
            (?[ [ \777 6 ] ])       # Another meaning
            (?[ [ \777 \006 ] ])    # Still another

       Negative '/' count in unpack
           (F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was negative.  See
           "pack" in perlfunc.

       Negative length
           (F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length that is less
           than 0.  This is difficult to imagine.

       Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
           (F) When "vec" is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be greater
           than or equal to zero.

       Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses.  So things like
           ** or +* or ?* are illegal.  The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression
           the problem was discovered.

           Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, "*?", "+?", and "??" appear to be nested
           quantifiers, but aren't.  See perlre.

       %s never introduced
           (S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope before
           it could possibly have been used.

       next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
           (F) "next::method" needs to be called within the context of a real method in a real
           package, and it could not find such a context.  See mro.

       No %s allowed while running setuid
           (F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid script to
           even be allowed to attempt.  Generally speaking there will be another way to do what
           you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.  See perlsec.

       No code specified for -%c
           (F) Perl's -e and -E command-line options require an argument.  If you want to run an
           empty program, pass the empty string as a separate argument or run a program
           consisting of a single 0 or 1:

               perl -e ""
               perl -e0
               perl -e1

       No comma allowed after %s
           (F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not allowed to have
           a comma between that and the following arguments.  Otherwise it'd be just another one
           of the arguments.

           One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a constant to your
           name space with use or import while no such importing took place, it may for example
           be that your operating system does not support that particular constant.  Hopefully
           you did use an explicit import list for the constants you expect to see; please see
           "use" in perlfunc and "import" in perlfunc.  While an explicit import list would
           probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not remedy the fact that
           your operating system still does not support that constant.  Maybe you have a typo in
           the constants of the symbol import list of use or import or in the constant name at
           the line where this error was triggered?

       No command into which to pipe on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line redirection, and
           found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you want to pipe
           the output from this command.

       No DB::DB routine defined
           (F) The currently executing code was compiled with the -d switch, but for some reason
           the current debugger (e.g. perl5db.pl or a "Devel::" module) didn't define a routine
           to be called at the beginning of each statement.

       No dbm on this machine
           (P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should supply dbm
           nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM.  See SDBM_File.

       No DB::sub routine defined
           (F) The currently executing code was compiled with the -d switch, but for some reason
           the current debugger (e.g. perl5db.pl or a "Devel::" module) didn't define a "DB::sub"
           routine to be called at the beginning of each ordinary subroutine call.

       No directory specified for -I
           (F) The -I command-line switch requires a directory name as part of the same argument.
           Use -Ilib, for instance.  -I lib won't work.

       No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line redirection, and
           found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file to
           which to write data destined for stderr.

       No group ending character '%c' found in template
           (F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its matching
           counterpart.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       No input file after < on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line redirection, and
           found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file from which to
           read data for stdin.

       No next::method '%s' found for %s
           (F) "next::method" found no further instances of this method name in the remaining
           packages of the MRO of this class.  If you don't want it throwing an exception, use
           "maybe::next::method" or "next::can".  See mro.

       "no" not allowed in expression
           (F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns no useful
           value.  See perlmod.

       No output file after > on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line redirection, and
           found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you wanted
           to redirect stdout.

       No output file after > or >> on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line redirection, and
           found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file to
           which to write data destined for stdout.

       No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
           (F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our" declarations, because that
           doesn't make much sense under existing semantics.  Such syntax is reserved for future
           extensions.

       No Perl script found in input
           (F) You called "perl -x", but no line was found in the file beginning with #! and
           containing the word "perl".

       No setregid available
           (F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for your system.

       No setreuid available
           (F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for your system.

       No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
           (F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable but
           that key is not allowed by the package of the same type.  The indicated package has
           restricted the set of allowed keys using the fields pragma.

       No such class %s
           (F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but this
           class doesn't exist at this point in your program.

       No such hook: %s
           (F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl.  Currently, Perl
           accepts "__DIE__" and "__WARN__" as valid signal hooks.

       No such pipe open
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  The internal routine my_pclose() tried to close a pipe
           which hadn't been opened.  This should have been caught earlier as an attempt to close
           an unopened filehandle.

       No such signal: SIG%s
           (W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
           Say "kill -l" in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.

       Not a CODE reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a subroutine),
           but found a reference to something else instead.  You can use the ref() function to
           find out what kind of ref it really was.  See also perlref.

       Not a GLOB reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a symbol table
           entry that looks like *foo), but found a reference to something else instead.  You can
           use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.  See perlref.

       Not a HASH reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a reference to
           something else instead.  You can use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref
           it really was.  See perlref.

       Not an ARRAY reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found a reference
           to something else instead.  You can use the ref() function to find out what kind of
           ref it really was.  See perlref.

       Not an unblessed ARRAY reference
           (F) You passed a reference to a blessed array to "push", "shift" or another array
           function.  These only accept unblessed array references or arrays beginning explicitly
           with "@".

       Not a SCALAR reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found a reference
           to something else instead.  You can use the ref() function to find out what kind of
           ref it really was.  See perlref.

       Not a subroutine reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a subroutine),
           but found a reference to something else instead.  You can use the ref() function to
           find out what kind of ref it really was.  See also perlref.

       Not a subroutine reference in overload table
           (F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that doesn't
           somehow point to a valid subroutine.  See overload.

       Not enough arguments for %s
           (F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.

       Not enough format arguments
           (W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.  See
           perlform.

       %s: not found
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead of Perl.
           Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
           (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl was unable to find the local timezone offset, so
           it's assuming that local system time is equivalent to UTC.  If it's not, define the
           logical name SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL to translate to the number of seconds which
           need to be added to UTC to get local time.

       Non-hex character in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) In a regular expression, there was a non-hexadecimal character where a hex one was
           expected, like

            (?[ [ \xDG ] ])
            (?[ [ \x{DEKA} ] ])

       Non-octal character '%c'.  Resolved as "%s"
           (W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was unexpectedly
           encountered that isn't octal.  The resulting value is as indicated.

       Non-octal character in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) In a regular expression, there was a non-octal character where an octal one was
           expected, like

            (?[ [ \o{1278} ] ])

       Non-string passed as bitmask
           (W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().  Use the vec()
           function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for select.  See "select" in
           perlfunc.

       (?[...]) not valid in locale in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) "(?[...])" cannot be used within the scope of a "use locale" or with an "/l"
           regular expression modifier, as that would require deferring to run-time the
           calculation of what it should evaluate to, and it is regex compile-time only.

       Null filename used
           (F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines that
           means the current directory!  See "require" in perlfunc.

       NULL OP IN RUN
           (S debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.

       Null picture in formline
           (F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture specification.  It
           was found to be empty, which probably means you supplied it an uninitialized value.
           See perlform.

       Null realloc
           (P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.

       NULL regexp argument
           (P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.

       NULL regexp parameter
           (P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.

       Number too long
           (F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about 250
           characters.  You've exceeded that length.  Future versions of Perl are likely to
           eliminate this arbitrary limitation.  In the meantime, try using scientific notation
           (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").

       Number with no digits
           (F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like a number.  This
           happens, for example with "\o{}", with no number between the braces.

       "my %s" used in sort comparison
           (W syntax) The package variables $a and $b are used for sort comparisons.  You used $a
           or $b in as an operand to the "<=>" or "cmp" operator inside a sort comparison block,
           and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.  Either qualify the
           sort variable with the package name, or rename the lexical variable.

       Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
           (W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295) and
           therefore non-portable between systems.  See perlport for more on portability
           concerns.

       Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
           (W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of arguments.  The
           arguments should come in pairs.

       Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
           (W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which is odd,
           because hashes come in key/value pairs.

       Odd number of elements in hash assignment
           (W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which is odd,
           because hashes come in key/value pairs.

       Offset outside string
           (F)(W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation with an offset
           pointing outside the buffer.  This is difficult to imagine.  The sole exceptions to
           this are that zero padding will take place when going past the end of the string when
           either "sysread()"ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened for I/O
           (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour with real files).

       %s() on unopened %s
           (W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never
           initialized.  You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket() call, or call a
           constructor from the FileHandle package.

       -%s on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't open.
           Check your control flow.  See also "-X" in perlfunc.

       Strings with code points over 0xFF may not be mapped into in-memory file handles
           (W utf8) You tried to open a reference to a scalar for read or append where the scalar
           contained code points over 0xFF.  In-memory files model on-disk files and can only
           contain bytes.

       oops: oopsAV
           (S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.

       oops: oopsHV
           (S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.

       Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
           (D io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to a symbol (glob or
           scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.  Although legal, this idiom might render your
           code confusing and is deprecated.

       Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
           (D io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to a symbol (glob or
           scalar) that already holds a filehandle.  Although legal, this idiom might render your
           code confusing and is deprecated.

       Operand with no preceding operator in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You wrote something like

            (?[ \p{Digit} \p{Thai} ])

           There are two operands, but no operator giving how you want to combine them.

       Operation "%s": no method found, %s
           (F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no handler was
           defined.  While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms of other handlers, there
           is no default handler for any operation, unless the "fallback" overloading key is
           specified to be true.  See overload.

       Operation "%s" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%X
           (S utf8, non_unicode) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a code
           point that is not in Unicode, so what it should do is not defined.  Perl has chosen to
           have it do nothing, and warn you.

           If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive matching in a
           regular expression was done on the code point.

           If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by "no warnings
           'non_unicode';".

       Operation "%s" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
           (S utf8, surrogate) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a
           Unicode surrogate.  Unicode frowns upon the use of surrogates for anything but storing
           strings in UTF-16, but semantics are (reluctantly) defined for the surrogates, and
           they are to do nothing for this operation.  Because the use of surrogates can be
           dangerous, Perl warns.

           If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive matching in a
           regular expression was done on the code point.

           If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by "no warnings
           'surrogate';".

       Operator or semicolon missing before %s
           (S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was expecting an
           operator.  The parser has assumed you really meant to use an operator, but this is
           highly likely to be incorrect.  For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be
           interpreted as if you said "*foo * 'foo'".

       "our" variable %s redeclared
           (W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before in the current
           lexical scope.

