Provided by: grass-doc_6.4.3-3_all

**NAME**

r.slope.aspect- Generates raster maps of slope, aspect, curvatures and partial derivatives from a elevation raster map. Aspect is calculated counterclockwise from east.

**KEYWORDS**

raster, terrain

**SYNOPSIS**

r.slope.aspectr.slope.aspecthelpr.slope.aspect[-qa]elevation=name[slope=name] [aspect=name] [format=string] [prec=string] [pcurv=name] [tcurv=name] [dx=name] [dy=name] [dxx=name] [dyy=name] [dxy=name] [zfactor=float] [min_slp_allowed=float] [--overwrite] [--verbose] [--quiet]Flags:-qQuiet-aDo not align the current region to the elevation layer--overwriteAllow output files to overwrite existing files--verboseVerbose module output--quietQuiet module outputParameters:elevation=nameName of elevation raster mapslope=nameName for output slope raster mapaspect=nameName for output aspect raster mapformat=stringFormat for reporting the slope Options:degrees,percentDefault:degreesprec=stringType of output aspect and slope maps Options:default,double,float,intDefault:floatpcurv=nameName for output profile curvature raster maptcurv=nameName for output tangential curvature raster mapdx=nameName for output first order partial derivative dx (E-W slope) raster mapdy=nameName for output first order partial derivative dy (N-S slope) raster mapdxx=nameName for output second order partial derivative dxx raster mapdyy=nameName for output second order partial derivative dyy raster mapdxy=nameName for output second order partial derivative dxy raster mapzfactor=floatMultiplicative factor to convert elevation units to meters Default:1.0min_slp_allowed=floatMinimum slope val. (in percent) for which aspect is computed Default:0.0

**DESCRIPTION**

r.slope.aspectgenerates raster maps of slope, aspect, curvatures and first and second order partial derivatives from a raster map of true elevation values. The user must specify the inputelevationfile name and at least one output file name. The user can also specify theformatfor slope (degrees, percent; default=degrees), and thezfactor: multiplicative factor to convert elevation units to meters; (default 1.0). Theelevationinput raster map specified by the user must contain true elevation values,notrescaled or categorized data. If the elevation values are in feet or other units than meters (with a conversion factormeters:, defined in PROJ_UNITS), they must be converted to meters using the parameterzfactor. Theaspectoutput raster map indicates the direction that slopes are facing. The aspect categories represent the number degrees of east. Category and color table files are also generated for the aspect map layer. The aspect categories represent the number degrees of east and they increase counterclockwise: 90deg is North, 180 is West, 270 is South 360 is East. The aspect value 0 is used to indicate undefined aspect in flat areas with slope=0. Theslopeoutput raster map contains slope values, stated in degrees of inclination from the horizontal ifformat=degrees option (the default) is chosen, and in percent rise ifformat=percent option is chosen. Category and color table files are generated. Profile and tangential curvatures are the curvatures in the direction of steepest slope and in the direction of the contour tangent respectively. The curvatures are expressed as 1/metres, e.g. a curvature of 0.05 corresponds to a radius of curvature of 20m. Convex form values are positive and concave form values are negative. | Example DEM | | Slope (degree) from example DEM | Aspect (degree) from example DEM | Tangential curvature (m-1) from example DEM | Profile curvature (m-1) from example DEM | For some applications, the user will wish to use a reclassified raster map of slope that groups slope values into ranges of slope. This can be done usingr.reclass. An example of a useful reclassification is given below: (in degrees) (in percent) 1 0- 1 0- 2% 2 2- 3 3- 5% 3 4- 5 6- 10% 4 6- 8 11- 15% 5 9- 11 16- 20% 6 12- 14 21- 25% 7 15- 90 26% and higher The following color table works well with the above reclassification. category red green blue 0 179 179 179 1 0 102 0 2 0 153 0 3 128 153 0 4 204 179 0 5 128 51 51 6 255 0 0 7 0 0 0

**NOTES**

To ensure that the raster elevation map layer is not inappropriately resampled, the settings for the current region are modified slightly (for the execution of the program only): the resolution is set to match the resolution of the elevation map and the edges of the region (i.e. the north, south, east and west) are shifted, if necessary, to line up along edges of the nearest cells in the elevation map. If the user really wants the elevation map resampled to the current region resolution, the -a flag should be specified. The current mask is ignored. The algorithm used to determine slope and aspect uses a 3x3 neighborhood around each cell in the elevation file. Thus, it is not possible to determine slope and aspect for the cells adjacent to the edges in the elevation map layer. These cells are assigned a "zero slope" value (category 0) in both the slope and aspect raster map layers. Horn's formula is used to find the first order derivatives in x and y directions. Only when using integer elevation models, the aspect is biased in 0, 45, 90, 180, 225, 270, 315, and 360 directions; i.e., the distribution of aspect categories is very uneven, with peaks at 0, 45,..., 360 categories. When working with floating point elevation models, no such aspect bias occurs. Because most cells with a very small slope end up having category 0, 45, ..., 360, it is sometimes possible to reduce the bias in these directions by filtering out the aspect in areas where the terrain is almost flat. A new optionmin_slp_allowedwas added to specify the minimum slope for which aspect is computed. The aspect for all cells with slope <min_slp_allowedis set tonull.

**REFERENCE**

Horn, B. K. P. (1981).HillShadingandtheReflectanceMap, Proceedings of the IEEE, 69(1):14-47. Mitasova, H. (1985).Cartographicaspectsofcomputersurfacemodeling.PhDthesis.Slovak Technical University , Bratislava Hofierka, J., Mitasova, H., Neteler, M., 2009.GeomorphometryinGRASSGIS.In: Hengl, T. and Reuter, H.I. (Eds),Geomorphometry:Concepts,Software,Applications.Developments in Soil Science, vol. 33, Elsevier, 387-410 pp, http://www.geomorphometry.org

**SEE** **ALSO**

r.mapcalc,r.neighbors,r.reclass,r.rescale

**AUTHORS**

Michael Shapiro, U.S.Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory Olga Waupotitsch, U.S.Army Construction Engineering Research LaboratoryLastchanged:$Date:2011-11-0803:29:50-0800(Tue,08Nov2011)$Full index © 2003-2013 GRASS Development Team