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NAME

       xdvi - DVI Previewer for the X Window System

SYNOPSIS

       xdvi  [+[page]]  [--help]  [-allowshell] [-altfont font] [-bg color] [-browser WWWbrowser]
       [-copy]  [-cr  color]  [-debug  bitmask|string[,string  ...]]    [-display   host:display]
       [-dvipspath  path] [-editor command] [-expert] [-expertmode flag] [-fg color] [-findstring
       string] [-text-encoding encoding]  [-font  font]  [-fullscreen  ]  [-gamma  g]  [-geometry
       geometry]  [-gsalpha]  [-gspalette  palette]  [-h]  [-help]  [-hl  color] [-anchorposition
       anchor] [-hush] [-hushchars]  [-hushchecksums]  [-warnpecials]  [-hushstdout]  [-hushbell]
       [-icongeometry  geometry] [-iconic] [-install] [-interpreter path] [-keep] [-l] [-license]
       [-linkcolor color] [-linkstyle 0|1|2|3] [-margins dimen] [-mfmode mode-def[:dpi]] [-mgs[n]
       size]  [-mousemode  0|1|2]  [-nocolor]  [-nofork]  [-noghostscript] [-nogrey] [-nogssafer]
       [-noinstall]   [-nomakepk]   [-nomatchinverted]   [-noomega]   [-noscan]   [-notype1fonts]
       [-notempfile]  [-offsets  dimen]  [-p  pixels]  [-paper papertype] [-pause] [-pausespecial
       special-string] [-postscript flag] [-rulecolor  color]  [-rv]  [-S  density]  [-s  shrink]
       [-safer]   [-sidemargin   dimen]   [-sourceposition  line[:col][ ]filename]  [-statusline]
       [-thorough]   [-topmargin   dimen]   [-unique]   [-version]   [-visitedlinkcolor    color]
       [-warnspecials]  [-watchfile  secs]  [-wheelunit pixels] [-xoffset dimen] [-yoffset dimen]
       [dvi_file]

DESCRIPTION

       Xdvi is a program for previewing dvi files, as produced e.g. by the tex(1) program,  under
       the X window system.

       Xdvi  can  show  the  file  shrunken by various integer factors, and it has a ``magnifying
       glass'' for viewing parts of the page enlarged (see the  section  MAGNIFIER  below).  This
       version  of xdvi is also referred to as xdvik since it uses the kpathsea library to locate
       and generate font files.  In addition to that, it supports the following features:

         - hyperlinks in DVI files (section HYPERLINKS),

         - direct rendering of PostScript<tm> Type 1 fonts (section TYPE 1 FONTS),

         - source specials in the DVI file (section SOURCE SPECIALS),

         - string search in DVI files (section STRING SEARCH),

         - saving or printing (parts of) the DVI file (sections PRINT DIALOG and SAVE DIALOG).

       Xdvi can be compiled with the Motif toolkit or the Xaw (Athena) toolkit (and  variants  of
       it),  and  the  Motif  version  has  a slightly different GUI; these differences are noted
       below.

       Before displaying a page of a DVI file, xdvi will check to see if  the  file  has  changed
       since the last time it was displayed.  If this is the case, it will reload the file.  This
       feature allows you to preview many versions of the same file while running xdvi only once.
       Since it cannot read partial DVI files, xdvik versions starting from 22.74.3 will create a
       temporary copy of the DVI file being viewed, to ensure that the file can be viewed without
       interruptions. (The -notempfile can be used to turn off this feature).

       Xdvi  can  show PostScript<tm> specials by any of three methods.  It will try first to use
       Display PostScript<tm>, then NeWS, then it will try  to  use  Ghostscript  to  render  the
       images.   All  of  these options depend on additional software to work properly; moreover,
       some of them may not be compiled into this copy of xdvi.

       For performance reasons, xdvi does not render PostScript specials in the magnifying glass.

       If no file name has been specified on the command line, xdvi will try  to  open  the  most
       recently  opened file; if the file history (accessible via the File > Open Recent menu) is
       empty, or if none of the files in the history are valid DVI files, it will pop up  a  file
       selector  for  choosing  a  file  name.   (In  previous versions, which didn't have a file
       history, the file selector was always used; you can set the X resource noFileArgUseHistory
       to false to get back the old behaviour.)

OPTIONS

       In addition to specifying the dvi file (with or without the .dvi extension), xdvi supports
       the following command line options.  If the option begins with a `+' instead of a `-', the
       option  is  restored  to  its default value.  By default, these options can be set via the
       resource names given in parentheses in the description of each option.

       +page  Specifies the first page to show.  If + is given without a number, the last page is
              assumed; the first page is the default.

       -allowshell
              (.allowShell)  This  option  enables the shell escape in PostScript specials.  (For
              security reasons, shell escapes are disabled by default.)  This  option  should  be
              rarely  used;  in  particular  it should not be used just to uncompress files: that
              function is done automatically if the file name ends in .Z, .gz,  or  .bz2.   Shell
              escapes are always turned off if the -safer option is used.

       -altfont font
              (.altFont)  Declares  a default font to use when the font in the dvi file cannot be
              found.  This is useful, for example, with PostScript <tm> fonts.

       -background color
              (.background) Determines the color of the background.  Same as -bg.

       -bg color
              (.background) Determines the color of the background.

       -browser browser
              (.wwwBrowser) Defines the web browser used for handling external URLs. The value of
              this  option  or  resource has the same syntax as the BROWSER environment variable;
              see the explanation of that variable in  the  section  `ENVIRONMENT'  below  for  a
              detailed  description.   If  neither  the  option  nor the X resource wwwBrowser is
              specified, the environment variables BROWSER and WWWBROWSER  (in  that  order)  are
              used  to  determine the browser command. If these are not set either, the following
              default  value  is  used:   xdg-open   %s:htmlview   %s:firefox   -remote   -remote
              "openURL(%s,new-window)":mozilla  -remote  "openURL(%s,new-window)":netscape -raise
              -remote "openURL(%s,new-window)":xterm -e w3m %s:xterm -e lynx %s:xterm -e wget %s

       -copy  (.copy) Always use the copy operation when writing characters to the display.  This
              option  may  be  necessary for correct operation on a color display, but overstrike
              characters will be incorrect.  If greyscale anti-aliasing  is  in  use,  the  -copy
              operation  will  disable  the  use  of  colorplanes  and  make overstrikes come out
              incorrectly.  See also -thorough.

       -cr color
              (.cursorColor) Determines the color of the mouse cursor.  The default is  the  same
              as the foreground color.

       -debug bitmask|string[,string ...]
              (.debugLevel)  If  nonzero,  prints additional information on standard output.  The
              argument can be either a bitmask specified as a decimal number, or  comma-separated
              list of strings.
              For  the  bitmask  representation,  multiple  values can be specified by adding the
              numbers that represent the individual bits; e.g. to debug all  all  file  searching
              and  opening  commands,  use 4032 (= 2048 + 1024 + 512 + 256 + 128 + 64). Use -1 to
              turn on debugging of everything (this will produce huge output).
              For the string representation, use the strings listed in the following table,  with
              a  comma  to  separate  the  values;  e.g.  to debug all file searching and opening
              commands,  use  search,expand,paths,hash,stat,open.   (The  option  `kpathsea'   is
              provided as a shorthand for these.)  Note that such a list may need to be quoted to
              prevent the shell from interpreting commas or spaces in the list.
              The individual numbers and strings have the following meanings:

               1       bitmap      Bitmap creation
               2       dvi         DVI translation
               4       pk          PK fonts
               8       batch       Batch mode: Exit after
                                   reading the DVI file
               16      event       Event handling
               32      ps          PostScript interpreter calls
               64      stat        Kpathsea stat(2) calls
               128     hash        Kpathsea hash table lookups
               256     open        Kpathsea file opening
               512     paths       Kpathsea path definitions
               1024    expand      Kpathsea path expansion
               2048    search      Kpathsea searching
               4032    kpathsea    All Kpathsea options
               4096    htex        Hypertex specials
               8192    src         Source specials
               16384   client      Client/server mode (see -unique
                                   and -sourceposition options)
               32768   ft          FreeType library messages (Type 1 fonts)
               65536   ft_verbose  Verbose FreeType library messages (currently unused)
               131072  gui         GUI elements

              Some of the Kpathsea debugging options are actually provided by Kpathsea;  see  the
              Debugging section in the Kpathsea manual for more information on these.

       -density density
              (.densityPercent)  Determines the density used when shrinking bitmaps for fonts.  A
              higher value produces a lighter font.  The default value is 40.  If greyscaling  is
              in  use,  this  argument  does  not  apply;  use  -gamma instead.  See also the `S'
              keystroke.  Same as -S.

       -display host:display
              Specifies the host and screen to be used for displaying the dvi file.   By  default
              this is obtained from the environment variable DISPLAY.

       -dvipspath path
              (.dvipsPath)  Use  path as the dvips program to use when printing.  The default for
              this is dvips.  The program or script should read the DVI file from standard input,
              and write the PostScript file to standard output.

       -editor editor
              (.editor)  Specifies  the  editor  that  will  be invoked when the source-special()
              action is triggered to start a reverse search (by default via Ctrl-Mouse  1).   The
              argument  to  this  option  is  a  format string in which occurrences of ``%f'' are
              replaced by the file name, occurrences of ``%l'' are replaced by  the  line  number
              within  the  file,  and  optional  occurrences of ``%c'' are replaced by the column
              number within the line.

