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NAME - Landscape structure analysis package overview.


       raster,  landscape  structure  analysis,  overview,  landscape metrics, landscape pattern,
       landscape analysis


       The suite is a toolset for multiscale analysis of landscape structure.   It  aims  at
       replacing  the r.le suite of modules through a client-server, multiprocess implementation.
       External software  for  quantitative  measures  of  landscape  structure  is  for  example
       FRAGSTATS (McGarigal and Marks 1995).

       The  suite  offers  a  set  of patch and diversity indices.  It supports analysis of
       landscapes composed of a mosaic of patches, but, more generally, the modules work with any
       two-dimensional  raster  map  whose cell values are integer (e.g., 1, 2) or floating point
       (e.g., 1.1, 3.2) values. The module has  options  for  controlling  the  shape,
       size,  number,  and  distribution  of sampling areas used to collect information about the
       landscape structure.  Sampling area shapes can be the entire map or  a  moving  window  of
       square,  rectangular or with circular shape. The size of sampling areas can be changed, so
       that the landscape can be analyzed at a variety of spatial scales simultaneously. Sampling
       areas  may  be  distributed  across  the landscape in a random, systematic, or stratified-
       random manner, or as a moving window.

       The modules can calculate a number of measures that produce single values  as  output
       (e.g.  mean  patch  size  in  the  sampling  area),  as  well  as  measures that produce a
       distribution of values as output (e.g.  frequency  distribution  of  patch  sizes  in  the
       sampling area). The results are stored as raster maps.

       The general procedure to calculate an index from a raster map is two-fold:

       1      run  create  a  configuration  file  selecting  the parts of raster to

       2      run'index' (e.g., for calculate the selected  index  using
              on the areas selected on configuration file.


       Also  the has a main function and it can be run, but it is only a template for
       development of new indices.  The function itself has no meaning, it can be used  only  for


       To  calculate  a  patch  density  index  on  a whole 'geology' raster map in the Spearfish
       region, using a 5x5 moving window, follow this procedure:



               The main window is displayed, click on "New"

                Now it is displayed the new configuration window, enter  the  configuration  file
              name (e.g., "my_conf", do not use absolute paths) and the name of raster map (e.g.,
              "geology").  The other fields are not needed for this configuration.

               Click on "Setup sampling frame", select "Whole maplayer" and click "OK"

               Click on "Setup sampling areas", select "Moving window" and click "OK"

               Click on "Use keyboard to enter moving window dimension"

               Select "Rectangle" and enter 5 on "heigth" and "width" fields

               Click on "Save settings"

               Close window


       2.1         set region settings to geology raster map:
                   g.region rast=geology -p

             map=geology conf=my_conf out=patchdens

       The resulting patch density is stored in "patchdens"  raster  map.   You  can  verify  the
       result for example with contour lines:
       r.contour in=patchdens out=patchdens step=5
       d.rast patchdens
       d.vect -c patchdens
         Note  that  if you want to run another index with the same area configuration, you don't
       have to create another configuration file.  You can also use the same  area  configuration
       file  on  another  map.  The  program  rescale  it automatically. For instance if you have
       selected a 5x5 sample area on 100x100 raster map, and you use the same configuration  file
       on a 200x200 raster map, then the sample area is 10x10.


       Core modules: job launch daemon Configuration editor for'index'
       Patch indices:

                     Indices based on patch number:  Calculates  patch  density  index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour
       algorithm Calculates patch  number  index  on  a  raster  map,  using  a  4
       neighbour algorithm

                     Indices based on patch dimension:  Calculates mean patch size index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm  Calculates  coefficient  of  variation  of  patch  area  on  a   raster   map  Calculates range of patch area size on a raster map Calculates
       standard deviation of patch area a raster map

                     Indices based on patch shape: Calculates shape index on a raster map

                     Indices based on patch edge: Calculates edge density index on a  raster  map,  using  a  4  neighbour

                     Indices based on patch attributes:  Calculates  contrast  Weighted  Edge  Density  index on a raster map
       Calculates mean pixel attribute index on a raster map
       Diversity indices:  Calculates  dominance  diversity  index  on  a  raster  map
       Calculates  Pielou eveness index on a raster map Calculates Renyi entropy on a
       raster  map  Calculates  richness  diversity  index  on   a   raster   map  Calculates Shannon diversity index on a raster map Calculates
       Simpson diversity index on a raster map


       New indices can be defined and implemented by any C programmer,  without  having  to  deal
       with  all  basic  functions  (IO  etc.).  The computing architecture and the functions are
       clearly separated, thus allowing an easy expandability. Every index is defined separately,
       placed in a directory along with its Makefile for compiling it and a file description.html
       which describes the index including a simple example of use.


       McGarigal, K., and B. J. Marks. 1995. FRAGSTATS:  spatial  pattern  analysis  program  for
       quantifying landscape structure. USDA For. Serv.  Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-351 (PDF).


       Claudio  Porta  and  Lucio  Davide  Spano, students of Computer Science University of Pisa
       Commission from Faunalia Pontedera (PI)

       Last changed: $Date: 2011-11-08 03:29:50 -0800 (Tue, 08 Nov 2011) $

       raster index - Full index