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NAME  - Import GDAL supported raster file into a binary raster map layer.


       raster, import

SYNOPSIS help   [-oeflk]   [input=name]    [output=name]    [band=integer]    [memory=integer]
       [target=name]   [title="phrase"]   [location=name]   [--overwrite]  [--verbose]  [--quiet]

           Override projection (use location's projection)

           Extend region extents based on new dataset
           Also updates the default region if in the PERMANENT mapset

           List supported formats and exit

           Force Lat/Lon maps to fit into geographic coordinates (90N,S; 180E,W)

           Keep band numbers instead of using band color names

           Allow output files to overwrite existing files

           Verbose module output

           Quiet module output

           Raster file to be imported

           Name for output raster map

           Band to select (default is all bands)

           Cache size (MiB)

           Name of location to read projection from for GCPs transformation

           Title for resultant raster map

           Name for new location to create

DESCRIPTION allows a user to create a (binary) GRASS raster map  layer,  or  imagery  group,
       from  any  GDAL supported raster map format, with an optional title. The imported file may
       also be optionally used to create a new location.


       Extended explanations:

              Extend the DEFAULT_WIND in PERMANENT mapset to include the region of  the  new  map
              layer.   Old  resolution  is  preserved, but the region, and rows/cols are updated.
              This will fail if the user doesn't have write access to the PERMANENT mapset.

   GDAL supported raster formats
       Full details on GDAL supported formats are available at:

       Selected formats of the more than 80 supported formats:
       Long Format Name                                         Code                     Creation
       Georeferencing          Maximum File Size
       Arc/Info   ASCII   Grid                                       AAIGrid                  Yes
       Yes                     No limits
       Arc/Info   Binary   Grid                                      AIG                       No
       Yes                     --
       AIRSAR    Polarimetric                                        AIRSAR                    No
       No                      --
       Microsoft  Windows  Device  Independent  Bitmap  (.bmp)       BMP                      Yes
       Yes                     4GiB
       BSB   Nautical   Chart  Format  (.kap)                         BSB                      No
       Yes                     --
       VTP  Binary  Terrain  Format  (.bt)                          BT                        Yes
       Yes                     --
       CEOS   (Spot   for   instance)                                 CEOS                     No
       No                      --
       First  Generation  USGS  DOQ  (.doq)                          DOQ1                      No
       Yes                     --
       New   Labelled   USGS  DOQ  (.doq)                             DOQ2                     No
       Yes                     --
       Data   (.dt0,   .dt1)                                         DTED                      No
       Yes                     --
       ERMapper   Compressed   Wavelets  (.ecw)                      ECW                      Yes
       ESRI   .hdr   Labelled                                        EHdr                      No
       Yes                     --
       ENVI   .hdr   Labelled  Raster                                ENVI                     Yes
       Yes                     No limits
       Envisat  Image  Product   (.n1)                               Envisat                   No
       No                      --
       EOSAT   FAST   Format                                         FAST                      No
       Yes                     --
       FITS   (.fits)                                              FITS                       Yes
       Graphics   Interchange   Format  (.gif)                       GIF                      Yes
       No                      2GB
       Arc/Info  Binary  Grid  (.adf)                               GIO                       Yes
       GRASS    Rasters                                              GRASS                     No
       Yes                     --
       TIFF  /  GeoTIFF  (.tif)                                     GTiff                     Yes
       Yes                     4GiB
       Hierarchical  Data  Format  Release  4  (HDF4)                HDF4                     Yes
       Yes                     2GiB
       Erdas  Imagine   (.img)                                      HFA                       Yes
       Yes                     No limits
       Atlantis    MFF2e                                            HKV                       Yes
       Yes                     No limits
       Image  Display  and  Analysis  (WinDisp)                     IDA                       Yes
       Yes                     2GB
       ILWIS   Raster   Map  (.mpr,.mpl)                             ILWIS                    Yes
       Yes                     --
       Japanese   DEM   (.mem)                                       JDEM                      No
       Yes                     --
       JPEG   JFIF   (.jpg)                                          JPEG                     Yes
       Yes                     4GiB (max dimentions 65500x65500)
       JPEG2000  (.jp2,   .j2k)                                     JPEG2000                  Yes
       Yes                     2GiB
       JPEG2000   (.jp2,   .j2k)                                     JP2KAK                   Yes
       Yes                     No limits
       NOAA Polar  Orbiter  Level  1b  Data  Set  (AVHRR)             L1B                      No
       Yes                     --
       Erdas   7.x   .LAN  and  .GIS                                  LAN                      No
       Yes                     2GB
       In  Memory   Raster                                          MEM                       Yes
       Yes                     2GiB
       Atlantis    MFF                                              MFF                       Yes
       Yes                     No limits
       Multi-resolution  Seamless  Image   Database                  MrSID                     No
       Yes                     --
       NDF                                                       NLAPS   Data   Format         No
       Yes                     No limits
       NITF                                                       NITF                        Yes
       NetCDF                                                      netCDF                     Yes
       Yes                     2GB
       OGDI   Bridge                                                OGDI                       No
       Yes                     --
       PCI   .aux   Labelled                                         PAux                     Yes
       No                      No limits
       PCI  Geomatics  Database  File                               PCIDSK                    Yes
       Yes                     No limits
       Portable   Network   Graphics  (.png)                         PNG                      Yes
       PCRaster   (.map)                                           PCRaster                   Yes
       Netpbm    (.ppm,.pgm)                                        PNM                       Yes
       No                      No limits
       RadarSat2   XML   (product.xml)                               RS2                       No
       Yes                     4GB
       USGS   SDTS   DEM   (*CATD.DDF)                                SDTS                     No
       Yes                     --
       SAR   CEOS                                                   SAR_CEOS                   No
       Yes                     --
       USGS   ASCII   DEM   (.dem)                                    USGSDEM                  No
       Yes                     --
       X11  Pixmap   (.xpm)                                         XPM                       Yes