              If neither the option nor the  X  resource  .editor  is  specified,  the  following
              environment variables are checked to determine the editor command: XEDITOR, VISUAL,
              and EDITOR (in this sequence). If the string is found as the value of the VISUAL or
              EDITOR environment variables, then ``xterm -e '' is prepended to the string; if the
              editor is specified by other means, then it must be in the form of a shell  command
              to  pop  up  an X window with an editor in it. If none of these variables is set, a
              warning message is displayed and the command ``xterm -e vi +%l %f'' is used.

              If no ``%f'' or ``%l'' occurs  in  the  string,  the  missing  format  strings  are
              appended  automatically.  (This is for compatibility with other programs when using
              one of the environment variables).

              A new instance of the editor is started each time this command is  used;  therefore
              it  is preferable to use an editor that can be invoked in `client' mode to load new
              files into the same instance. Example settings are:

              emacsclient --no-wait
                     (older Emacsen)

              gnuclient -q
                     (XEmacs and newer Emacsen)

              gvim --servername xdvi --remote
                     (VIM v6.0+; the  `--servername  xdvi'  option  will  cause  gvim  to  run  a
                     dedicated instance for the files opened by xdvi.)

              nc     (nedit)

              Note  that  those  strings  need  to be enclosed into quotes when using them on the
              command-line to protect them from the shell; when using them as  argument  for  the
              .editor resource in an X resource file, no quotes should be used.

              NOTE  ON  SECURITY:  The argument of this option isn't executed as a shell command,
              but via exec() to prevent evil tricks with the contents of source specials.

       -expert
              This option is only supported for backwards  compatibility;  it  is  equivalent  to
              -expertmode 0, which should be preferred.

       -expertmode flag
              (.expertMode)  With  an  argument of 0, this option switches off the display of the
              buttons, scrollbars, the toolbar (Motif only), the statusline and  the  page  list.
              These  GUI  elements  can  also  be  (de)activated  separately,  by  combining  the
              appropriate values in the flag argument. This acts similar to  the  -debug  option:
              The  integer  flag is treated as a bitmap where each bit represents one element. If
              the bit has the value 1, the element is switched on, if it has  the  value  0,  the
              element is switched off. The meaning of the bits is as follows:

               1       statusline
               2       scrollbars
               4       Motif: pagelist, Xaw: buttons and pagelist
               8       toolbar (Motif only)
               16      menubar (Motif only)

              For  example,  to  turn on only the statusline and the scrollbars, use 3 (= 1 + 2).
              See also the `x' keystroke, where the bits are addressed by their positions, from 1
              to 3 (Xaw) or 5 (Motif), respectively.

       If  the  statusline  is  not  active,  all  messages that would normally be printed to the
       statusline will be printed to stdout, unless the -hushstdout option is used.

       -fg color
              (.foreground) Determines the color of the text (foreground).

       -text-encoding encoding
              (.textEncoding) Use encoding as text encoding of the string in the  "Find"  window.
              Usually,  this shouldn't be needed since the encoding is determined from the locale
              settings.

       -findstring string
              This option triggers a search for string in the DVI file mentioned on the  command-
              line, similar to forward search (see the description of the sourceposition option):
              If there is already another instance of xdvi running on  the  displaying  that  DVI
              file,  it will cause that instance to perform the search instead. The search starts
              at the top of the current page of the DVI file.

       -font font
              (*font) Sets the font used in menus, buttons etc., as described in  the  X(7x)  man
              page. The font for child windows can be set separately, e.g.:

              xdvi*statusline*font: \
                 -*-helvetica-medium-r-*-*-12-*-*-*-*-*-*-*

       -foreground color
              Same as -fg.

       -fullscreen
              When this option is used, xdvi will (try to) run in fullscreen mode, with no window
              decorations.    This   option   is   not    guaranteed    to    work    with    all
              windowmanagers/desktops;  if  you're  experiencing problems with it, please use the
              -geometry option instead, and a suitable  window  manager  setting  to  remove  the
              window  decorations.   When  using this option for presentations, you might want to
              get rid of all the control widgets as well,  using  the  -expertmode  option.  This
              option can also be toggled at runtime using the fullscreen action (by default bound
              to Ctrl-l).

       -gamma gamma
              (.gamma) Controls the interpolation of colors in the greyscale anti-aliasing  color
              palette.  Default value is 1.0.  For 0 < gamma < 1, the fonts will be lighter (more
              like the background), and for gamma > 1, the fonts will be darker  (more  like  the
              foreground).   Negative  values  behave  the same way, but use a slightly different
              algorithm.  For color and grayscale displays; for monochrome,  see  -density.   See
              also the `S' keystroke.

       -geometry geometry
              (.geometry)  Specifies the initial geometry of the main window, as described in the
              X(7x) man page. The geometry of child windows can be set separately, e.g.:
              xdvi*helpwindow.geometry: 600x800

       -gsalpha
              (.gsAlpha) Causes Ghostscript to be called with the x11alpha driver instead of  the
              x11  driver.  The x11alpha driver enables anti-aliasing in PostScript specials, for
              a nicer appearance.  It is available on newer versions of Ghostscript.  This option
              can also be toggled with the `V' keystroke.

       -gspalette palette
              (.palette)  Specifies  the  palette to be used when using Ghostscript for rendering
              PostScript specials.  Possible values are Color, Greyscale,  and  Monochrome.   The
              default is Color.

       -h, -help, --help
              Prints  a  short help text with an overview of the command-line options to standard
              output.

       -hl color
              (.highlight) Determines the color of the page border, of the ruler in `ruler mode',
              and  of  the highlighting markers in forward search and string search.  The default
              is the foreground color.

       -anchorposition anchor
              Jump to anchor after opening the DVI file. This is only useful when  invoking  xdvi
              from other applications.

       -hush  (.Hush) Causes xdvi to suppress all suppressible warnings.

       -hushchars
              (.hushLostChars)  Causes  xdvi  to suppress warnings about references to characters
              which are not defined in the font.

       -hushchecksums
              (.hushChecksums) Causes xdvi to suppress warnings about checksum mismatches between
              the dvi file and the font file.

       -hushstdout
              (.hushStdout)  Suppresses  printing of status messages to stdout.  Note that errors
              or warnings will still be printed to stderr even if this option is used.

       -hushbell
              (.hushBell) Don't sound the X bell when an error occurs.

       -icongeometry geometry
              (.iconGeometry) Specifies the initial position for the icon.

       -iconic
              (.iconic) Causes the xdvi window to start in the iconic state.  The default  is  to
              start with the window open.

       -install
              (.install) If xdvi is running under a PseudoColor visual, then (by default) it will
              check for TrueColor visuals with more bits per pixel, and switch to such  a  visual
              if  one  exists.   If  no  such  visual  exists, it will use the current visual and
              colormap.  If -install is selected, however, it will still use a  TrueColor  visual
              with  a  greater  depth,  if  one  is available; otherwise, it will install its own
              colormap on the current visual.  If the current visual  is  not  PseudoColor,  then
              xdvi  will  not  switch  the  visual  or  colormap, regardless of its options.  The
              default value of the install resource is the special value,  maybe.   There  is  no
              +install option.  See also -noinstall, and the GREYSCALING AND COLORMAPS section.

       -interpreter filename
              (.interpreter) Use filename as the Ghostscript interpreter.  By default it uses gs.

       -keep  (.keepPosition)  Sets  a  flag  to  indicate  that xdvi should not move to the home
              position when moving to a new page.  See also  the  `k'  keystroke.  This  flag  is
              honored  by  all  page  switching actions and by up-or-previous() / down-or-next(),
              although the latter only honor the horizontal postion, not the vertical one.   This
              allows for a "continuous" scrolling back an forth through a document with a display
              window narrower than a page width.

       -l     (.listFonts) List the names of all fonts used.

       -license
              Prints licensing information.

       -linkcolor
              (.linkColor) Color used for unvisited hyperlinks (`Blue2' by  default).  Hyperlinks
              are  unvisited  before  you click on them, or after the DVI file has been reloaded.
              The value should be either a valid X color  name  (such  as  DarkGoldenrod4)  or  a
              hexadecimal  color  string  (such  as  #8b6508).   See  also  -visitedlinkcolor and
              -linkstyle.

       -linkstyle
              (.LinkStyle) Determines the style  in  which  hyperlinks  are  displayed.  Possible
              values and their meanings are:

               0       No highlighting of links
               1       Underline links with link color
               2       No underlining, color text with link color
               3       Underline and display text colored with
                       link color

              The  values  for  link  color are specified by the options/resources -linkcolor and
              -visitedlinkcolor (which see).

       -margins dimen
              (.Margin) Specifies the size  of  both  the  top  margin  and  side  margin.   This
              determines  the ``home'' position of the page within the window as follows.  If the
              entire page fits in the window, then the margin settings  are  ignored.   If,  even
              after  removing  the  margins from the left, right, top, and bottom, the page still
              cannot fit in the window, then the page is put in the window such that the top  and
              left  margins  are hidden, and presumably the upper left-hand corner of the text on
              the page will be in the upper left-hand corner of the window.  Otherwise, the  text
              is  centered  in  the  window.  The dimension should be a decimal number optionally
              followed by any of the two-letter abbreviations for units accepted by TeX (pt,  pc,
              in,  bp,  cm,  mm,  dd, cc, or sp).  By default, the unit will be cm (centimeters).
              See also -sidemargin, -topmargin, and the keystroke `M.'

       -mfmode mode-def
              (.mfMode) Specifies a mode-def string, which can be used  in  searching  for  fonts
              (see  ENVIRONMENT,  below).   Generally,  when  changing  the  mode-def, it is also
              necessary to change the font size to the appropriate value for that mode.  This  is
              done  by  adding  a  colon  and  the  value  in dots per inch; for example, -mfmode
              ljfour:600.  This method overrides any value given by the pixelsPerInch resource or
              the  -p command-line argument.  The metafont mode is also passed to metafont during
              automatic creation of fonts.  By default, it is unspecified.