       Out of memory!
           (X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient remaining
           memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.  Perl has no option but to exit
           immediately.

           At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your process datasize
           limits: in csh/tcsh use "limit" and "limit datasize n" (where "n" is the number of
           kilobytes) to check the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use
           "ulimit -a" and "ulimit -d n", respectively.

       Out of memory during %s extend
           (X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond the largest
           possible memory allocation.

       Out of memory during "large" request for %s
           (F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient remaining
           memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.  However, the request was judged
           large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a possibility to shut down by trapping
           this error is granted.

       Out of memory during request for %s
           (X)(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient remaining
           memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.

           The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it depends on the way
           perl was compiled.  By default it is not trappable.  However, if compiled for this,
           Perl may use the contents of $^M as an emergency pool after die()ing with this
           message.  In this case the error is trappable once, and the error message will include
           the line and file where the failed request happened.

       Out of memory during ridiculously large request
           (F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes.  This error is most likely
           to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., $arr[time] instead of $arr[$time].

       Out of memory for yacc stack
           (F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing, but
           realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.

       '.' outside of string in pack
           (F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working position to
           before the start of the packed string being built.

       '@' outside of string in unpack
           (F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside the string being
           unpacked.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
           (F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside the string being
           unpacked.  The string being unpacked was also invalid UTF-8.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       overload arg '%s' is invalid
           (W overload) The overload pragma was passed an argument it did not recognize.  Did you
           mistype an operator?

       Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
           (F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced, but the
           overloaded operation did not return a reference.  See overload.

       Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
           (F) An object with a "qr" overload was used as part of a match, but the overloaded
           operation didn't return a compiled regexp.  See overload.

       %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
           (W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a package-specific handler.
           That name might have a meaning to Perl itself some day, even though it doesn't yet.
           Perhaps you should use a mixed-case attribute name, instead.  See attributes.

       pack/unpack repeat count overflow
           (F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your signed integers.
           See "pack" in perlfunc.

       page overflow
           (W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.  See
           perlform.

       panic: %s
           (P) An internal error.

       panic: attempt to call %s in %s
           (P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls an ACL related-
           function, but that function is not available on this platform.  Earlier checks mean
           that it should not be possible to enter this branch on this platform.

       panic: child pseudo-process was never scheduled
           (P) A child pseudo-process in the ithreads implementation on Windows was not scheduled
           within the time period allowed and therefore was not able to initialize properly.

       panic: ck_grep, type=%u
           (P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.

       panic: ck_split, type=%u
           (P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.

       panic: corrupt saved stack index %ld
           (P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there are in the
           savestack.

       panic: del_backref
           (P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak reference.

       panic: die %s
           (P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered it wasn't an
           eval context.

       panic: do_subst
           (P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.

       panic: do_trans_%s
           (P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational data.

       panic: fold_constants JMPENV_PUSH returned %d
           (P) While attempting folding constants an exception other than an "eval" failure was
           caught.

       panic: frexp
           (P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.

       panic: goto, type=%u, ix=%ld
           (P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label, and then
           discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.

       panic: gp_free failed to free glob pointer
           (P) The internal routine used to clear a typeglob's entries tried repeatedly, but each
           time something re-created entries in the glob.  Most likely the glob contains an
           object with a reference back to the glob and a destructor that adds a new object to
           the glob.

       panic: INTERPCASEMOD, %s
           (P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.

       panic: INTERPCONCAT, %s
           (P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.

       panic: kid popen errno read
           (F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.

       panic: last, type=%u
           (P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered it wasn't a
           block context.

       panic: leave_scope clearsv
           (P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.

       panic: leave_scope inconsistency %u
           (P) The savestack probably got out of sync.  At least, there was an invalid enum on
           the top of it.

       panic: magic_killbackrefs
           (P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak references to
           an object.

       panic: malloc, %s
           (P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.

       panic: memory wrap
           (P) Something tried to allocate more memory than possible.

       panic: pad_alloc, %p!=%p
           (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating and freeing
           temporaries and lexicals from.

       panic: pad_free curpad, %p!=%p
           (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating and freeing
           temporaries and lexicals from.

       panic: pad_free po
           (P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.

       panic: pad_reset curpad, %p!=%p
           (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating and freeing
           temporaries and lexicals from.

       panic: pad_sv po
           (P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.

       panic: pad_swipe curpad, %p!=%p
           (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating and freeing
           temporaries and lexicals from.

       panic: pad_swipe po
           (P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.

       panic: pp_iter, type=%u
           (P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.

       panic: pp_match%s
           (P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.

       panic: pp_split, pm=%p, s=%p
           (P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.

       panic: realloc, %s
           (P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.

       panic: reference miscount on nsv in sv_replace() (%d != 1)
           (P) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a reference count
           other than 1.

       panic: restartop in %s
           (P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and didn't supply
           the destination.

       panic: return, type=%u
           (P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and then discovered
           it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.

       panic: scan_num, %s
           (P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.

       panic: Sequence (?{...}): no code block found
           (P) while compiling a pattern that has embedded (?{}) or (??{}) code blocks, perl
           couldn't locate the code block that should have already been seen and compiled by perl
           before control passed to the regex compiler.

       panic: sv_chop %s
           (P) The sv_chop() routine was passed a position that is not within the scalar's string
           buffer.

       panic: sv_insert, midend=%p, bigend=%p
           (P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there was string.

       panic: strxfrm() gets absurd - a => %u, ab => %u
           (P) The interpreter's sanity check of the C function strxfrm() failed.  In your
           current locale the returned transformation of the string "ab" is shorter than that of
           the string "a", which makes no sense.

       panic: top_env
           (P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.

       panic: unimplemented op %s (#%d) called
           (P) The compiler is screwed up and attempted to use an op that isn't permitted at run
           time.

       panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
           (P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed to even) byte
           length.

       panic: utf16_to_utf8_reversed: odd bytelen
           (P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8_reversed with an odd (as opposed to even)
           byte length.

       panic: yylex, %s
           (P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.

       Parentheses missing around "%s" list
           (W parenthesis) You said something like

               my $foo, $bar = @_;

           when you meant

               my ($foo, $bar) = @_;

           Remember that "my", "our", "local" and "state" bind tighter than comma.

       Parsing code internal error (%s)
           (F) Parsing code supplied by an extension violated the parser's API in a detectable
           way.

       Passing malformed UTF-8 to "%s" is deprecated
           (D deprecated, utf8) This message indicates a bug either in the Perl core or in XS
           code.  Such code was trying to find out if a character, allegedly stored internally
           encoded as UTF-8, was of a given type, such as being punctuation or a digit.  But the
           character was not encoded in legal UTF-8.  The %s is replaced by a string that can be
           used by knowledgeable people to determine what the type being checked against was.  If
           "utf8" warnings are enabled, a further message is raised, giving details of the
           malformation.

       Pattern subroutine nesting without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE
       in m/%s/
           (F) You used a pattern that uses too many nested subpattern calls without consuming
           any text.  Restructure the pattern so text is consumed before the nesting limit is
           exceeded.

           The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.

       "-p" destination: %s
           (F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the "-p" command-line
           switch.  (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've redirected it with select().)

       (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
           (F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "Can't locate
           object method \"%s\" via package \"%s\"".  It often means that a method requires a
           package that has not been loaded.

       Perl folding rules are not up-to-date for 0x%X; please use the perlbug utility to report;
       in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (D regexp, deprecated) You used a regular expression with case-insensitive matching,
           and there is a bug in Perl in which the built-in regular expression folding rules are
           not accurate.  This may lead to incorrect results.  Please report this as a bug using
           the perlbug utility.  (This message is marked deprecated, so that it by default will
           be turned-on.)

       Perl_my_%s() not available
           (F) Your platform has very uncommon byte-order and integer size, so it was not
           possible to set up some or all fixed-width byte-order conversion functions.  This is
           only a problem when you're using the '<' or '>' modifiers in (un)pack templates.  See
           "pack" in perlfunc.

       Perl %s required (did you mean %s?)--this is only %s, stopped
           (F) The code you are trying to run has asked for a newer version of Perl than you are
           running.  Perhaps "use 5.10" was written instead of "use 5.010" or "use v5.10".
           Without the leading "v", the number is interpreted as a decimal, with every three
           digits after the decimal point representing a part of the version number.  So 5.10 is
           equivalent to v5.100.

       Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
           (F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent than the
           currently running version.  How long has it been since you upgraded, anyway?  See
           "require" in perlfunc.

       PERL_SH_DIR too long
           (F) An error peculiar to OS/2.  PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the "sh"-shell
           in.  See "PERL_SH_DIR" in perlos2.

       PERL_SIGNALS illegal: "%s"
           (X) See "PERL_SIGNALS" in perlrun for legal values.

       Perls since %s too modern--this is %s, stopped
           (F) The code you are trying to run claims it will not run on the version of Perl you
           are using because it is too new.  Maybe the code needs to be updated, or maybe it is
           simply wrong and the version check should just be removed.

       perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
           (S) The whole warning message will look something like:

                   perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
                   perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
                           LC_ALL = "En_US",
                           LANG = (unset)
                       are supported and installed on your system.
                   perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").

           Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies.  In the above the settings were
           that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.  This error means that Perl
           detected that you and/or your operating system supplier and/or system administrator
           have set up the so-called locale system but Perl could not use those settings.  This
           was not dead serious, fortunately: there is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl
           can and will use, and the script will be run.  Before you really fix the problem,
           however, you will get the same error message each time you run Perl.  How to really
           fix the problem can be found in perllocale section LOCALE PROBLEMS.

       perl: warning: Non hex character in '$ENV{PERL_HASH_SEED}', seed only partially set
           (W) PERL_HASH_SEED should match /^\s*(?:0x)?[0-9a-fA-F]+\s*\z/ but it contained a non
           hex character. This could mean you are not using the hash seed you think you are.

       perl: warning: strange setting in '$ENV{PERL_PERTURB_KEYS}': '%s'
           (W) Perl was run with the environment variable PERL_PERTURB_KEYS defined but
           containing an unexpected value. The legal values of this setting are as follows.