   Location Creation  attempts  to  preserve  projection  information  when importing datasets if the
       source format includes projection information, and if the GDAL driver supports it.  If the
       projection  of  the  source  dataset does not match the projection of the current location will report an error message (Projection of dataset does  not  appear  to  match
       current location) and then report the PROJ_INFO parameters of the source dataset.

       If  the user wishes to ignore the difference between the apparent coordinate system of the
       source data and the current location, they may pass the -o flag to override the projection

       If  the user wishes to import the data with the full projection definition, it is possible
       to have automatically create a new location based on the projection and  extents
       of  the  file being read.  This is accomplished by passing the name to be used for the new
       location via the location parameter.  Upon completion of the command, a new location  will
       have  been  created (with only a PERMANENT mapset), and the raster will have been imported
       with the indicated output name into the PERMANENT mapset.

       Support for GCPs: In case the image contains GCPs they are written to a POINTS file within
       an imagery group. They can directly be used for i.rectify. The target option allows you to
       automatically re-project the GCPs from their own projection into another  projection  read
       from the PROJ_INFO file of the location name target.


       Import  of  large files can be significantly faster when setting memory to the size of the
       input file.

       The command does support the following  features,  as  long  as  the  underlying
       format driver supports it:

        Color Table
               Bands  with  associated  colortables will have the color tables transferred.  Note
              that if the source has no colormap, in GRASS 5.0 will emit  no  colormap.
              Use  r.colors  map=...  color=grey  to  assign  a  greyscale colormap.  In a future
              version of GRASS will likely be upgraded to automatically emit  greyscale

        Data Types
               Most GDAL data types are supported.  Float32 and Float64 type bands are translated
              as GRASS floating point cells (but not double precision ...  this could be added if
              needed), and most other types are translated as GRASS integer cells.  This includes
              16bit integer data sources.  Complex (some SAR signal data formats) data bands  are
              translated to two floating point cell layers (*.real and *.imaginary).

               If the dataset has affine georeferencing information, this will be used to set the
              north, south, east and  west  edges.   Rotational  coefficients  will  be  ignored,
              resulting in incorrect positioning for rotated datasets.