       -mgs size
              Same as -mgs1.

       -mgs[n] size
              (.magnifierSize[n])  Specifies  the  size  of  the  window  to  be  used  for   the
              ``magnifying glass'' for Button n.  The size may be given as an integer (indicating
              that the magnifying glass is to be  square),  or  it  may  be  given  in  the  form
              widthxheight.   See  the  MOUSE  ACTIONS  section.   Defaults are 200x150, 400x250,
              700x500, 1000x800, and 1200x1200.

       -mousemode [0|1|2]
              (.mouseMode) Specifies the default mode of xdvi at  startup:  Magnifier  (0),  Text
              Selection  Mode  (1)  or  Ruler  Mode  (2).  See the section MODES, below, for more
              information.

       -nocolor
              (.color) Turns off the use of color specials.  This option can be toggled with  the
              `C' keystroke.  (Note: -nocolor corresponds to color:off; +nocolor to color:on.)

       -nofork
              (.fork)  With  the -sourceposition and -unique options, the default behavior is for
              xdvi to put itself into the background (like a daemon) if there is  no  appropriate
              instance  of  xdvi  already  running.  This argument makes it run in the foreground
              instead.  This is useful for debugging, or if your client application  cannot  deal
              well  with  a  program  self-backgrounding  itself  in  this  way  -- e.g., the IPC
              functions in emacs are known to have problems with this.  If no -sourceposition  or
              -unique  argument  is  given,  then  this  option  has  no  effect.  (Note: -nofork
              corresponds to fork:off; +nofork to fork:on.)

       -noghostscript
              (.ghostscript) Inhibits  the  use  of  Ghostscript  for  displaying  PostScript<tm>
              specials.   (Note: -noghostscript corresponds to ghostscript:off; +noghostscript to
              ghostscript:on.)

       -nogrey
              (.grey) Turns off  the  use  of  greyscale  anti-aliasing  when  printing  shrunken
              bitmaps.   (Note:  -nogrey  corresponds to grey:off; +nogrey to grey:on.)  See also
              the `G' keystroke.

       -nogssafer
              (.gsSafer) Normally, if Ghostscript is used  to  render  PostScript  specials,  the
              Ghostscript interpreter is run with the option -dSAFER.  The -nogssafer option runs
              Ghostscript without -dSAFER.  The -dSAFER option in Ghostscript disables PostScript
              operators  such  as  deletefile,  to prevent possibly malicious PostScript programs
              from having any effect.  If the -safer option is specified, then this option has no
              effect;  in  that  case  Ghostscript is always run with -dSAFER.  (Note: -nogssafer
              corresponds to gsSafer:off; +nogssafer to gsSafer:on.)

       -noinstall
              (.install) Inhibit the default behavior of switching to a TrueColor visual  if  one
              is  available  with more bits per pixel than the current visual.  (Note: -noinstall
              corresponds install:off; there is no +noinstall option.)  See  also  -install,  and
              the GREYSCALING AND COLORMAPS section.

       -nomakepk
              (.makePk)  Turns  off  automatic  generation  of font files that cannot be found by
              other means.  (Note: -nomakepk corresponds to makePk:off; +nomakepk to makePK:on.)

       -nomatchinverted
              (.matchInverted) Don't highlight string search matches in inverted color;  instead,
              draw  a  rectangle  in  highlight color (see the -hl option) around the match. This
              option is activated automatically  if  the  display  isn't  running  in  TrueColor.
              (Note:  -nomatchinverted  corresponds  to  matchInverted:off;  +nomatchinverted  to
              matchInverted:on.)

       -noomega
              (.omega) This will disable the use of Omega extensions when interpreting DVI files.
              By  default,  the  additional  opcodes  129 and 134 are recognized by xdvi as Omega
              extensions and interpreted as requests to set 2-byte characters. The only  drawback
              is  that the virtual font array will require 65536 positions instead of the default
              256 positions, i.e. the memory requirements of xdvi will be slightly larger. If you
              find  this unacceptable or encounter another problem with the Omega extensions, you
              can switch this extension off by using -noomega (but please do send a bug report if
              you find such problems - see the bug address in the AUTHORS section below).
              (Note: -noomega corresponds to omega: off; +noomega to omega: on.)

       -noscan
              (.prescan)  By default, xdvi does a preliminary scan of the dvi file to process any
              papersize specials; this is especially important at startup since  the  paper  size
              may  be  needed  to  determine  the window size.  If PostScript<tm> is in use, then
              prescanning is also necessary in  order  to  properly  process  header  files.   In
              addition,  prescanning  is  needed to correctly determine the background color of a
              page.  This option turns off such prescanning.  (Prescanning will be  automatically
              be  turned  back  on  if xdvi detects any of the specials mentioned above.)  (Note:
              -noscan corresponds to prescan:off; +noscan to prescan:on.)

       -notype1fonts
              (.type1)  This  will  disable  the  use  of  the  FreeType   library   to   display
              PostScript<tm>  Type  1  fonts.  Use this option as a workaround when you encounter
              problems with the display of Type 1 fonts (but please don't forget to  send  a  bug
              report in this case, to the URL mentioned in the section AUTHORS below).
              (Note: -notype1fonts corresponds to type1:off; +notype1fonts to type1:on.)

       -notempfile
              (.tempFile)  As  mentioned  in  the  section  DESCRIPTION above, xdvi will create a
              temporary copy of the DVI file so that it can  be  accessed  without  interruptions
              even  while the file is being rewritten by TeX.  Since this introduces the overhead
              of copying the file every time it has changed, the -notempfile allows you  to  turn
              off  this  behaviour. In this case, exposing parts of the window while the DVI file
              is being written by TeX will erase the current window contents until the  DVI  file
              can be completely reread.
              (Note: -notempfile corresponds to tempFile:off; +notempfile to tempFile:on.)

       -offsets dimen
              (.Offset)  Specifies  the  size  of both the horizontal and vertical offsets of the
              output on the page.  By decree of the Stanford TeX Project, the  default  TeX  page
              origin is always 1 inch over and down from the top-left page corner, even when non-
              American paper sizes are used.  Therefore, the default offsets are 1.0  inch.   The
              argument  dimen  should  be a decimal number optionally followed by any of the two-
              letter abbreviations for units accepted by TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc,  or
              sp).   By  default,  the  unit  will  be  cm  (centimeters).  See also -xoffset and
              -yoffset.

       -p pixels
              (.pixelsPerInch) Defines the size of the fonts to use, in  pixels  per  inch.   The
              default  value  is  600.  This option is provided only for backwards compatibility;
              the preferred way is to set both the resolution  and  the  Metafont  mode  via  the
              -mfmode option (which see).

       -paper papertype
              (.paper)  Specifies the size of the printed page. Note that in most cases it's best
              to specify the paper size in the TeX input file via the line

              \usepackage[dvips]{geometry}

              which will be recognized by both dvips and xdvi; in that case the use of a `-paper'
              option should be unnecessary.
              The  paper  size may be specified in the form widthxheight optionally followed by a
              unit, where width and height are decimal numbers giving the width and height of the
              paper,  respectively, and the unit is any of the two-letter abbreviations for units
              accepted by TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or sp).  By default, the  unit  is
              cm (centimeters).
              There  are  also  synonyms  which  may  be  used:  us (8.5x11in), legal (8.5x14in),
              foolscap (13.5x17in), as well as the ISO sizes a1-a7, b1-b7, c1-c7.  Each of  these
              also  has  a  landscape  or  `rotated'  variant:  usr (11x8.5in), a1r-a7r, etc. For
              compatibility with dvips, the  formats  letter  (8.5x11in),  ledger  (17x11in)  and
              tabloid (11x17in) are also supported (these don't have rotated variants).
              Any  of the above sizes may be preceded by a plus sign (`+'); this causes the paper
              size given here to override any paper size given in  the  dvi  file.   The  default
              paper size is 21 x 29.7 cm (A4 size).

       -pause (.pause)  This  option  provides  a simple implementation of incremental (stepwise)
              display, which can be used for presentations.  When this option is used, xdvi  will
              pause  the  display  of  the current page whenever it encounters a special special-
              string (xdvi:pause by default; the string can be customized via -pausespecial,  see
              below),  and  the  cursor  will change its shape.  The action unpause-or-next() (by
              default bound to the Space key) will display the next portion of the page up to the
              following special-string, or until the end of the page is reached.  When the option
              is not used, specials containing special-string will be ignored.

       -pausespecial special-string
              (.pauseSpecial) Sets the special string that causes xdvi to pause when  the  -pause
              option is active. The default value of special-string is xdvi:pause.

       -postscript flag
              (.postscript)  If  flag  =  0,  rendering  of  PostScript<tm> specials is disabled;
              instead, bounding boxes will be  displayed  (if  available).  A  value  of  1  (the
              default) switches PostScript<tm> specials on. With a value of 2, the PostScript<tm>
              specials are displayed along with their bounding boxes; this allows you to visually
              check  the  correctness  of  the  bounding boxes. The values can also be toggled at
              runtime with the `v' keystroke and the corresponding numerical prefix arguments  0,
              1 and 2.

       -ps2pdfpath path
              (.ps2pdfPath)  Use path as a conversion program from PostScript to PDF. The program
              or script should accept two command-line arguments: The PostScript  file  as  first
              argument, and the PDF output file as second argument.