             Numeric | String        | Result
             --------+---------------+-----------------------------------------
             0       | NO            | Disables key traversal randomization
             1       | RANDOM        | Enables full key traversal randomization
             2       | DETERMINISTIC | Enables repeatable key traversal randomization

           Both numeric and string values are accepted, but note that string values are case
           sensitive. The default for this setting is "RANDOM" or 1.

       pid %x not a child
           (W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
           isn't a subprocess of the current process.  While this is fine from VMS' perspective,
           it's probably not what you intended.

       'P' must have an explicit size in unpack
           (F) The unpack format P must have an explicit size, not "*".

       POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown.  The <-- HERE shows
           whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.  Note that the POSIX
           character classes do not have the "is" prefix the corresponding C interfaces have: in
           other words, it's "[[:print:]]", not "isprint".  See perlre.

       POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
           (F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike the BSD version,
           which takes a pid.

       POSIX syntax [%c %c] belongs inside character classes in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
       m/%s/
           (W regexp) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .]  go inside character
           classes, the [] are part of the construct, for example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/.  Note
           that [= =] and [. .] are not currently implemented; they are simply placeholders for
           future extensions and will cause fatal errors.  The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the
           regular expression the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       POSIX syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning with "[."
           and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.  If you need to represent
           those character sequences inside a regular expression character class, just quote the
           square brackets with the backslash: "\[."  and ".\]".  The <-- HERE shows whereabouts
           in the regular expression the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning with "[="
           and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.  If you need to represent
           those character sequences inside a regular expression character class, just quote the
           square brackets with the backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".  The <-- HERE shows whereabouts
           in the regular expression the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
           (W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal strings,
           comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated as literal data.  (You may
           have used different delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also
           frequently used.)

           You probably wrote something like this:

               @list = qw(
                   a # a comment
                   b # another comment
               );

           when you should have written this:

               @list = qw(
                   a
                   b
               );

           If you really want comments, build your list the old-fashioned way, with quotes and
           commas:

               @list = (
                   'a',    # a comment
                   'b',    # another comment
               );

       Possible attempt to separate words with commas
           (W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas aren't
           needed to separate the items.  (You may have used different delimiters than the
           parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)

           You probably wrote something like this:

               qw! a, b, c !;

           which puts literal commas into some of the list items.  Write it without commas if you
           don't want them to appear in your data:

               qw! a b c !;

       Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
           (F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.  Perl guesses a
           reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the end of the buffer just in
           case.  This sentinel byte got clobbered, and Perl assumes that memory is now
           corrupted.  See "ioctl" in perlfunc.

       Possible precedence problem on bitwise %c operator
           (W precedence) Your program uses a bitwise logical operator in conjunction with a
           numeric comparison operator, like this :

               if ($x & $y == 0) { ... }

           This expression is actually equivalent to "$x & ($y == 0)", due to the higher
           precedence of "==".  This is probably not what you want.  (If you really meant to
           write this, disable the warning, or, better, put the parentheses explicitly and write
           "$x & ($y == 0)").

       Possible unintended interpolation of $\ in regex
           (W ambiguous) You said something like "m/$\/" in a regex.  The regex "m/foo$\s+bar/m"
           translates to: match the word 'foo', the output record separator (see "$\" in perlvar)
           and the letter 's' (one time or more) followed by the word 'bar'.

           If this is what you intended then you can silence the warning by using "m/${\}/" (for
           example: "m/foo${\}s+bar/").

           If instead you intended to match the word 'foo' at the end of the line followed by
           whitespace and the word 'bar' on the next line then you can use "m/$(?)\/" (for
           example: "m/foo$(?)\s+bar/").

       Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string
           (W ambiguous) You said something like '@foo' in a double-quoted string but there was
           no array @foo in scope at the time.  If you wanted a literal @foo, then write it as
           \@foo; otherwise find out what happened to the array you apparently lost track of.

       Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
           (S precedence) The old irregular construct

               open FOO || die;

           is now misinterpreted as

               open(FOO || die);

           because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary and list
           operators.  (The old open was a little of both.)  You must put parentheses around the
           filehandle, or use the new "or" operator instead of "||".

       Premature end of script headers
           See Server error.

       printf() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
           Check your control flow.

       print() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
           Check your control flow.

       Process terminated by SIG%s
           (W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix applications
           die in silence.  It is considered a feature of the OS/2 port.  One can easily disable
           this by appropriate sighandlers, see "Signals" in perlipc.  See also "Process
           terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT" in perlos2.

       Property '%s' is unknown in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) The named property which you specified via "\p" or "\P" is not one known to Perl.
           Perhaps you misspelled the name?  See "Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}" in
           perluniprops for a complete list of available official properties.  If it is a user-
           defined property it must have been defined by the time the regular expression is
           compiled.

       Prototype after '%c' for %s : %s
           (W illegalproto) A character follows % or @ in a prototype.  This is useless, since %
           and @ gobble the rest of the subroutine arguments.

       Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
           (S prototype) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared or
           defined with a different function prototype.

       Prototype not terminated
           (F) You've omitted the closing parenthesis in a function prototype definition.

       \p{} uses Unicode rules, not locale rules
           (W) You compiled a regular expression that contained a Unicode property match ("\p" or
           "\P"), but the regular expression is also being told to use the run-time locale, not
           Unicode.  Instead, use a POSIX character class, which should know about the locale's
           rules.  (See "POSIX Character Classes" in perlrecharclass.)

           Even if the run-time locale is ISO 8859-1 (Latin1), which is a subset of Unicode, some
           properties will give results that are not valid for that subset.

           Here are a couple of examples to help you see what's going on.  If the locale is ISO
           8859-7, the character at code point 0xD7 is the "GREEK CAPITAL LETTER CHI".  But in
           Unicode that code point means the "MULTIPLICATION SIGN" instead, and "\p" always uses
           the Unicode meaning.  That means that "\p{Alpha}" won't match, but "[[:alpha:]]"
           should.  Only in the Latin1 locale are all the characters in the same positions as
           they are in Unicode.  But, even here, some properties give incorrect results.  An
           example is "\p{Changes_When_Uppercased}" which is true for "LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH
           DIAERESIS", but since the upper case of that character is not in Latin1, in that
           locale it doesn't change when upper cased.

       Quantifier {n,m} with n > m can't match in regex
           (W regexp) Minima should be less than or equal to maxima.  If you really want your
           regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}.

       Quantifier follows nothing in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier.  Backslash it if you meant it
           literally.  The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
           discovered.  See perlre.

       Quantifier in {,} bigger than %d in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) There is currently a limit to the size of the min and max values of the {min,max}
           construct.  The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
           discovered.  See perlre.

       Quantifier unexpected on zero-length expression in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where it makes no
           sense, such as on a zero-width assertion.  Try putting the quantifier inside the
           assertion instead.  For example, the way to match "abc" provided that it is followed
           by three repetitions of "xyz" is "/abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/", not "/abc(?=xyz){3}/".

           The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.

       Quantifier {n,m} with n > m can't match in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) Minima should be less than or equal to maxima.  If you really want your
           regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}.

       Range iterator outside integer range
           (F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."  are outside the
           range which can be represented by integers internally.  One possible workaround is to
           force Perl to use magical string increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.

       readdir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
           (W io) The dirhandle you're reading from is either closed or not really a dirhandle.
           Check your control flow.

       readline() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
           Check your control flow.

       read() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) You tried to read from a closed filehandle.

       read() on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to read from a filehandle that was never opened.

       Reallocation too large: %x
           (F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.

       realloc() of freed memory ignored
           (S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had already been
           freed.

       Recompile perl with -DDEBUGGING to use -D switch
           (S debugging) You can't use the -D option unless the code to produce the desired
           output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead, which is why it's currently
           left out of your copy.

       Recursive call to Perl_load_module in PerlIO_find_layer
           (P) It is currently not permitted to load modules when creating a filehandle inside an
           %INC hook.  This can happen with "open my $fh, '<', \$scalar", which implicitly loads
           PerlIO::scalar.  Try loading PerlIO::scalar explicitly first.

       Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
           (F) While calculating the method resolution order (MRO) of a package, Perl believes it
           found an infinite loop in the @ISA hierarchy.  This is a crude check that bails out
           after 100 levels of @ISA depth.

       refcnt_dec: fd %d%s
       refcnt: fd %d%s
       refcnt_inc: fd %d%s
           (P) Perl's I/O implementation failed an internal consistency check.  If you see this
           message, something is very wrong.

       Reference found where even-sized list expected
           (W misc) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with an even
           number of elements (for assignment to a hash).  This usually means that you used the
           anon hash constructor when you meant to use parens.  In any case, a hash requires
           key/value pairs.

               %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, };    # WRONG
               %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ];    # WRONG
               %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, );    # right
               %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 );                  # also fine

       Reference is already weak
           (W misc) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.  Doing so has
           no effect.

       Reference to invalid group 0 in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You used "\g0" or similar in a regular expression.  You may refer to capturing
           parentheses only with strictly positive integers (normal backreferences) or with
           strictly negative integers (relative backreferences).  Using 0 does not make sense.

       Reference to nonexistent group in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You used something like "\7" in your regular expression, but there are not at
           least seven sets of capturing parentheses in the expression.  If you wanted to have
           the character with ordinal 7 inserted into the regular expression, prepend zeroes to
           make it three digits long: "\007"

           The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.

       Reference to nonexistent named group in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You used something like "\k'NAME'" or "\k<NAME>" in your regular expression, but
           there is no corresponding named capturing parentheses such as "(?'NAME'...)" or
           "(?<NAME>...)".  Check if the name has been spelled correctly both in the
           backreference and the declaration.

           The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.

       Reference to nonexistent or unclosed group in regex; marked by <-- HERE  in m/%s/
           (F) You used something like "\g{-7}" in your regular expression, but there are not at
           least seven sets of closed capturing parentheses in the expression before where the
           "\g{-7}" was located.

           The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.

       regexp memory corruption
           (P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular expression compiler
           gave it.