               The  datasets  projection  will  be  used to compare to the current location or to
              define a new location.  Internally GDAL  represents  projections  in  OpenGIS  Well
              Known  Text  format.   A  large  subset  of  the total set of GRASS projections are

        Null Values
               Raster bands for which a null value is recognised  by  GDAL  will  have  the  null
              pixels transformed into GRASS style nulls during import.  Many generic formats (and
              formats poorly supported by GDAL) do not have a way of recognising null  pixels  in
              which case r.null should be used after the import.

               Datasets  that have Ground Control Points will have them imported as a POINTS file
              associated with the  imagery  group.   Datasets  with  only  one  band  that  would
              otherwise  have been translated as a simple raster map will also have an associated
              imagery group if there are ground control points.  The  coordinate  system  of  the
              ground  control points is reported by but not preserved.  It is up to the
              user to ensure that  the  location  established  with  has  a  compatible
              coordinate system before using the points with i.rectify.

       Planned  improvements  to in the future include support for reporting everything
       known about a dataset if the output parameter is not set.

   Error Messages
       "ERROR: Input map is rotated - cannot import."
       In this case the image must be first externally rotated, applying the rotation info stored
       in the metadata field of the raster image file. For example, the gdalwarp  software can be
       used to transform the map to North-up (note, there  are  several  gdalwarp  parameters  to
       select the resampling algorithm):
       gdalwarp rotated.tif northup.tif

       "ERROR: Projection of dataset does not appear to match the current location."
       You  need  to  create a location whose projection matches the data you wish to import. Try
       using location parameter to create a new location based upon the projection information in
       the  file.  If  desired,  you  can  then  re-project  it  to another location with r.proj.
       Alternatively you can override this error by using the -o flag.

       "WARNING: G_set_window(): Illegal latitude for North"
       Latitude/Longitude locations in GRASS can not have regions which exceed 90°  North  or
       South.  Non-georeferenced  imagery  will  have coordinates based on the images's number of
       pixels: 0,0 in the bottom left; cols,rows in the top right. Typically imagery will be much
       more  than  90  pixels  tall and so the GIS refuses to import it. If you are sure that the
       data is appropriate for your Lat/Lon location and intentd to reset the map's  bounds  with
       the  r.region  module  directly  after import you may use the -l flag to constrain the map
       coordinates to legal values.  While the resulting bounds and  resolution  will  likely  be
       wrong  for  your  map  the map's data will be unaltered and safe. After resetting to known
       bounds with r.region you should double check them with, paying special attention to
       the  map  resolution.  In  most  cases  you will want to import into the datafile's native
       projection, or into a simple XY location and use the Georectifaction tools  (i.rectify  et
       al.) to properly project into the target location.  The -l flag should only be used if you
       know the projection is correct but the internal georeferencing has gotten  lost,  and  you
       know the what the map's bounds and resolution should be beforehand.


       To  avoid  that  the  GTOPO30 data are read incorrectly, you can add a new line "PIXELTYPE
       SIGNEDINT" in the .HDR to force interpretation of the file as signed rather than  unsigned
       integers. Then the .DEM file can be imported.  Finally, e.g. the 'terrain' color table can
       be assigned to the imported map with r.colors.

       To import GLOBE DEM tiles (approx 1km resolution, better than GTOPO30 DEM data), the  user
       has  to  download additionally the related HDR file(s).  Finally, e.g. the 'terrain' color
       table can be assigned to the imported map with r.colors.
       To import Worldclim data, the following line has to be added to each .hdr file:

       The import of HDF bands requires the specification of the  individual  bands  as  seen  by
       # Example MODIS FPAR
       gdalinfo MOD15A2.A2003153.h18v04.004.2003171141042.hdf
         SUBDATASET_1_DESC=[1200x1200] Fpar_1km MOD_Grid_MOD15A2 (8-bit unsigned integer)
         SUBDATASET_2_DESC=[1200x1200] Lai_1km MOD_Grid_MOD15A2 (8-bit unsigned integer)
       # import of first band, here FPAR 1km:
       # ... likewise for other HDF bands in the file.


        r.colors,,,, r.null


       GDAL Pages:


       Frank Warmerdam (email).

       Last changed: $Date: 2013-04-17 22:56:53 -0700 (Wed, 17 Apr 2013) $

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