       -rulecolor color
              (.ruleColor) Determines the color of the rules used for the the magnifier (default:
              foreground color).

       -q     (.noInitFile) Ignore the $HOME/.xdvirc startup file (i.e. don't read it at startup,
              and  don't  write it at exit). This forces the defaults defined in $HOME/.Xdefaults
              to be used. See FILES for more information on $HOME/.xdvirc.

       -rv    (.reverseVideo) Causes the page to be displayed with white characters  on  a  black
              background, instead of vice versa.

       -S density
              (.densityPercent) Same as -density (which see).

       -s shrink
              (.shrinkFactor)  Defines  the  initial  shrink factor.  The default value is 8.  If
              shrink is given as 0, then the initial shrink factor is computed so that  the  page
              fits within the window (as if the `s' keystroke were given without a number).

       -safer (.safer)  This  option  turns on all available security options; it is designed for
              use when xdvi is called by a browser that obtains a dvi or TeX  file  from  another
              site.  This option selects +nogssafer and +allowshell.

       -sidemargin dimen
              (.sideMargin) Specifies the side margin (see -margins).

       -sourceposition line[:col][ ]filename
              This  option  makes  xdvi search in the dvi file for the place corresponding to the
              indicated line (and, optionally, column) in the .tex source file, and highlight the
              place  found  by  drawing  a  rectangle in the highlight color (see the -hl option)
              around the corresponding text.  In addition, when run with this argument  (and  the
              -nofork  option  is not given, which see), xdvi will always return immediately:  if
              it finds another instance of xdvi already showing dvi_file, then it will cause that
              instance to raise its window and move to the given place in the dvi file; otherwise
              it will start up its own instance in the background.  If several instances of  xdvi
              are  displaying  the respective dvi file, the instance which was last raised to the
              foreground will be used.

              The space before filename is only needed if the filename starts with a digit.  When
              the space is used, the argument needs to be enclosed in quotes to prevent the shell
              from misinterpreting the space as argument separator.

              This option requires that dvi_file be prepared  with  source  special  information.
              See the section on SOURCE SPECIALS for details on how to do this.

              Here  is  a  more  detailed  description of how the filename in the -sourceposition
              argument is matched with the filename in the source specials:

              1. If neither of the filenames contains a path name component,  the  filenames  are
                 compared ignoring the `.tex' extensions in both filenames.

              2. Otherwise,  if  one  of  the  filenames  does  contain  a  path component (e.g.:
                 ./test.tex, ../test.tex, /my/homedir/tex/test.tex or any combination of  these),
                 both  filenames  are expanded to a full path, with any occurrences of ../ and ./
                 expanded, and multiple slashes removed.
                 The pathname in the -sourceposition is expanded relative to the current  working
                 directory  of  the  xdvi  -sourceposition  invocation,  and the pathnames in the
                 source specials are expanded relative to the path of the current DVI file  being
                 viewed.
                 The  path  names  are  then compared ignoring the `.tex' extensions in both path
                 names.

       -statusline
              (.statusline) This option is obsolete; use -expertmode  flag instead (which see).

       -thorough
              (.thorough) Xdvi will usually try  to  ensure  that  overstrike  characters  (e.g.,
              \notin)  are  printed  correctly.   On monochrome displays, this is always possible
              with one logical operation, either and or or.  On color displays, however, this may
              take  two  operations, one to set the appropriate bits and one to clear other bits.
              If this is the case, then by default xdvi will  instead  use  the  copy  operation,
              which  does  not  handle  overstriking correctly.  The -thorough option chooses the
              slower but more correct choice.  See also -copy.

       -topmargin dimen
              (.topMargin) Specifies the top and bottom margins (see -margins).

       -unique
              (.unique) This option will make another  instance  of  xdvi  running  on  the  same
              display act as a `server'.  For example, the invocation

              xdvi -unique +5 file.dvi

              will cause this other instance to load file.dvi on page 5 in place of the file that
              it is currently displaying. If there is already another instance  of  xdvi  already
              displaying  the  file  file.dvi,  then  it  will just jump to page 5.  If the other
              instance of xdvi is displaying a different file, it  will  load  file.dvi  instead.
              Otherwise,  if  no other instance of xdvi is currently running on the display, this
              option instead starts a new instance of xdvi in the background (unless the  -nofork
              option is specified, which see) displaying page 5 of file.dvi.
              The  filename  and the +n option for the page number are the only options available
              for controlling a remote  instance  of  xdvi  like  this;  all  other  options  are
              currently ignored.

       -useTeXpages
              Use  logical  TeX  pages  (the  values of the \count0 register) instead of physical
              pages for the pagelist labels and when jumping to a page in a document with the `g'
              keystroke  (or  the  goto-page()  action).   This option can be toggled via the `T'
              keystroke.

       -version
              Print information on the version of xdvi.

       -visitedlinkcolor
              (.visitedLinkColor) Color used  for  visited  hyperlinks  (`Purple4'  by  default).
              Hyperlinks  become  visited  once  you  click  on them. As for linkColor, the value
              should be either a valid X color name or a hexadecimal color string.

       -warnspecials
              (.warnSpecials) Causes xdvi to print warnings about \special strings that it cannot
              process to stderr. These warnings are suppressed by default.

       -watchfile n
              (.watchFile)  If  this  option is set to a value larger than 0, xdvi will check the
              DVI file for changes every n seconds. If the DVI file has been  completely  written
              by  TeX,  it  will  be  reloaded automatically.  Fractional values (e.g. `2.5') are
              possible. The default for this option is 0, i.e. no watching.
              Since xdvi cannot handle partial DVI files, it tries not to reload the  file  while
              it  is  being  rewritten.   However,  use  of  the  magnifier or switching of pages
              requires reading (a part of) the DVI file, and if the tempfile option  is  switched
              off,  this  will erase the current contents of the window until the DVI file can be
              read entirely.

       -wheelunit pixels
              (.wheelUnit) Sets the number of pixels that a motion of a wheel mouse will move the
              image  up, down, left, or right. (See the wheel and hwheel actions, below, for more
              information  on  this.)   If  set  to  zero,  the  wheel  mouse  functionality   is
              (essentially) disabled.  The default value is 80.

       -xoffset dimen
              (.xOffset)  Specifies  the size of the horizontal offset of the output on the page.
              See -offsets.

       -yoffset dimen
              (.yOffset) Specifies the size of the vertical offset of the  output  on  the  page.
              See -offsets.

KEYSTROKES

       Xdvi recognizes the following keystrokes when typed in its window.  Each may optionally be
       preceded by a (positive or negative) number, a  `prefix  argument',  whose  interpretation
       will  depend  on  the  particular  keystroke.   This  prefix  argument can be discarded by
       pressing the ``Escape'' key.  If present, the ``Help'', ``Prior'' and  ``Next''  keys  are
       synonyms for `?', `b', and `f' keys, respectively.

       The  key bindings listed here are those that xdvi assigns by default.  The names appearing
       in brackets at the beginning of the descriptions are the names of the  actions  associated
       with  the  keys;  these  can  be  used to customize the key bindings, as explained in more
       detail in the section CUSTOMIZATION below. If only a lowercase  binding  is  listed,  both
       upper- and lowercase keys will work for that binding.

       ESC key
              [discard-number()]  The  escape  key  discards the numerical prefix for all actions
              (useful when you mistyped a number).

       Return key
              [forward-page()] Moves to the next page (or to the nth next page  if  a  number  is
              given).  Synonyms are `n', `f' and Line Feed.

       Backspace key
              [back-pagee()] Moves to the previous page (or back n pages).  Synonyms are `p', `b'
              and Ctrl-h.

       Delete key
              [up-or-previous()] Moves up two-thirds of a window-full,  or  to  the  top  of  the
              previous  page  if  already at the top of the page. With a float argument, moves up
              the corresponding fraction of a window-full.

       Space key
              [unpause-or-next()] Moves down two-thirds of a window-full, or to the next page  if
              already at the bottom of the page.
              When  the option -pause special-string is used and the display is currently paused,
              this key will instead display the next portion of the page until the next  special-
              string  or  the  end of the page is encountered.  See the description of the -pause
              option for details. The action [down-or-next()] does a similar thing,  but  without
              pausing; it is not bound to a key by default.

       Ctrl-Home (Xaw), Ctrl-osfBeginLine (Motif)
              [goto-page(1)] Moves to the first page of the document.

       Ctrl-End (Xaw), Ctrl-osfEndLine (Motif)
              [goto-page()] Moves to the last page of the document.

       Home (Xaw), osfBeginLine (Motif)
              [home-or-top()]  Move  to  the  ``home'' position of the page, or to the top of the
              page if the keep flag is set (in this case, the page doesn't scroll horizontally).

       End (Xaw), osfEndLine (Motif)
              [end-or-bottom()] Move to the ``end'' position of the page  (the  lower  right-hand
              corner),  or  to  the bottom of the page if the keep flag is set (in this case, the
              page doesn't scroll horizontally).

       Down arrow
              [down(0.015)] Scrolls page down.

       Up arrow
              [up(0.015)] Scrolls page up.

       Right arrow
              [right(0.015)] Scrolls page right.

       Left arrow
              [left(0.015)] Scrolls page left.

       Alt-Ctrl-+
              [change-density(25)] Increase the darkness of the fonts in the DVI window by adding
              to the gamma value (see also the `S' keystroke).

       Alt-Ctrl--
              [change-density(-25)]  Decrease  the  darkness  of  the  fonts in the DVI window by
              subtracting from the gamma value (see also the `S' keystroke).

       Ctrl-+ [set-shrink-factor(+)] Increase the shrink factor (see also the `s' keystroke).