       Regexp modifier "/%c" may appear a maximum of twice
       Regexp modifier "/%c" may not appear twice
           (F syntax, regexp) The regular expression pattern had too many occurrences of the
           specified modifier.  Remove the extraneous ones.

       Regexp modifier "%c" may not appear after the "-" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) Turning off the given modifier has the side effect of turning on another one.
           Perl currently doesn't allow this.  Reword the regular expression to use the modifier
           you want to turn on (and place it before the minus), instead of the one you want to
           turn off.

       Regexp modifiers "/%c" and "/%c" are mutually exclusive
           (F syntax, regexp) The regular expression pattern had more than one of these mutually
           exclusive modifiers.  Retain only the modifier that is supposed to be there.

       Regexp out of space in regex m/%s/
           (P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.

       Repeated format line will never terminate (~~ and @# incompatible)
           (F) Your format contains the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence and a numeric field that
           will never go blank so that the repetition never terminates.  You might use ^#
           instead.  See perlform.

       Replacement list is longer than search list
           (W misc) You have used a replacement list that is longer than the search list.  So the
           additional elements in the replacement list are meaningless.

       '%s' resolved to '\o{%s}%d'
           (W misc, regexp)  You wrote something like "\08", or "\179" in a double-quotish
           string.  All but the last digit is treated as a single character, specified in octal.
           The last digit is the next character in the string.  To tell Perl that this is indeed
           what you want, you can use the "\o{ }" syntax, or use exactly three digits to specify
           the octal for the character.

       Reversed %s= operator
           (W syntax) You wrote your assignment operator backwards.  The = must always come last,
           to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.

       rewinddir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
           (W io) The dirhandle you tried to do a rewinddir() on is either closed or not really a
           dirhandle.  Check your control flow.

       Scalars leaked: %d
           (S internal) Something went wrong in Perl's internal bookkeeping of scalars: not all
           scalar variables were deallocated by the time Perl exited.  What this usually
           indicates is a memory leak, which is of course bad, especially if the Perl program is
           intended to be long-running.

       Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
           (W syntax) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
           an array.  Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).  The
           difference is that $foo[&bar] always behaves like a scalar, both when assigning to it
           and when evaluating its argument, while @foo[&bar] behaves like a list when you assign
           to it, and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things if
           you're expecting only one subscript.

           On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array element as a list,
           you need to look into how references work, because Perl will not magically convert
           between scalars and lists for you.  See perlref.

       Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
           (W syntax) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of a
           hash.  Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).  The
           difference is that $foo{&bar} always behaves like a scalar, both when assigning to it
           and when evaluating its argument, while @foo{&bar} behaves like a list when you assign
           to it, and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things if
           you're expecting only one subscript.

           On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash element as a list,
           you need to look into how references work, because Perl will not magically convert
           between scalars and lists for you.  See perlref.

       Search pattern not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{} construct.  Remember
           that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.  Missing the leading "$" from a
           variable $m may cause this error.

           Note that since Perl 5.9.0 a // can also be the defined-or construct, not just the
           empty search pattern.  Therefore code written in Perl 5.9.0 or later that uses the //
           as the defined-or can be misparsed by pre-5.9.0 Perls as a non-terminated search
           pattern.

       Search pattern not terminated or ternary operator parsed as search pattern
           (F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a "?PATTERN?"  construct.

           The question mark is also used as part of the ternary operator (as in "foo ? 0 : 1")
           leading to some ambiguous constructions being wrongly parsed.  One way to disambiguate
           the parsing is to put parentheses around the conditional expression, i.e. "(foo) ? 0 :
           1".

       seekdir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
           (W io) The dirhandle you are doing a seekdir() on is either closed or not really a
           dirhandle.  Check your control flow.

       %sseek() on unopened filehandle
           (W unopened) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
           was either never opened or has since been closed.

       select not implemented
           (F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.

       Self-ties of arrays and hashes are not supported
           (F) Self-ties are of arrays and hashes are not supported in the current
           implementation.

       Semicolon seems to be missing
           (W semicolon) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon, or
           possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.

       semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
           (S internal) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar that had
           previously been marked as free.

       sem%s not implemented
           (F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.

       send() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) The socket you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.  Check
           your control flow.

       Sequence (? incomplete in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.  The <-- HERE shows
           whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       Sequence (?%s...) not implemented in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved but has not yet
           been written.  The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem
           was discovered.  See perlre.

       Sequence (?%s...) not recognized in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.  The <-- HERE
           shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.  This happens
           when using the "(?^...)" construct to tell Perl to use the default regular expression
           modifiers, and you redundantly specify a default modifier.  For other causes, see
           perlre.

       Sequence \%s... not terminated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) The regular expression expects a mandatory argument following the escape sequence
           and this has been omitted or incorrectly written.

       Sequence (?#... not terminated in regex m/%s/
           (F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing parenthesis.
           Embedded parentheses aren't allowed.  See perlre.

       Sequence (?{...}) not terminated with ')'
           (F) The end of the perl code contained within the {...} must be followed immediately
           by a ')'.

       500 Server error
           See Server error.

       Server error
           (A) This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying to run a
           CGI program (including SSI) over the web.  The actual error text varies widely from
           server to server.  The most frequently-seen variants are "500 Server error", "Method
           (something) not permitted", "Document contains no data", "Premature end of script
           headers", and "Did not produce a valid header".

           This is a CGI error, not a Perl error.

           You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user CGI is
           running the script under (which is probably not the user account you tested it under),
           does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH) from the user it isn't running
           under, and isn't in a location where the CGI server can't find it, basically, more or
           less.  Please see the following for more information:

                   http://www.perl.org/CGI_MetaFAQ.html
                   http://www.htmlhelp.org/faq/cgifaq.html
                   http://www.w3.org/Security/Faq/

           You should also look at perlfaq9.

       setegid() not implemented
           (F) You tried to assign to $), and your operating system doesn't support the setegid()
           system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't think so.

       seteuid() not implemented
           (F) You tried to assign to $>, and your operating system doesn't support the seteuid()
           system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't think so.

       setpgrp can't take arguments
           (F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no arguments, unlike POSIX
           setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process group ID.

       setrgid() not implemented
           (F) You tried to assign to $(, and your operating system doesn't support the setrgid()
           system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't think so.

       setruid() not implemented
           (F) You tried to assign to $<, and your operating system doesn't support the setruid()
           system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't think so.

       setsockopt() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to set a socket option on a closed socket.  Did you forget to
           check the return value of your socket() call?  See "setsockopt" in perlfunc.

       shm%s not implemented
           (F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.

       !=~ should be !~
           (W syntax) The non-matching operator is !~, not !=~.  !=~ will be interpreted as the
           != (numeric not equal) and ~ (1's complement) operators: probably not what you
           intended.

       <> should be quotes
           (F) You wrote "require <file>" when you should have written "require 'file'".

       /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
           (W syntax) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string, as in the
           first argument to "join".  Perl will treat the true or false result of matching the
           pattern against $_ as the string, which is probably not what you had in mind.

       shutdown() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket.  Seems a bit superfluous.

       SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
           (W signal) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist.  Perhaps you put
           it into the wrong package?

       Slab leaked from cv %p
           (S) If you see this message, then something is seriously wrong with the internal
           bookkeeping of op trees.  An op tree needed to be freed after a compilation error, but
           could not be found, so it was leaked instead.

       sleep(%u) too large
           (W overflow) You called "sleep" with a number that was larger than it can reliably
           handle and "sleep" probably slept for less time than requested.

       Smartmatch is experimental
           (S experimental::smartmatch) This warning is emitted if you use the smartmatch ("~~")
           operator.  This is currently an experimental feature, and its details are subject to
           change in future releases of Perl.  Particularly, its current behavior is noticed for
           being unnecessarily complex and unintuitive, and is very likely to be overhauled.

       Smart matching a non-overloaded object breaks encapsulation
           (F) You should not use the "~~" operator on an object that does not overload it: Perl
           refuses to use the object's underlying structure for the smart match.

       sort is now a reserved word
           (F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.  But before
           sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.

       Sort subroutine didn't return single value
           (F) A sort comparison subroutine written in XS must return exactly one item.  See
           "sort" in perlfunc.

       Source filters apply only to byte streams
           (F) You tried to activate a source filter (usually by loading a source filter module)
           within a string passed to "eval".  This is not permitted under the "unicode_eval"
           feature.  Consider using "evalbytes" instead.  See feature.

       splice() offset past end of array
           (W misc) You attempted to specify an offset that was past the end of the array passed
           to splice().  Splicing will instead commence at the end of the array, rather than past
           it.  If this isn't what you want, try explicitly pre-extending the array by assigning
           $#array = $offset.  See "splice" in perlfunc.

       Split loop
           (P) The split was looping infinitely.  (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate more
           times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)  See "split" in
           perlfunc.

       Statement unlikely to be reached
           (W exec) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().  This is
           almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless there was a failure.  You
           probably wanted to use system() instead, which does return.  To suppress this warning,
           put the exec() in a block by itself.

       "state" variable %s can't be in a package
           (F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense to try to
           declare one with a package qualifier on the front.  Use local() if you want to
           localize a package variable.

       "state %s" used in sort comparison
           (W syntax) The package variables $a and $b are used for sort comparisons.  You used $a
           or $b in as an operand to the "<=>" or "cmp" operator inside a sort comparison block,
           and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.  Either qualify the
           sort variable with the package name, or rename the lexical variable.

       stat() on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to use the stat() function on a filehandle that was either
           never opened or has since been closed.

       Stub found while resolving method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
           (P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.  Stubs
           should never be implicitly created, but explicit calls to "can" may break this.