       Ctrl-- [set-shrink-factor(-)] Decrease the shrink factor (see also the `s' keystroke).

       Ctr-[  [pagehistory-delete-backward()] Delete the current item in  the  page  history  and
              move to the history item before the deleted one. With a prefix argument n, delete n
              previous history items. See PAGE HISTORY for details.

       [      [pagehistory-back()] Move back in the page history (see PAGE HISTORY for  details).
              With a prefix argument n, move back n history items.

       Ctr-]  [pagehistory-delete-forward()] Delete the current item in the page history and move
              to the history item after the deleted one. With a prefix argument n, delete n  next
              history items. See PAGE HISTORY for details.

       ]      [pagehistory-forward()]  Move  forward  in  the  page history (see PAGE HISTORY for
              details). With a prefix argument n, move forward n history items.

       ^      [home()] Move to the ``home'' position of the page.  This  is  normally  the  upper
              left-hand corner of the page, depending on the margins as described in the -margins
              option, above.

       ?      [help()] Same as the h key (which see).

       B      [htex-back()] This key jumps back to the previous hyperlink anchor. See the section
              HYPERLINKS for more information on navigating the links.

       b      [back-page()]  Moves  to  the  previous  page (or back n pages).  Synonyms are `p',
              Ctrl-h and Backspace.

       C      [set-color()] This key toggles the use of color specials.  The key  sequences  `0C'
              and  `1C' turn interpretation of color specials off and on, respectively.  See also
              the -nocolor option.

       c      [center()] Moves the page so that the point currently beneath the mouse  cursor  is
              moved to the middle of the window, and warps the mouse cursor to the same place.

       D      [toggle-grid-mode()]  This key toggles the use of a grid on the displayed page.  If
              no number is given, the grid mode is switched on or off.  By  prepending  a  number
              from  1 to 3, 3 different grid levels can be set.  The units of the grid are inches
              or centimeters, depending on whether the paper format is letter (in) or a4 (cm).

       d      [down()] Moves page down two thirds of a window-full.  With  a  float  argument  to
              ``down'', moves down the corresponding fraction of a window-full.

       Ctrl-f [find()]  Pop  up  a window to search for a string in the DVI file. See the section
              STRING SEARCH, below, for more details.

       f      [forward-page()] Moves to the next page (or to the nth next page  if  a  number  is
              given).  Synonyms are `n', Return, and Line Feed.

       G      [set-greyscaling()]  This  key  toggles  the  use  of  greyscale  anti-aliasing for
              displaying shrunken bitmaps.  In addition, the key sequences `0G'  and  `1G'  clear
              and set this flag, respectively.  See also the -nogrey option.

              If  given  a numeric argument that is not 0 or 1, greyscale anti-aliasing is turned
              on, and the gamma resource is set to the value divided by 100. E.g.,  `150G'  turns
              on greyscale and sets gamma to 1.5.

       Ctrl-g [find-next()]  Find the next match string in the DVI file; this can be used instead
              of pressing the `Find' button in the search window.

       g      [goto-page()] Moves to the page with the given number. If no page number is  given,
              xdvi jumps to the last page.
              If  the option/resource useTeXpages is active, the numbers correspond to the actual
              page numbers in the TeX file; otherwise, absolute page numbers  (starting  from  1)
              are  used.  In  the  latter  case,  the  page  numbers  can be changed with the `P'
              keystroke, below.  Note that with the useTeXpages option it is  possible  that  the
              same  page  number  occurs  multiple times; in such a case, xdvi will use the first
              page number that matches.

       h      Pops up a help window with a short explanation of the most important  key  bindings
              and concepts.

       k      [set-keep-flag()]  Normally when xdvi switches pages, it moves to the home position
              as well.  The `k' keystroke toggles a `keep-position' flag which,  when  set,  will
              keep the same position when moving between pages.  Also `0k' and `1k' clear and set
              this flag, respectively.  See also the -keep option.

       Ctrl-l [fullscreen(toggle)]  Toggles  fullscreen  mode  (see  the   description   of   the
              -fullscreen  option  for  more  information  on this). This is even more flaky than
              using the command-line option: There is no universal standard how  a  window  could
              change  its  own  geometry or window decorations at run-time, so this will not work
              with most window managers or desktops. Generally, it's better  to  use  the  window
              manager controls to change the size or decorations of the xdvi window.

       l      [left()] Moves page left two thirds of a window-full.

       M      [set-margins()] Sets the margins so that the point currently under the mouse cursor
              defines the upper left-hand corner of the text in the page.  Note that the  command
              does  not  move  the  image, but only determines the margins for the page switching
              commands. For details on how the margins are used, see the -margins option.

       m      [toggle-mark()] Toggles the mark for the current page in the page list. When a page
              is  marked,  it  is  displayed  with a small star `*' next to the page number.  The
              marked pages can then be printed or saved to a file.  A page or several  pages  can
              also be marked by clicking or dragging Mouse-2 in the page list.

       Ctrl-n [toggle-mark()forward-page()]  Toggles  the  mark  for the current page in the page
              list, and moves to the next page. This lets you quickly mark a series of subsequent
              pages.

       n      [forward-page()]  Moves  to  the  next page (or to the nth next page if a number is
              given).  Synonyms are `f', Return, and Line Feed.

       Ctrl-o [select-dvi-file()] Read a new dvi file. A file-selection widget is popped  up  for
              you  to  choose  the  DVI file from. If a prefix argument n is given, the n th file
              from the file history is opened instead.

       P      [declare-page-number()] ``This is page number n.''  This can be used  to  make  the
              `g'  keystroke  refer  to  a different page number than the physical page.  (If you
              want to use `logical' or TeX page numbers instead of physical pages, consider using
              the option -useTeXpages instead.)  The argument n should be given as prefix to this
              key.

       Ctrl-p [print()] Opens a popup window for printing the DVI file, or parts of it.  See  the
              section PRINT DIALOG for an explanation of the options available, and the resources
              to customize the default behaviour.

       p      [back-page()] Moves to the previous page (or back  n  pages).   Synonyms  are  `b',
              Ctrl-h and Backspace.

       q      [quit()] Quits the program.

       Ctrl-r [forward-page(0)] Redisplays the current page.

       R      [reread-dvi-file()]  Forces  the dvi file to be reread.  This allows you to preview
              many versions of the same file while running xdvi only once.

       r      [right()] Moves page right two thirds of a window-full.

       Ctrl-s [save()] Opens a popup window for saving the DVI file, or  parts  of  it.  See  the
              section SAVE DIALOG below for more information on this.

       S      [set-density()]  Sets  the  density factor to be used when shrinking bitmaps.  This
              should be a number between 0 and 100; higher numbers  produce  lighter  characters.
              If greyscaling mode is in effect, this changes the value of gamma instead.  The new
              value of gamma is the given number divided by 100; negative values are allowed.

       s      [set-shrink-factor()] Changes the shrink factor to the given number.  If no  number
              is  given, the smallest factor that makes the entire page fit in the window will be
              used.  (Margins are ignored in this computation.)

       T      [use-tex-pages()] Use logical TeX  pages  (the  values  of  the  \count0  register)
              instead  of  physical pages for the pagelist labels and when jumping to a page in a
              document via goto-page().  See also the -useTeXpages option.

       t      [switch-magnifier-units()] Switches the units used for the  magnifier  tick  marks,
              and  for  reporting  the distance between the mouse pointer and the ruler centre in
              ruler mode (see the section MODES).  The  default  value  is  specified  by  the  X
              resource  tickUnits  (`mm'  by  default).  The  units  toggle through the following
              values; except for `px', they all correspond to TeX's units:  mm  (millimeters)  pt
              (TeX  points),  in (inches), sp (scaled points, the unit used internally by TeX) bp
              (big points or `PostScript points'), cc (cicero  points),  dd  (didot  points),  pc
              (pica), and px (screen pixels).

       Ctrl-u [back-page()toggle-mark()]  Moves  to  the  previous page, and toggles the mark for
              that page. This is the dual action to Ctrl-n.

       u      [up()] Moves page up two thirds of a window-full. With a float argument to  ``up'',
              moves up the corresponding fraction of a window-full.

       Ctrl-v [show-source-specials()]  Show  bounding  boxes  for  every  source  special on the
              current page, and print the strings contained in these  specials  to  stderr.  With
              prefix  1,  show  every  bounding  box  on the page. This is for debugging purposes
              mainly.

       V      [set-gs-alpha()] This key toggles the anti-aliasing of PostScript<tm> specials when
              Ghostscript is used as renderer.  In addition the key sequences `0V' and `1V' clear
              and set this flag, respectively.  See also the -gsalpha option.

       v      [set-ps()] This key toggles the rendering  of  PostScript<tm>  specials  between  3
              states:

              - specials (like EPS graphics) are displayed;

              - specials are displayed along with their bounding box (if available);

              - only the bounding box is displayed.

              The states can also be selected directly by using `1v', `2v' and `0v' respectively.
              See also the -postscript option.

       Ctrl-x [source-what-special()] Display information about the source special  next  to  the
              mouse  cursor  in  the  statusline. This is the same special that would be found by
              source-special(), but without invoking the editor. For debugging purposes.

       x      [set-expert-mode()] Toggles expert mode, in which the statusline,  the  scrollbars,
              the menu buttons, the toolbar (Motif only) and the page list are not shown.  Typing
              `1x' toggles the display of the statusline at the bottom of the window. Typing `2x'
              toggles  the  scrollbars (if available). For Xaw, `3x' toggles the menu buttons and
              the page list, for Motif, it toggles  the  page  list.  In  Motif,  the  additional
              bindings `4x' toggle the toolbar, and `5x' the menu bar.
              Without a prefix argument, all of the mentioned GUI elements are either switched on
              (if they had been invisible before) or off.
              Toggling the scrollbars may behave erratically  with  the  Xaw  widgets;  e.g.  the
              scrollbars  may reappear after resizing the window, and at certain window sizes one
              of the scrollbars may fail to disappear.
              See also the option -expertmode (the numbers above correspond to the  bits  in  the
              argument to -expertmode).