       Subroutine "&%s" is not available
           (W closure) During compilation, an inner named subroutine or eval is attempting to
           capture an outer lexical subroutine that is not currently available.  This can happen
           for one of two reasons.  First, the lexical subroutine may be declared in an outer
           anonymous subroutine that has not yet been created.  (Remember that named subs are
           created at compile time, while anonymous subs are created at run-time.)  For example,

               sub { my sub a {...} sub f { \&a } }

           At the time that f is created, it can't capture the current the "a" sub, since the
           anonymous subroutine hasn't been created yet.  Conversely, the following won't give a
           warning since the anonymous subroutine has by now been created and is live:

               sub { my sub a {...} eval 'sub f { \&a }' }->();

           The second situation is caused by an eval accessing a variable that has gone out of
           scope, for example,

               sub f {
                   my sub a {...}
                   sub { eval '\&a' }
               }
               f()->();

           Here, when the '\&a' in the eval is being compiled, f() is not currently being
           executed, so its &a is not available for capture.

       "%s" subroutine &%s masks earlier declaration in same %s
           (W misc) A "my" or "state" subroutine has been redeclared in the current scope or
           statement, effectively eliminating all access to the previous instance.  This is
           almost always a typographical error.  Note that the earlier subroutine will still
           exist until the end of the scope or until all closure references to it are destroyed.

       Subroutine %s redefined
           (W redefine) You redefined a subroutine.  To suppress this warning, say

               {
                   no warnings 'redefine';
                   eval "sub name { ... }";
               }

       Substitution loop
           (P) The substitution was looping infinitely.  (Obviously, a substitution shouldn't
           iterate more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)  See
           the discussion of substitution in "Regexp Quote-Like Operators" in perlop.

       Substitution pattern not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of an s/// or s{}{} construct.
           Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.  Missing the leading "$" from
           variable $s may cause this error.

       Substitution replacement not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of an s/// or s{}{} construct.
           Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.  Missing the leading "$" from
           variable $s may cause this error.

       substr outside of string
           (W substr)(F) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a string.
           That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the length of the string.
           See "substr" in perlfunc.  This warning is fatal if substr is used in an lvalue
           context (as the left hand side of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for
           example).

       sv_upgrade from type %d down to type %d
           (P) Perl tried to force the upgrade of an SV to a type which was actually inferior to
           its current type.

       Switch (?(condition)... contains too many branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) A (?(condition)if-clause|else-clause) construct can have at most two branches (the
           if-clause and the else-clause).  If you want one or both to contain alternation, such
           as using "this|that|other", enclose it in clustering parentheses:

               (?(condition)(?:this|that|other)|else-clause)

           The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
           See perlre.

       Switch condition not recognized in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) If the argument to the (?(...)if-clause|else-clause) construct is a number, it can
           be only a number.  The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
           problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       switching effective %s is not implemented
           (F) While under the "use filetest" pragma, we cannot switch the real and effective
           uids or gids.

       %s syntax OK
           (F) The final summary message when a "perl -c" succeeds.

       syntax error
           (F) Probably means you had a syntax error.  Common reasons include:

               A keyword is misspelled.
               A semicolon is missing.
               A comma is missing.
               An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
               An opening or closing brace is missing.
               A closing quote is missing.

           Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax error giving more
           information.  (Sometimes it helps to turn on -w.)  The error message itself often
           tells you where it was in the line when it decided to give up.  Sometimes the actual
           error is several tokens before this, because Perl is good at understanding random
           input.  Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon the
           only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call "perl -c" repeatedly,
           chopping away half the program each time to see if the error went away.  Sort of the
           cybernetic version of 20 questions.

       syntax error at line %d: '%s' unexpected
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead of Perl.
           Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       syntax error in file %s at line %d, next 2 tokens "%s"
           (F) This error is likely to occur if you run a perl5 script through a perl4
           interpreter, especially if the next 2 tokens are "use strict" or "my $var" or "our
           $var".

       sysread() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) You tried to read from a closed filehandle.

       sysread() on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to read from a filehandle that was never opened.

       Syntax error in (?[...]) in regex m/%s/
           (F) Perl could not figure out what you meant inside this construct; this notifies you
           that it is giving up trying.

       System V %s is not implemented on this machine
           (F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem", "shm", or "msg"
           but that System V IPC is not implemented in your machine.  In some machines the
           functionality can exist but be unconfigured.  Consult your system support.

       syswrite() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
           Check your control flow.

       "-T" and "-B" not implemented on filehandles
           (F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't know about your
           kind of stdio.  You'll have to use a filename instead.

       Target of goto is too deeply nested
           (F) You tried to use "goto" to reach a label that was too deeply nested for Perl to
           reach.  Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.

       telldir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
           (W io) The dirhandle you tried to telldir() is either closed or not really a
           dirhandle.  Check your control flow.

       tell() on unopened filehandle
           (W unopened) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
           never opened or has since been closed.

       That use of $[ is unsupported
           (F) Assignment to $[ is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as a compiler
           directive.  You may say only one of

               $[ = 0;
               $[ = 1;
               ...
               local $[ = 0;
               local $[ = 1;
               ...

           This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base out from under
           another module inadvertently.  See "$[" in perlvar and arybase.

       The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia.
           (F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine, probably because
           your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they think the U.S. Government thinks
           it's a secret, or at least that they will continue to pretend that it is.  And if you
           quote me on that, I will deny it.

       The lexical_subs feature is experimental
           (S experimental::lexical_subs) This warning is emitted if you declare a sub with "my"
           or "state".  Simply suppress the warning if you want to use the feature, but know that
           in doing so you are taking the risk of using an experimental feature which may change
           or be removed in a future Perl version:

               no warnings "experimental::lexical_subs";
               use feature "lexical_subs";
               my sub foo { ... }

       The regex_sets feature is experimental
           (S experimental::regex_sets) This warning is emitted if you use the syntax "(?[   ])"
           in a regular expression.  The details of this feature are subject to change.  if you
           want to use it, but know that in doing so you are taking the risk of using an
           experimental feature which may change in a future Perl version, you can do this to
           silence the warning:

               no warnings "experimental::regex_sets";

       The %s feature is experimental
           (S experimental) This warning is emitted if you enable an experimental feature via
           "use feature".  Simply suppress the warning if you want to use the feature, but know
           that in doing so you are taking the risk of using an experimental feature which may
           change or be removed in a future Perl version:

               no warnings "experimental::lexical_subs";
               use feature "lexical_subs";

       The %s function is unimplemented
           (F) The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according to the
           probings of Configure.

       The stat preceding %s wasn't an lstat
           (F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood if the
           last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past the symlink to get to the
           real file.  Use an actual filename instead.

       The 'unique' attribute may only be applied to 'our' variables
           (F) This attribute was never supported on "my" or "sub" declarations.

       This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s)
       This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
           (W internal) Warnings peculiar to VMS.  You tried to change or delete an element of
           the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl wasn't built with a CRTL that
           contained the setenv() function.  You'll need to rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does,
           or redefine PERL_ENV_TABLES (see perlvms) so that the environ array isn't the target
           of the change to %ENV which produced the warning.

       This Perl has not been built with support for randomized hash key traversal but something
       called Perl_hv_rand_set().
           (F) Something has attempted to use an internal API call which depends on Perl being
           compiled with the default support for randomized hash key traversal, but this Perl has
           been compiled without it. You should report this warning to the relevant upstream
           party, or recompile perl with default options.

       thread failed to start: %s
           (W threads)(S) The entry point function of threads->create() failed for some reason.

       times not implemented
           (F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times().  I suspect you're not
           running on Unix.

       "-T" is on the #! line, it must also be used on the command line
           (X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the -T option (or the
           -t option), but Perl was not invoked with -T in its command line.  This is an error
           because, by the time Perl discovers a -T in a script, it's too late to properly taint
           everything from the environment.  So Perl gives up.

           If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!  mechanism (or its
           local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed by editing the #! line so that the
           -%c option is a part of Perl's first argument: e.g. change "perl -n -%c" to "perl -%c
           -n".

           If the Perl script is being executed as "perl scriptname", then the -%c option must
           appear on the command line: "perl -%c scriptname".

       To%s: illegal mapping '%s'
           (F) You tried to define a customized To-mapping for lc(), lcfirst, uc(), or ucfirst()
           (or their string-inlined versions), but you specified an illegal mapping.  See "User-
           Defined Character Properties" in perlunicode.

       Too deeply nested ()-groups
           (F) Your template contains ()-groups with a ridiculously deep nesting level.

       Too few args to syscall
           (F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the system call to
           call, silly dilly.

       Too late for "-%s" option
           (X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the -M, -m or -C
           option.

           In the case of -M and -m, this is an error because those options are not intended for
           use inside scripts.  Use the "use" pragma instead.

           The -C option only works if it is specified on the command line as well (with the same
           sequence of letters or numbers following).  Either specify this option on the command
           line, or, if your system supports it, make your script executable and run it directly
           instead of passing it to perl.

       Too late to run %s block
           (W void) A CHECK or INIT block is being defined during run time proper, when the
           opportunity to run them has already passed.  Perhaps you are loading a file with
           "require" or "do" when you should be using "use" instead.  Or perhaps you should put
           the "require" or "do" inside a BEGIN block.

       Too many args to syscall
           (F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().

       Too many arguments for %s
           (F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.

       Too many )'s
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh instead of Perl.  Check the #!
           line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       Too many ('s
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh instead of Perl.  Check the #!
           line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       Trailing \ in regex m/%s/
           (F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash.  Backslash it.   See
           perlre.

       Trailing white-space in a charnames alias definition is deprecated
           (D) You defined a character name which ended in a space character.  Remove the
           trailing space(s).  Usually these names are defined in the ":alias" import argument to
           "use charnames", but they could be defined by a translator installed into
           $^H{charnames}.  See "CUSTOM ALIASES" in charnames.

       Transliteration pattern not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][] or y/// or
           y[][] construct.  Missing the leading "$" from variables $tr or $y may cause this
           error.

       Transliteration replacement not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr///, tr[][], y/// or y[][]
           construct.

       '%s' trapped by operation mask
           (F) You tried to use an operator from a Safe compartment in which it's disallowed.
           See Safe.

       truncate not implemented
           (F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that Configure knows
           about.

       Type of arg %d to &CORE::%s must be %s
           (F) The subroutine in question in the CORE package requires its argument to be a hard
           reference to data of the specified type.  Overloading is ignored, so a reference to an
           object that is not the specified type, but nonetheless has overloading to handle it,
           will still not be accepted.

       Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
           (F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a certain type.
           Arrays must be @NAME or "@{EXPR}".  Hashes must be %NAME or "%{EXPR}".  No implicit
           dereferencing is allowed--use the {EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference.  See
           perlref.

       Type of argument to %s must be unblessed hashref or arrayref
           (F) You called "keys", "values" or "each" with a scalar argument that was not a
           reference to an unblessed hash or array.

       umask not implemented
           (F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried to use it to
           restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).

       Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
           (S internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
           contexts were entered and left.

       Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
           (S internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many values were
           temporarily localized.

       Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
           (S internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks were
           entered and left.

       Unbalanced string table refcount: (%d) for "%s"
           (S internal) On exit, Perl found some strings remaining in the shared string table
           used for copy on write and for hash keys.  The entries should have been freed, so this
           indicates a bug somewhere.

       Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
           (S internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
           scalars were allocated and freed.

       Undefined format "%s" called
           (F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist.  Perhaps it's really in another
           package?  See perlform.

       Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
           (F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist.  Perhaps it's in a
           different package?  See "sort" in perlfunc.

       Undefined subroutine &%s called
           (F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it has since been
           undefined.

       Undefined subroutine called
           (F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined, or if it was,
           it has since been undefined.

       Undefined subroutine in sort
           (F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to have been
           defined yet.  See "sort" in perlfunc.

       Undefined top format "%s" called
           (F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist.  Perhaps it's really in another
           package?  See perlform.

       Undefined value assigned to typeglob
           (W misc) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la "*foo = undef".  This
           does nothing.  It's possible that you really mean "undef *foo".

       %s: Undefined variable
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh instead of Perl.  Check the #!
           line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       unexec of %s into %s failed!
           (F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason.  See your local FSF representative,
           who probably put it there in the first place.

       Unexpected '(' with no preceding operator in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You had something like this:

            (?[ \p{Digit} ( \p{Lao} + \p{Thai} ) ])

           There should be an operator before the "(", as there's no indication as to how the
           digits are to be combined with the characters in the Lao and Thai scripts.

       Unexpected ')' in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You had something like this:

            (?[ ( \p{Digit} + ) ])

           The ")" is out-of-place.  Something apparently was supposed to be combined with the
           digits, or the "+" shouldn't be there, or something like that.  Perl can't figure out
           what was intended.

       Unexpected binary operator '%c' with no preceding operand in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
       m/%s/
           (F) You had something like this:

            (?[ | \p{Digit} ])

           where the "|" is a binary operator with an operand on the right, but no operand on the
           left.

       Unexpected character in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You had something like this:

            (?[ z ])

           Within "(?[ ])", no literal characters are allowed unless they are within an inner
           pair of square brackets, like

            (?[ [ z ] ])

           Another possibility is that you forgot a backslash.  Perl isn't smart enough to figure
           out what you really meant.

       Unexpected constant lvalue entersub entry via type/targ %d:%d
           (P) When compiling a subroutine call in lvalue context, Perl failed an internal
           consistency check.  It encountered a malformed op tree.

       Unicode non-character U+%X is illegal for open interchange
           (S utf8, nonchar) Certain codepoints, such as U+FFFE and U+FFFF, are defined by the
           Unicode standard to be non-characters.  Those are legal codepoints, but are reserved
           for internal use; so, applications shouldn't attempt to exchange them.  If you know
           what you are doing you can turn off this warning by "no warnings 'nonchar';".

       Unicode surrogate U+%X is illegal in UTF-8
           (S utf8, surrogate) You had a UTF-16 surrogate in a context where they are not
           considered acceptable.  These code points, between U+D800 and U+DFFF (inclusive), are
           used by Unicode only for UTF-16.  However, Perl internally allows all unsigned integer
           code points (up to the size limit available on your platform), including surrogates.
           But these can cause problems when being input or output, which is likely where this
           message came from.  If you really really know what you are doing you can turn off this
           warning by "no warnings 'surrogate';".

       Unknown BYTEORDER
           (F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.

       Unknown charname '%s'
           (F) The name you used inside "\N{}" is unknown to Perl.  Check the spelling.  You can
           say "use charnames ":loose"" to not have to be so precise about spaces, hyphens, and
           capitalization on standard Unicode names.  (Any custom aliases that have been created
           must be specified exactly, regardless of whether ":loose" is used or not.)  This error
           may also happen if the "\N{}" is not in the scope of the corresponding
           "use charnames".

       Unknown error
           (P) Perl was about to print an error message in $@, but the $@ variable did not exist,
           even after an attempt to create it.

       Unknown open() mode '%s'
           (F) The second argument of 3-argument open() is not among the list of valid modes:
           "<", ">", ">>", "+<", "+>", "+>>", "-|", "|-", "<&", ">&".

       Unknown PerlIO layer "%s"
           (W layer) An attempt was made to push an unknown layer onto the Perl I/O system.
           (Layers take care of transforming data between external and internal representations.)
           Note that some layers, such as "mmap", are not supported in all environments.  If your
           program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the result of the
           value of the environment variable PERLIO.

       Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl was reading values for %ENV before iterating over
           it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of data Perl expected.  Someone's
           very confused, or perhaps trying to subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious
           purposes.

       Unknown "re" subpragma '%s' (known ones are: %s)
           (W) You tried to use an unknown subpragma of the "re" pragma.

       Unknown regex modifier "%s"
           (F) Alphanumerics immediately following the closing delimiter of a regular expression
           pattern are interpreted by Perl as modifier flags for the regex.  One of the ones you
           specified is invalid.  One way this can happen is if you didn't put in white space
           between the end of the regex and a following alphanumeric operator:

            if ($a =~ /foo/and $bar == 3) { ... }

           The "a" is a valid modifier flag, but the "n" is not, and raises this error.  Likely
           what was meant instead was:

            if ($a =~ /foo/ and $bar == 3) { ... }

       Unknown switch condition (?(%s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) The condition part of a (?(condition)if-clause|else-clause) construct is not
           known.  The condition must be one of the following:

            (1) (2) ...        true if 1st, 2nd, etc., capture matched
            (<NAME>) ('NAME')  true if named capture matched
            (?=...) (?<=...)   true if subpattern matches
            (?!...) (?<!...)   true if subpattern fails to match
            (?{ CODE })        true if code returns a true value
            (R)                true if evaluating inside recursion
            (R1) (R2) ...      true if directly inside capture group 1, 2, etc.
            (R&NAME)           true if directly inside named capture
            (DEFINE)           always false; for defining named subpatterns

           The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
           See perlre.

       Unknown Unicode option letter '%c'
           (F) You specified an unknown Unicode option.  See perlrun documentation of the "-C"
           switch for the list of known options.

       Unknown Unicode option value %x
           (F) You specified an unknown Unicode option.  See perlrun documentation of the "-C"
           switch for the list of known options.

       Unknown verb pattern '%s' in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You either made a typo or have incorrectly put a "*" quantifier after an open
           brace in your pattern.  Check the pattern and review perlre for details on legal verb
           patterns.

       Unknown warnings category '%s'
           (F) An error issued by the "warnings" pragma.  You specified a warnings category that
           is unknown to perl at this point.

           Note that if you want to enable a warnings category registered by a module (e.g. "use
           warnings 'File::Find'"), you must have loaded this module first.

       Unmatched '%c' in POSIX class in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           You had something like this:

            (?[ [:alnum] ])

           There should be a second ":", like this:

            (?[ [:alnum:] ])

       Unmatched [ in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) The brackets around a character class must match.  If you wish to include a
           closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.  The <-- HERE
           shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       Unmatched '[' in POSIX class in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You had something like this:

            (?[ [:digit: ])

           That should be written:

            (?[ [:digit:] ])

       Unmatched ( in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
       Unmatched ) in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular expressions.  If
           you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding the matching parenthesis.  The <--
           HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.  See
           perlre.

       Unmatched right %s bracket
           (F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than opening ones, so
           you're probably missing a matching opening bracket.  As a general rule, you'll find
           the missing one (so to speak) near the place you were last editing.

       Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
           (W reserved) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
           It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert an
           underbar into it.  You might also declare it as a subroutine.

       Unrecognized character %s; marked by <-- HERE after %s near column %d
           (F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character in your Perl
           script (or eval) near the specified column.  Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
           script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.

       Unrecognized escape \%c in character class in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized by Perl inside
           character classes.  This is a fatal error when the character class is used within "(?[
           ])".

       Unrecognized escape \%c in character class passed through in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
       m/%s/
           (W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized by Perl
           inside character classes.  The character was understood literally, but this may change
           in a future version of Perl.  The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression
           the escape was discovered.

       Unrecognized escape \%c passed through
           (W misc) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized by Perl.
           The character was understood literally, but this may change in a future version of
           Perl.

       Unrecognized escape \%s passed through in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized by Perl.
           The character(s) were understood literally, but this may change in a future version of
           Perl.  The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the escape was
           discovered.

       Unrecognized signal name "%s"
           (F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.  Say
           "kill -l" in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.

       Unrecognized switch: -%s  (-h will show valid options)
           (F) You specified an illegal option to Perl.  Don't do that.  (If you think you didn't
           do that, check the #! line to see if it's supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)

       Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
           (W newline) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation failed,
           PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY because you forgot to
           chomp() it off.  See "chomp" in perlfunc.

       Unsupported directory function "%s" called
           (F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().

       Unsupported function %s
           (F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.  At least,
           Configure doesn't think so.

       Unsupported function fork
           (F) Your version of executable does not support forking.

           Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of Perl
           executables, some of which may support fork, some not.  Try changing the name you call
           Perl by to "perl_", "perl__", and so on.

       Unsupported script encoding %s
           (F) Your program file begins with a Unicode Byte Order Mark (BOM) which declares it to
           be in a Unicode encoding that Perl cannot read.

       Unsupported socket function "%s" called
           (F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at least that's
           what Configure thought.

       Unterminated attribute list
           (F) The lexer found something other than a simple identifier at the start of an
           attribute, and it wasn't a semicolon or the start of a block.  Perhaps you terminated
           the parameter list of the previous attribute too soon.  See attributes.

       Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list
           (F) The lexer saw an opening (left) parenthesis character while parsing an attribute
           list, but the matching closing (right) parenthesis character was not found.  You may
           need to add (or remove) a backslash character to get your parentheses to balance.  See
           attributes.

       Unterminated compressed integer
           (F) An argument to unpack("w",...) was incompatible with the BER compressed integer
           format and could not be converted to an integer.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Unterminated delimiter for here document
           (F) This message occurs when a here document label has an initial quotation mark but
           the final quotation mark is missing.  Perhaps you wrote:

               <<"foo

           instead of:

               <<"foo"

       Unterminated \g{...} pattern in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You missed a close brace on a \g{..} pattern (group reference) in a regular
           expression.  Fix the pattern and retry.

       Unterminated <> operator
           (F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting a term, so
           it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not finding it.  Chances
           are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in the line, and you really meant a
           "less than".

       Unterminated verb pattern argument in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You used a pattern of the form "(*VERB:ARG)" but did not terminate the pattern
           with a ")".  Fix the pattern and retry.

       Unterminated verb pattern in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You used a pattern of the form "(*VERB)" but did not terminate the pattern with a
           ")".  Fix the pattern and retry.

       untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
           (W untie) A copy of the object returned from "tie" (or "tied") was still valid when
           "untie" was called.

       Usage: POSIX::%s(%s)
           (F) You called a POSIX function with incorrect arguments.  See "FUNCTIONS" in POSIX
           for more information.

       Usage: Win32::%s(%s)
           (F) You called a Win32 function with incorrect arguments.  See Win32 for more
           information.

       $[ used in %s (did you mean $] ?)
           (W syntax) You used $[ in a comparison, such as:

               if ($[ > 5.006) {
                   ...
               }

           You probably meant to use $] instead.  $[ is the base for indexing arrays.  $] is the
           Perl version number in decimal.

       Use \\x{...} for more than two hex characters in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) In a regular expression, you said something like

            (?[ [ \xBEEF ] ])

           Perl isn't sure if you meant this

            (?[ [ \x{BEEF} ] ])

           or if you meant this

            (?[ [ \x{BE} E F ] ])

           You need to add either braces or blanks to disambiguate.

       Use of each() on hash after insertion without resetting hash iterator results in undefined
       behavior
           (S internal) The behavior of "each()" after insertion is undefined, it may skip items,
           or visit items more than once. Consider using "keys()" instead of "each()".

       Useless assignment to a temporary
           (W misc) You assigned to an lvalue subroutine, but what the subroutine returned was a
           temporary scalar about to be discarded, so the assignment had no effect.

       Useless (?-%s) - don't use /%s modifier in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) You have used an internal modifier such as (?-o) that has no meaning unless
           removed from the entire regexp:

               if ($string =~ /(?-o)$pattern/o) { ... }

           must be written as

               if ($string =~ /$pattern/) { ... }

           The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
           See perlre.

       Useless localization of %s
           (W syntax) The localization of lvalues such as "local($x=10)" is legal, but in fact
           the local() currently has no effect.  This may change at some point in the future, but
           in the meantime such code is discouraged.

       Useless (?%s) - use /%s modifier in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) You have used an internal modifier such as (?o) that has no meaning unless
           applied to the entire regexp:

               if ($string =~ /(?o)$pattern/) { ... }

           must be written as

               if ($string =~ /$pattern/o) { ... }

           The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
           See perlre.

       Useless use of /d modifier in transliteration operator
           (W misc) You have used the /d modifier where the searchlist has the same length as the
           replacelist.  See perlop for more information about the /d modifier.

       Useless use of '\'; doesn't escape metacharacter '%c'
           (D deprecated) You wrote a regular expression pattern something like one of these:

            m{ \x\{FF\} }x
            m{foo\{1,3\}}
            qr(foo\(bar\))
            s[foo\[a-z\]bar][baz]

           The interior braces, square brackets, and parentheses are treated as metacharacters
           even though they are backslashed; instead write:

            m{ \x{FF} }x
            m{foo{1,3}}
            qr(foo(bar))
            s[foo[a-z]bar][baz]

           The backslashes have no effect when a regular expression pattern is delimitted by
           "{}", "[]", or "()", which ordinarily are metacharacters, and the delimiters are also
           used, paired, within the interior of the pattern.  It is planned that a future Perl
           release will change the meaning of constructs like these so that the backslashes will
           have an effect, so remove them from your code.

       Useless use of \E
           (W misc) You have a \E in a double-quotish string without a "\U", "\L" or "\Q"
           preceding it.

       Useless use of %s in void context
           (W void) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing with
           the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value from a block, or the
           left side of a scalar comma operator.  Very often this points not to stupidity on your
           part, but a failure of Perl to parse your program the way you thought it would.  For
           example, you'd get this if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and
           said

               $one, $two = 1, 2;

           when you meant to say

               ($one, $two) = (1, 2);

           Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list reference when
           you should be using square or curly brackets, for example, if you say

               $array = (1,2);

           when you should have said

               $array = [1,2];

           The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value, while
           parentheses do not.  So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in a scalar context,
           the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which throws away the left argument,
           which is not what you want.  See perlref for more on this.

           This warning will not be issued for numerical constants equal to 0 or 1 since they are
           often used in statements like

               1 while sub_with_side_effects();

           String constants that would normally evaluate to 0 or 1 are warned about.

       Useless use of "re" pragma
           (W) You did "use re;" without any arguments.  That isn't very useful.

       Useless use of sort in scalar context
           (W void) You used sort in scalar context, as in :

               my $x = sort @y;

           This is not very useful, and perl currently optimizes this away.

       Useless use of (?-p) in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) The "p" modifier cannot be turned off once set.  Trying to do so is futile.

       Useless use of %s with no values
           (W syntax) You used the push() or unshift() function with no arguments apart from the
           array, like "push(@x)" or "unshift(@foo)".  That won't usually have any effect on the
           array, so is completely useless.  It's possible in principle that push(@tied_array)
           could have some effect if the array is tied to a class which implements a PUSH method.
           If so, you can write it as "push(@tied_array,())" to avoid this warning.

       Useless (%s%c) - %suse /%c modifier in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) The "/g" and "/o" regular expression modifiers are global and can't be
           turned off once set; hence things like "(?g)" or "(?-o:)" do nothing.

       Useless (%sc) - %suse /gc modifier in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) The "/c" regular expression modifier is global, can't be turned off once
           set, and doesn't do anything without the "/g" modifier being specified as well; hence
           things like "(?c)" or "(?-c:)" do nothing, nor do thing like "(?gc)" nor "(?-gc:)" .

       "use" not allowed in expression
           (F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns no
           useful value.  See perlmod.

       Use of assignment to $[ is deprecated
           (D deprecated) The $[ variable (index of the first element in an array) is deprecated.
           See "$[" in perlvar.

       Use of bare << to mean <<"" is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you wish to
           use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.

       Use of comma-less variable list is deprecated
           (D deprecated) The values you give to a format should be separated by commas, not just
           aligned on a line.

       Use of chdir('') or chdir(undef) as chdir() deprecated
           (D deprecated) chdir() with no arguments is documented to change to $ENV{HOME} or
           $ENV{LOGDIR}.  chdir(undef) and chdir('') share this behavior, but that has been
           deprecated.  In future versions they will simply fail.

           Be careful to check that what you pass to chdir() is defined and not blank, else you
           might find yourself in your home directory.

       Use of /c modifier is meaningless in s///
           (W regexp) You used the /c modifier in a substitution.  The /c modifier is not
           presently meaningful in substitutions.

       Use of /c modifier is meaningless without /g
           (W regexp) You used the /c modifier with a regex operand, but didn't use the /g
           modifier.  Currently, /c is meaningful only when /g is used.  (This may change in the
           future.)

       Use of := for an empty attribute list is not allowed
           (F) The construction "my $x := 42" used to parse as equivalent to "my $x : = 42"
           (applying an empty attribute list to $x).  This construct was deprecated in 5.12.0,
           and has now been made a syntax error, so ":=" can be reclaimed as a new operator in
           the future.

           If you need an empty attribute list, for example in a code generator, add a space
           before the "=".

       Use of freed value in iteration
           (F) Perhaps you modified the iterated array within the loop?  This error is typically
           caused by code like the following:

               @a = (3,4);
               @a = () for (1,2,@a);

           You are not supposed to modify arrays while they are being iterated over.  For speed
           and efficiency reasons, Perl internally does not do full reference-counting of
           iterated items, hence deleting such an item in the middle of an iteration causes Perl
           to see a freed value.

       Use of *glob{FILEHANDLE} is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You are now encouraged to use the shorter *glob{IO} form to access the
           filehandle slot within a typeglob.

       Use of /g modifier is meaningless in split
           (W regexp) You used the /g modifier on the pattern for a "split" operator.  Since
           "split" always tries to match the pattern repeatedly, the "/g" has no effect.

       Use of "goto" to jump into a construct is deprecated
           (D deprecated) Using "goto" to jump from an outer scope into an inner scope is
           deprecated and should be avoided.

       Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
           (D deprecated) As an (ahem) accidental feature, "AUTOLOAD" subroutines are looked up
           as methods (using the @ISA hierarchy) even when the subroutines to be autoloaded were
           called as plain functions (e.g. "Foo::bar()"), not as methods (e.g. "Foo->bar()" or
           "$obj->bar()").

           This bug will be rectified in future by using method lookup only for methods'
           "AUTOLOAD"s.  However, there is a significant base of existing code that may be using
           the old behavior.  So, as an interim step, Perl currently issues an optional warning
           when non-methods use inherited "AUTOLOAD"s.

           The simple rule is:  Inheritance will not work when autoloading non-methods.  The
           simple fix for old code is:  In any module that used to depend on inheriting
           "AUTOLOAD" for non-methods from a base class named "BaseClass", execute "*AUTOLOAD =
           \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD" during startup.

           In code that currently says "use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);" you should remove
           AutoLoader from @ISA and change "use AutoLoader;" to "use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';".