MOUSE ACTIONS IN THE MAIN WINDOW

       The  mouse  actions  can be customized by setting the X resource mouseTranslations.  Since
       there are three different mouse modes (see the section MODES below), there  is  a  special
       action  mouse-modes  which  lists  the  actions  for  each  of  the  three  modes:  mouse-
       modes("ACTIONS-FOR-MODE1",  "ACTIONS-FOR-MODE2",  "ACTIONS-FOR-MODE3").    If   only   one
       argument  is  specified,  this  action is used for all modes.  The default bindings are as
       follows:

            xdvi.mouseTranslations: \
            Shift<Btn1Down>:mouse-modes("drag(+)")\n\
            Shift<Btn2Down>:mouse-modes("drag(|)")\n\
            Shift<Btn3Down>:mouse-modes("drag(-)")\n\
            Ctrl<Btn1Down>:mouse-modes("source-special()")\n\
            <Btn1Down>: mouse-modes("do-href()magnifier(*2)", "text-selection()", "ruler()")\n\
            <Btn2Down>: mouse-modes("do-href-newwindow()magnifier(*2)", "text-selection()", "ruler()")\n\
            <Btn3Down>: mouse-modes("magnifier(*3)")\n\
            <Btn4Down>: mouse-modes("wheel(-0.2)")\n\
            <Btn5Down>: mouse-modes("wheel(0.2)")\n\
            <Btn6Down>: mouse-modes("hwheel(-0.2)")\n\
            <Btn7Down>: mouse-modes("hwheel(0.2)")\n\

       All of these actions are described in more detail below.  Note the use  of  quote  symbols
       around  the  action strings, which are necessary to group them into one argument.  Buttons
       4, 5, 6, and 7 refer to wheel movements (wheel up/down/left/right) on wheel mice.  Not all
       mice support horizontal scrolling.

       The  X Toolkit routines that implement translations do not support event types of Btn6Down
       or Btn7Down.  Because of this, xdvi implements its own parser for  translations  given  in
       mouseTranslations.  This parser is more limited than the parser built in to the X Toolkit.
       The string given in mouseTranslations should not begin with ``#replace'', ``#augment'', or
       ``#override''.   Modifiers  of the form @keysym are not supported, and the event type must
       be of the form BtnDown or BtnnDown, where n is a positive integer without leading  zeroes.
       Also, some limitations apply to the action field.

       do-href()

       do-href-newwindow()
              Usually, if a binding specifies more then one action, all actions are executed in a
              sequence. The hyperlink bindings do-href() and do-href-newwindow() are  special  in
              that they are used as an alternative to other actions that might follow them if the
              mouse is currently located on a hyperlink.  In this case, none of the other actions
              will be executed; otherwise, only the other actions are executed.
              The  action  do-href()  jumps  to  the  link  target  in  the  current  xdvi window
              (eventually switching  to  another  page),  and  do-href-newwindow()  opens  a  new
              instance of xdvi for the link target.  In both cases, the location of the target is
              indicated by a small arrow drawn in the same color as a visited link  in  the  left
              corner of the window.

       magnifier(n x m)

       magnifier(*n)
              This  action  will  pop up a ``magnifying glass'' which shows the unshrunk image of
              the region around the mouse pointer.   The  magnifier  disappears  when  the  mouse
              button is released. Moving the mouse cursor while holding the button down will move
              the magnifier.
              Different mouse buttons produce different sized windows, as indicated  by  the  the
              argument  of  the  magnifier()  action. Its argument is either a string of the form
              widthxheight, as in the -mgsn command-line option, or one of the strings *1 through
              *5, referring to the value specified by the corresponding -mgsn option.

       drag(+)

       drag(|)

       drag(-)
              Drags the page with the mouse. This action should have one parameter, the character
              ``|'', ``-'', or ``+'', indicating  vertical  dragging  only,  horizontal  dragging
              only, or dragging in all directions.

       source-special()
              This  action starts a ``reverse search'', opening the editor at the location in the
              TeX file corresponding to the pointer location in the DVI file.  See the section on
              SOURCE SPECIALS, below, for more information on this.

       wheel()
              This action can be used to scroll the image with a wheel mouse, where it is usually
              bound to mouse button 4 (wheel up)  or  5  (wheel  down).   The  action  takes  one
              parameter,  giving  the  distance to scroll the image.  If the parameter contains a
              decimal point, the distance is given in wheel units; otherwise, pixels.  A negative
              value scrolls up, a positive value scrolls down.

       hwheel()
              This  action can be used to scroll the image horizontally with a wheel mouse, where
              it is usually bound to mouse button 6 (wheel left) or 7 (wheel right).  The  action
              takes  one  parameter,  giving  the distance to scroll the image.  If the parameter
              contains a decimal point, the distance is given in wheel units; otherwise,  pixels.
              A  negative  value  scrolls  left,  a  positive  value scrolls right.  Not all mice
              support horizontal scrolling; this is mostly for touchpads, trackpads, etc.

       text-selection()
              This action allows you to mark a rectangular region of text in the DVI  file.   The
              text  is  put  into the X selection buffer and can be pasted into other applictions
              (e.g. text editors). This works similar to  the  Plain  text  option  in  the  Save
              dialog; see the discussion there for more information on encoding issues.

       ruler()
              This  action  creates a cross-shaped ruler. Moving the mouse and holding the button
              down drags the ruler and lets you measure distances on the page.  See  the  section
              Ruler Mode for more information on this.

UNBOUND ACTIONS

       The  following  actions  are  not  bound  to  a  key  by  default,  but  are available for
       customization.

       quit-confirm()
              Pops up a confirmation window to quit xdvi. To bind it to the `q'  key  instead  of
              the default `quit()' action, put the following into your ~/.Xdefaults file:

              xdvi.mainTranslations: #override\
              <Key>q: quit-confirm()\n

       down-or-next()
              Similar  to  unpause-or-next():  Moves  down two-thirds of a window-full, or to the
              next page if already at the bottom of the page.

       shrink-to-dpi()
              This action takes one (required) argument.  It sets the shrink factor to an integer
              so  as  to  approximate  the use of fonts with the corresponding number of dots per
              inch.  If xdvi is using fonts scaled for p dots  per  inch,  and  the  argument  to
              shrink-to-dpi  is n, then the corresponding shrink factor is the ratio p/n, rounded
              to the nearest integer.

CUSTOMIZATION

       Key and mouse button assignments can be changed by setting the  mainTranslations  resource
       to  a  string  of  translations  as  defined  in the documentation for the X toolkit.  The
       actions should take the form of action names listed in the KEYSTROKES  and  MOUSE  ACTIONS
       sections.

       An  exception  to  this  are  the  Motif  keys  osfPageUp  (PgUp),  osfPageDown  (PgDown),
       osfBeginLine (Home) and osfEndLine (End) which are currently not customizable in the Motif
       version.

       Key  actions  will  usually  be  without  arguments;  if  they  are passed an argument, it
       represents the optional number or `prefix argument' typed prior to the action.

       Some key actions may take special arguments, as follows: The argument of goto-page may  be
       the  letter  `e', indicating the action of going to the end of the document.  The argument
       of set-shrink-factor may be the letter `a', indicating that the shrink  factor  should  be
       set  to  the smallest value such that the page will fit in the window, or one of the signs
       `+' or  `-',  indicating  that  the  shrink  factor  should  be  increased  or  decreased,
       respectively.   Finally,  actions  that would perform a toggle, such as set-keep-flag, may
       receive an argument `t', indicating that  the  action  should  toggle  regardless  of  the
       current prefix argument.

       Mouse  actions  should  refer only to ButtonPress events (e.g., <Btn1Down>:magnifier(*1)).
       The corresponding motion and release events will be handled internally.  A key action  may
       be bound to a mouse event, but not vice versa.

       Usually  the  string  of translations should begin with ``#override'', indicating that the
       default key and mouse button assignments should not be discarded.

       When keys or mouse buttons involving modifiers (such as  Ctrl  or  Shift)  are  customized
       together  with  their  non-modified  equivalents, the modified keys should come first, for
       example:

            xdvi.mainTranslations: #override \
            Shift<Key>s: select-dvi-file()\n\
            Ctrl<Key>s: save()\n\
            <Key>s: find()\n

       Because  xdvi  needs  to  capture  pointer  motion  events,  and  because  the  X  Toolkit
       translations  mechanism  cannot  accommodate both motion events and double-click events at
       the same time, it is not possible to specify double-click actions in xdvi  customizations.
       For  information  on  this and other aspects of translations, see the X Toolkit Intrinsics
       documentation.

       There is no command-line option to set the mainTranslations resource, since changing  this
       resource  on  the  command  line  would  be  cumbersome.   To set the resource for testing
       purposes, use the -xrm command-line option provided by the X toolkit.  For  example,  xdvi
       -xrm     'XDvi.mainTranslations:    #override    "z":quit()'    ...     or    xdvi    -xrm
       'XDvi.mainTranslations: #override <Key>z:quit()' ...  will cause the key `z' to quit xdvi.

       Some resources are provided to allow customization of the  geometry  of  the  Xaw  command
       buttons.  Again, they are not changeable via command-line options, other than via the -xrm
       option.  All of these resources take integer values.

       buttonSideSpacing
              The number of pixels to be placed on either side of the buttons.  The default value
              is 6.

       buttonTopSpacing
              The number of pixels between the top button and the top of the window.  The default
              value is 50.

       buttonBetweenSpacing
              The number of pixels between the buttons.  The default value is 20.

       buttonBetweenExtra
              The number of pixels of additional space to be inserted if  the  buttonTranslations
              resource string contains an extra newline character.  The default value is 50.

       buttonBorderWidth
              The border width of the button windows.  The default value is 1.

PAGE LIST

       The  scrollable page list on the right of the main window allows you to jump directly to a
       page in the DVI file.

       Mouse-1
              Jumps to the page the mouse is located on.

       Mouse-2
              [toggle-mark()] Toggle the mark of the current page. The  marks  are  used  by  the
              `Print' and `Save to file' dialogs to select only marked pages from the DVI file.

       When  the  mouse  pointer is inside the page list, the mouse wheel switches to the next or
       previous page.

SCROLLBARS

       The scrollbars (if present) behave in the standard way:  pushing Button 2 in  a  scrollbar
       moves the top or left edge of the scrollbar to that point and optionally drags it; pushing
       Button 1 moves the image up or right by an amount equal to the distance  from  the  button
       press  to  the upper left-hand corner of the window; pushing Button 3 moves the image down
       or left by the same amount.

       The scrollbars can be removed via the -expertmode flag/keystroke (which see).

MAGNIFIER

       By default, the mouse buttons 1 to 5 will pop up a  ``magnifying  glass''  that  shows  an
       unshrunken  image  of the page (i.e. an image at the resolution determined by the option/X
       resource pixels or mfmode) at varying sizes. When the magnifier is moved, small ruler-like
       tick  marks are displayed at the edges of the magnifier (unless the X resource delayRulers
       is set to false, in which case the tick marks will always be displayed).  The unit of  the
       marks  is determined by the X resource tickUnits (mm by default). This unit can be changed
       at runtime via the action switch-magnifier-units(), by default bound to the keystroke  `t'
       (see  the description of that key, and of switch-magnifier-units() for more details on the
       units available).
       The length of the tick marks can be changed via the X resource tickLength (4 by  default).
       A zero or negative value suppresses the tick marks.

PAGE HISTORY

       Xdvi  keeps  a  history  of  viewed pages, and you can move through the history and delete
       items  using  the  keys   [   (pagehistory-back()),   ]   (pagehistory-forward()),   Ctr-[
       (pagehistory-delete-backward()) and Ctr-] (pagehistory-delete-forward()).

       When one of the history commands is used, the page history is displayed in the status line
       at the bottom of the window, with the current list item marked by square brackets `[', `]'
       and a left and right context of at most 10 items. File boundaries are marked by `#'.

       The size of the history can be customized with the X resource pageHistorySize (the default
       size is 1000 items). If the size is set to 0, the history commands are disabled.

HYPERLINKS

       The actions do-href() and do-href-newwindow() (by default bound to Mouse-1 and Mouse-2  if
       the  pointer  is  currently located on a hyperlink) can be used to open the link target in
       the same window (do-href()) or in a new window (do-href-newwindow()).

       If the link target is not a file on the local disk, xdvi tries to launch a web browser (as
       specified  by  the  -browser  command line option, the BROWSER environment variable or the
       wwwBrowser X resource, in this order) to retrieve the document. See the description of the
       BROWSER environment variable, below, for an example setting.

       If  the  file is a local file, xdvi tries to determine if it is a DVI file. If it is, xdvi
       will try to display the file; otherwise it will try to determine  the  MIME  type  of  the
       file, and from that an application suitable for opening the file.  This is done by parsing
       the files specified by the environment variable EXTENSIONMAPS for a  mapping  of  filename
       extensions  to  MIME  types, and the files determined by the environment variable MAILCAPS
       for a mapping of MIME types to  application  programs.   See  the  descriptions  of  these
       variables  in  the  section  ENVIRONMENT,  below,  for a more detailed description and the
       default values of these variables. If no suitable files  are  found,  a  set  of  built-in
       default MIME types and applications is used.

       Xdvi  currently  uses  no  heuristics apart from the filename suffix to determine the mime
       type of a file. If a filename has no suffix, the value of  the  resource  noMimeSuffix  is
       used  (by default application/x-unknown).  If the suffix doesn't match any of the suffixes
       in  mime.types,  the  value  of  the  resource  unknownMimeSuffix  is  used  (by   default
       application/x-unknown).   If  the  mailcap  entries  do not list a viewer for a given mime
       type, xdvi will show a warning popup. If you want to avoid this warning, and  for  example
       want  to  always  use  the  netscape  browser  for  unknown  MIME types, you could add the
       following line to your ~/.mailcap file:

           application/xdvi-unknown; \
               netscape -raise -remote 'openURL(%s,new-window)'

STRING SEARCH

       The keystroke Ctrl-f or the menu entry File > Find ...  (or the `Binoculars' symbol in the
       toolbar,  for  Motif)  opens  a  dialog  window  to  search for a text string or a regular
       expression in the DVI file.  The keystroke Ctrl-g jumps to the next match  (like  pressing
       the `Find' button in the search window).

       By  default,  the matches are highlighted in inverted color.  If the display isn't running
       in TrueColor, or if the X resource matchHighlightInverted is set to false or the  command-
       line  option  -nomatchinverted  is  used,  xdvi will instead draw a rectangle in highlight
       color (see the -hl option) around the match.

       If a match crosses a page boundary, only the part on the first page is highlighted.   Xdvi
       will  scan up to 2 adjacent pages to match strings crossing page boundaries; but note that
       header or footer lines, or intervening float pages will be treated as parts of the scanned
       text. Such text will usually cause multi-page matching to fail.

       This  emphasizes  the  fact  that  searching  in the formatted text (the DVI output) works
       differently from searching in the source text: Searching in the DVI file makes  it  easier
       to  skip formatting instructions, and makes it possible to search for e.g. hyphenation and
       equation numbers; but sometimes the formatting results can also get in the  way,  e.g.  in
       the case of footnotes. In these cases it's better to search in the TeX source instead. The
       use of source specials will make switching between the xdvi display and  the  editor  with
       the TeX source easier; see the section SOURCE SPECIALS below for more information on this.

       The  text  extracted  from  the DVI file is in encoded in UTF-8 (you can view that text by
       saving the file in UTF-8 format via the File > Save as ...  menu item).  If xdvi has  been
       compiled  with  locale, nl_langinfo() and iconv support, the search term is converted from
       the character set specified by the current locale into UTF-8. (See the output of locale -a
       for  a  list  of  locale  settings  available  on  your  system).  If nl_langinfo() is not
       available, but iconv is, you can specify the input encoding for iconv via the  X  resource
       textEncoding  (see the output of iconv -l for a list of valid encodings). If iconv support
       is not available, only the encodings ISO-8859-1 and UTF-8 are supported (these  names  are
       case-insensitive).

       Ideographic  characters from CJKV fonts are treated specially: All white space (spaces and
       newlines) before and after such characters is ignored in the search string and in the  DVI
       file.

       To  match  a  newline  character, use \n in the search string; to match the string \n, use
       \\n.

       If the checkbox Regular Expression is activated,  the  string  is  treated  as  a  regular
       expression in extended POSIX syntax, with the following properties:

         - a? matches a zero or one times.

         - a* matches a zero or more times.

         - a+  matches  a  one  or more times.  Note that * and + are greedy, i.e. they match the
           longest possible substring.

         - The pattern . matches any character except for newline. To also match a  newline,  use
           `(.|\n)'.

         - a{n} matches a exactly n times.

         - a{n,m} matches a at least n and no more than m times.

         - a|b matches a or b. Brackets can be used for grouping, e.g.: (a|b)|c.

         - The  string  matched  by  the nth group can be referenced by \n, e.g. \1 refers to the
           first match.

         - The characters ^ and $ match the beginning and the end of a line, respectively.

         - [abc] matches any of the letters a, b, c, and [a-z] matches all characters from  a  to
           z.

         - Each  item  in  a  regular expression can also be one of the following POSIX character
           classes:
           [[:alnum:]] [[:alpha:]] [[:blank:]] [[:cntrl:]] [[:digit:]]
           [[:graph:]] [[:lower:]] [[:print:]] [[:space:]] [[:upper:]]

           These can be negated by inserting a ^ symbol after the first bracket: [^[:alpha:]]

           For more details on POSIX regular expressions, see e.g. the IEEE Std  1003.1  standard
           definition available online from:

           http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/007904975/basedefs/xbd_chap09.html

         - As a non-standard extension, the following Perl-like abbreviations can be used instead
           of the POSIX classes:

           Symbol   Meaning                       POSIX Class

               \w   an alphanumeric character     [[:alnum:]]
               \W   a non-alphanumeric character  [^[:alnum:]]
               \d   a digit character             [[:digit:]]
               \D   a non-digit character         [^[:digit:]]
               \s   a whitespace character        [[:space:]]
               \S   a non-whitespace character    [^[:space:]]

         - The following characters are special symbols; they need to be escaped with \ in  order
           to match them literally:  ( ) [ ] . * ? + ^ $ \.

         - Matches of length zero are silently skipped.