       Use of %s in printf format not supported
           (F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from only C.  This
           usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.

       Use of %s is deprecated
           (D deprecated) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
           because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has bad side
           effects.

       Use of -l on filehandle %s
           (W io) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it already
           went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.  The operation returned
           "undef".  Use a filename instead.

       Use of my $_ is experimental
           (S experimental::lexical_topic) Lexical $_ is an experimental feature and its behavior
           may change or even be removed in any future release of perl.  See the explanation
           under "$_" in perlvar.

       Use of %s on a handle without * is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You used "tie", "tied" or "untie" on a scalar but that scalar happens
           to hold a typeglob, which means its filehandle will be tied.  If you mean to tie a
           handle, use an explicit * as in "tie *$handle".

           This was a long-standing bug that was removed in Perl 5.16, as there was no way to tie
           the scalar itself when it held a typeglob, and no way to untie a scalar that had had a
           typeglob assigned to it.  If you see this message, you must be using an older version.

       Use of ?PATTERN? without explicit operator is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You have written something like "?\w?", for a regular expression that
           matches only once.  Starting this term directly with the question mark delimiter is
           now deprecated, so that the question mark will be available for use in new operators
           in the future.  Write "m?\w?"  instead, explicitly using the "m" operator: the
           question mark delimiter still invokes match-once behaviour.

       Use of reference "%s" as array index
           (W misc) You tried to use a reference as an array index; this probably isn't what you
           mean, because references in numerical context tend to be huge numbers, and so usually
           indicates programmer error.

           If you really do mean it, explicitly numify your reference, like so: $array[0+$ref].
           This warning is not given for overloaded objects, however, because you can overload
           the numification and stringification operators and then you presumably know what you
           are doing.

       Use of state $_ is experimental
           (S experimental::lexical_topic) Lexical $_ is an experimental feature and its behavior
           may change or even be removed in any future release of perl.  See the explanation
           under "$_" in perlvar.

       Use of tainted arguments in %s is deprecated
           (W taint, deprecated) You have supplied "system()" or "exec()" with multiple arguments
           and at least one of them is tainted.  This used to be allowed but will become a fatal
           error in a future version of perl.  Untaint your arguments.  See perlsec.

       Use of uninitialized value%s
           (W uninitialized) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined.  It was
           interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake.  To suppress this warning
           assign a defined value to your variables.

           To help you figure out what was undefined, perl will try to tell you the name of the
           variable (if any) that was undefined.  In some cases it cannot do this, so it also
           tells you what operation you used the undefined value in.  Note, however, that perl
           optimizes your program anid the operation displayed in the warning may not necessarily
           appear literally in your program.  For example, "that $foo" is usually optimized into
           ""that " . $foo", and the warning will refer to the "concatenation (.)" operator, even
           though there is no "." in your program.

       Using a hash as a reference is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You tried to use a hash as a reference, as in "%foo->{"bar"}" or
           "%$ref->{"hello"}".  Versions of perl <= 5.6.1 used to allow this syntax, but
           shouldn't have.   It is now deprecated, and will be removed in a future version.

       Using an array as a reference is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You tried to use an array as a reference, as in "@foo->[23]" or
           "@$ref->[99]".  Versions of perl <= 5.6.1 used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't
           have.  It is now deprecated, and will be removed in a future version.

       Using just the first character returned by \N{} in character class in regex; marked by <--
       HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) A charnames handler may return a sequence of more than one character.
           Currently all but the first one are discarded when used in a regular expression
           pattern bracketed character class.

       Using !~ with %s doesn't make sense
           (F) Using the "!~" operator with "s///r", "tr///r" or "y///r" is currently reserved
           for future use, as the exact behaviour has not been decided.  (Simply returning the
           boolean opposite of the modified string is usually not particularly useful.)

       UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
           (S utf8, surrogate) You had a UTF-16 surrogate in a context where they are not
           considered acceptable.  These code points, between U+D800 and U+DFFF (inclusive), are
           used by Unicode only for UTF-16.  However, Perl internally allows all unsigned integer
           code points (up to the size limit available on your platform), including surrogates.
           But these can cause problems when being input or output, which is likely where this
           message came from.  If you really really know what you are doing you can turn off this
           warning by "no warnings 'surrogate';".

       Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
           (W misc) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), "each()", or
           "readdir()" as a boolean value.  Each of these constructs can return a value of "0";
           that would make the conditional expression false, which is probably not what you
           intended.  When using these constructs in conditional expressions, test their values
           with the "defined" operator.

       Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
           (W misc) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl tried to read the value of an %ENV element
           from a CLI symbol table, and found a resultant string longer than 1024 characters.
           The return value has been truncated to 1024 characters.

       Variable "%s" is not available
           (W closure) During compilation, an inner named subroutine or eval is attempting to
           capture an outer lexical that is not currently available.  This can happen for one of
           two reasons.  First, the outer lexical may be declared in an outer anonymous
           subroutine that has not yet been created.  (Remember that named subs are created at
           compile time, while anonymous subs are created at run-time.)  For example,

               sub { my $a; sub f { $a } }

           At the time that f is created, it can't capture the current value of $a, since the
           anonymous subroutine hasn't been created yet.  Conversely, the following won't give a
           warning since the anonymous subroutine has by now been created and is live:

               sub { my $a; eval 'sub f { $a }' }->();

           The second situation is caused by an eval accessing a variable that has gone out of
           scope, for example,

               sub f {
                   my $a;
                   sub { eval '$a' }
               }
               f()->();

           Here, when the '$a' in the eval is being compiled, f() is not currently being
           executed, so its $a is not available for capture.

       Variable "%s" is not imported%s
           (S misc) With "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable that you
           apparently thought was imported from another module, because something else of the
           same name (usually a subroutine) is exported by that module.  It usually means you put
           the wrong funny character on the front of your variable.

       Variable length lookbehind not implemented in regex m/%s/
           (F) Lookbehind is allowed only for subexpressions whose length is fixed and known at
           compile time.  See perlre.

       "%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s
           (W misc) A "my", "our" or "state" variable has been redeclared in the current scope or
           statement, effectively eliminating all access to the previous instance.  This is
           almost always a typographical error.  Note that the earlier variable will still exist
           until the end of the scope or until all closure references to it are destroyed.

       Variable syntax
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh instead of Perl.  Check the #!
           line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       Variable "%s" will not stay shared
           (W closure) An inner (nested) named subroutine is referencing a lexical variable
           defined in an outer named subroutine.

           When the inner subroutine is called, it will see the value of the outer subroutine's
           variable as it was before and during the *first* call to the outer subroutine; in this
           case, after the first call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
           subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable.  In other words, the
           variable will no longer be shared.

           This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine anonymous, using the
           "sub {}" syntax.  When inner anonymous subs that reference variables in outer
           subroutines are created, they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
           variables.

       vector argument not supported with alpha versions
           (S printf) The %vd (s)printf format does not support version objects with alpha parts.

       Verb pattern '%s' has a mandatory argument in regex; marked by <-- HERE  in m/%s/
           (F) You used a verb pattern that requires an argument.  Supply an argument or check
           that you are using the right verb.

       Verb pattern '%s' may not have an argument in regex; marked by <-- HERE  in m/%s/
           (F) You used a verb pattern that is not allowed an argument.  Remove the argument or
           check that you are using the right verb.

       Version number must be a constant number
           (P) The attempt to translate a "use Module n.n LIST" statement into its equivalent
           "BEGIN" block found an internal inconsistency with the version number.

       Version string '%s' contains invalid data; ignoring: '%s'
           (W misc) The version string contains invalid characters at the end, which are being
           ignored.

       Warning: something's wrong
           (W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of "warn """) or you called it
           with no args and $@ was empty.

       Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
           (S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the close().
           This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.

       Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
           (S ambiguous) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
           binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or unary operator.
           For instance, if you know that the rand function has a default argument of 1.0, and
           you write

               rand + 5;

           you may THINK you wrote the same thing as

               rand() + 5;

           but in actual fact, you got

               rand(+5);

           So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.

       when is experimental
           (S experimental::smartmatch) "when" depends on smartmatch, which is experimental.
           Additionally, it has several special cases that may not be immediately obvious, and
           their behavior may change or even be removed in any future release of perl.  See the
           explanation under "Experimental Details on given and when" in perlsyn.

       Wide character in %s
           (S utf8) Perl met a wide character (>255) when it wasn't expecting one.  This warning
           is by default on for I/O (like print).  The easiest way to quiet this warning is
           simply to add the ":utf8" layer to the output, e.g. "binmode STDOUT, ':utf8'".
           Another way to turn off the warning is to add "no warnings 'utf8';" but that is often
           closer to cheating.  In general, you are supposed to explicitly mark the filehandle
           with an encoding, see open and "binmode" in perlfunc.

       Within []-length '%c' not allowed
           (F) The count in the (un)pack template may be replaced by "[TEMPLATE]" only if
           "TEMPLATE" always matches the same amount of packed bytes that can be determined from
           the template alone.  This is not possible if it contains any of the codes @, /, U, u,
           w or a *-length.  Redesign the template.

       write() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
           Check your control flow.

       %s "\x%X" does not map to Unicode
           (F) When reading in different encodings, Perl tries to map everything into Unicode
           characters.  The bytes you read in are not legal in this encoding.  For example

               utf8 "\xE4" does not map to Unicode

           if you try to read in the a-diaereses Latin-1 as UTF-8.

       'X' outside of string
           (F) You had a (un)pack template that specified a relative position before the
           beginning of the string being (un)packed.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       'x' outside of string in unpack
           (F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after the end of the
           string being unpacked.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
           (F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the sources to your
           kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip about what you want.  Your best
           bet is to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.

       You need to quote "%s"
           (W syntax) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name.  Unfortunately, you
           already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5 will try to
           call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is probably not what you
           want.  (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)

       Your random numbers are not that random
           (F) When trying to initialise the random seed for hashes, Perl could not get any
           randomness out of your system.  This usually indicates Something Very Wrong.

SEE ALSO

       warnings, perllexwarn, diagnostics.