       The dialog also provides checkboxes to:

         - search backwards;

         - match  in a case-sensitive manner (the default is to ignore case, i.e. a search string
           Test will match both the strings test and TEST in the DVI file);

         - ignore line breaks and hyphens: This removes all hyphens at the ends of lines and  the
           following  newline  characters, and replaces all remaining newline characters by white
           spaces. So hyphenated words will appear as one word to the search, and  a  search  for
           two words with a space in between will also match the words if they are separated by a
           linebreak.
           Note that the hyphen removal may  cause  unwanted  side  effects  for  compound  words
           containing  hyphens that are wrapped after the hyphen, and that replacing the newlines
           affects the interpretation of regular expressions as follows: The . pattern will  also
           match  newlines,  and  ^  and  $  won't  match begin and end of lines any more. (Since
           currently there is no option for turning off the greediness of *  and  +,  turning  on
           this option will usually result in matches that are longer than desired.)

       The current checkbox settings are saved in the ~/.xdvirc file.

PRINT DIALOG

       The print dialog window allows you to print all pages, marked pages (click or drag Mouse-2
       in the page list to mark them), or a range of pages. Note that  the  page  numbers  always
       refer  to  physical  pages, so if you're using the option `use TeX pages', you may want to
       disable it to make it easier to determine the correct page numbers (or avoid this  problem
       altogether by marking the pages to be printed).

       The value of the Printer text filed is passed to dvips via the -o!  mechanism, as a single
       argument after the `!'. Any arguments listed in the Dvips options field are  segmented  at
       whitespaces and passed as separate arguments to dvips.  If you e.g. want to print the file
       2-up, you should enter the following string into the Printer field:

                psnup -2 -q | lpr -Plp

       There are several resources for customizing the behaviour and the default entries  of  the
       print dialog:

       dvipsPrinterString

       dvipsOptionsString
              These  can be used to provide default entries for the Printer and the Dvips options
              text fields, respectively. If no paper size is specified in the DVI file (via  e.g.
              \usepackage[dvips]{geometry}  -  this  is the preferred method), the input field is
              initialized with the current value of the command  line  option/X  resource  paper.
              E.g.,  the  option  -paper  a4r  is  translated  into  the  dvips  options -t a4 -t
              landscape.  Note that no check is  performed  whether  dvips  actually  understands
              these  options (it will ignore them if it can't); currently not all options used by
              xdvi are also covered by dvips.

       dvipsHangTime

       dvipsFailHangTime
              These specify the time (in milliseconds) that the  printing  progress  window  will
              stay  open  after  the  dvips process has terminated. The value of dvipsHangTime is
              used if the process  terminates  successfully;  dvipsFailHangTime  is  used  if  it
              terminates  with  an error. The default values are 1.5 and 5 seconds, respectively.
              If both values are negative, the window will stay open until it is  closed  by  the
              user.

SAVE DIALOG

       This  dialog  allows you to save all or selected/marked pages in the current DVI file. You
       can save in one of the following formats:

         - PostScript (uses dvips to convert the DVI file to a PostScript file,  just  like  when
           printing to a PostScript file).

         - PDF  (first  uses dvips to convert the DVI file to a PostScript file, then uses ps2pdf
           to convert the PostScript file to PDF).

         - Plain text in ISO-8859-1 or UTF-8 encoding. The  latter  will  preserve  more  of  the
           special  LaTeX characters e.g. from mathematical mode. Note however that e.g. only few
           of  LaTeX's  mathematical  symbols  can  be  rendered  correctly  as  text;  so   this
           funcionality  works best for plain text documents.  If a character cannot be displayed
           in the selected charset, it is replaced by `\' followed by the  hexadecimal  character
           code.  If a character is not recognized at all, it is replaced by `?'.

       The  programs  for  PostScript  and  PDF conversion can be customized via the command line
       options or X resources -dvipspath/.dvipsPath  and  -ps2pdfpath/.ps2pdfPath,  respectively;
       see the explanation of these options above for more details.

MODES

       The  keystroke  Ctrl-m  [switch-mode()]  switches  between three different mouse bindings,
       which can also be activated via the Modes menu (in Motif, this is a submenu of the Options
       menu called Mouse Mode).  The default mode at startup can be customized via the X resource
       mouseMode or the command-line option -mousemode.  The default startup  mode  is  Magnifier
       Mode.

       Note:  The  modes  are  implemented by changing the magnifier() action. Switching the mode
       will not work if Mouse-1 has been customized to an action sequence that does  not  contain
       the magnifier() action.

       Magnifier Mode
              In  this mode, the mouse buttons 1 to 5 pop up a ``magnifying glass'' that shows an
              unshrunken image of the page (i.e. an image at the  resolution  determined  by  the
              option/X  resource pixels or mfmode) at varying sizes. When the magnifier is moved,
              small ruler-like tick marks are displayed at the edges of the magnifier (unless the
              X  resource  delayRulers  is  set to false, in which case the tick marks are always
              displayed).  The unit of the marks is determined by the X resource tickUnits (mm by
              default).  This  unit  can  be  changed at runtime via the action switch-magnifier-
              units(), by default bound to the keystroke `t' (see the description  of  that  key,
              and of switch-magnifier-units() for more details on the units available).
              The  length  of  the  tick marks can be changed via the X resource tickLength (4 by
              default). A zero or negative value suppresses the tick marks.

       Text Selection Mode
              This mode allows you to select a rectangular region of text  in  the  DVI  file  by
              holding  down  Mouse-1  and  moving  the  mouse. The text is put into the X primary
              selection so that it can be pasted into other X applications with Mouse-2 as usual.
              If xdvi has been  compiled  with  locale,  nl_langinfo()  and  iconv  support,  the
              selected  text  is  converted into the character set of the current locale (see the
              output of locale -a for a list of locale settings available on  your  system).   If
              nl_langinfo()  is  not  available, but iconv is, you can specify the input encoding
              for iconv via the X resource textEncoding (see the output of iconv -l for a list of
              valid  encodings). If iconv support is not available, only the encodings ISO-8859-1
              and UTF-8 are supported (these names are case-insensitive).
              Note that UTF-8  is  the  only  encoding  that  can  render  all  characters  (e.g.
              mathematical  symbols)  of  a  DVI  file.  If ISO-8859-1 is active, characters that
              cannot be displayed are replaced by `\' followed by the hexadecimal character code.
              For  other  encodings,  such  characters  may  trigger  iconv error messages.  If a
              character is not recognized at all, it is replaced by `?'.
              To extract larger portions of text, you can alternatively save  selected  pages  or
              the entire file in text format via the File > Save as ...  menu.

       Ruler Mode
              This mode provides a simple way of measuring distances on the page.
              When  this  mode  is  activated,  the mouse cursor changes into a thin cross, and a
              larger, cross-shaped ruler is drawn in the highlight color at the  mouse  location.
              The  ruler doesn't have units attached to it; instead, the current distance between
              the ruler and the mouse cursor is continuously printed to the statusline.
              When activating Ruler Mode, the ruler is at first attached to the mouse and can  be
              moved  around.  It  can  then  be  positioned at a fixed place by clicking Mouse-1.
              After that, the mouse cursor can be moved to measure the horizontal (dx),  vertical
              (dy)  and  direct  (shortest)  (dr) distance between the ruler center point and the
              mouse.
              Clicking Mouse-1 again will move the ruler  to  the  current  mouse  position,  and
              holding down Mouse-1 will drag the ruler around.
              In  Ruler  Mode,  the  following  special keybindings extend or replace the default
              bindings:

              o      [ruler-snap-origin()] Snap the ruler back to the origin coordinate (0,0).

              t      [overrides switch-magnifier-units()] Toggle  between  various  ruler  units,
                     which can be specified by the X resource tickUnits (`mm' by default).

              P      [overrides   declare-page-number()]   Print   the  distances  shown  in  the
                     statusline to standard output.

TOOLBAR (Motif only)

       The Motif toolbar can also be customized. The XPM file used for the toolbar icons  can  be
       specified  via the resource toolbarPixmapFile, which should contain a filename that can be
       found in one of XFILESEARCHPATH or XDVIINPUTS (see the section FILE  SEARCHING  below  for
       more  information  on  these  variables).  Xdvi will try to split this pixmap horizontally
       into n pieces, where each piece is as wide as the pixmap is high  and  is  treated  as  an
       image  for  toolbar  button n.  This means that each icon should be a square, and that the
       entire pixmap should have width n x h if h is the height of the pixmap.

       The resource toolbarTranslations can be used to map  icons/buttons  to  specific  actions.
       The  resource  should  contain  a  string  separated by newline characters, similar to the
       resources mainTranslations and menuTranslations.  Every line must contain either a  spacer
       definition, or an icon definition:

       A  spacer  definition  is  a string SPACER(n), where n is the number of pixels inserted as
       separator to the following button.

       An icon definition is a colon-separated list containing the following elements:

         - the index of an icon in the pixmap file (starting from zero);

         - a long tooltip string, displayed in the status area;

         - a short tooltip string, displayed as popup;

         - a sequence of actions to be performed when the corresponding toolbar button is pushed.

       To illustrate this, the default value of toolbarTranslations looks as follows:

            xdvi.toolbarTranslations: \
               SPACER(5)\n\
               0:Open a new document   (Key\\: Ctrl-f):\
                    Open file:select-dvi-file()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               1:Reread this document   (Key\\: R):\
                    Reread file:reread-dvi-file()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               2:Go to the first page of this document   (Key\\: 1g):\
                    Go to first page:goto-page(1)\n\
               3:Go to the previous page of this document   (Key\\: p):\
                    Go to previous page:back-page(1)\n\
               4:Go to the next page of this document   (Key\\: n):\
                    Go to next page:forward-page(1)\n\
               5:Go to the last page of this document   (Key\\: g):\
                    Go to last page:goto-page()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               6:Enlarge the display   (Key\\: Ctrl-+):Zoom in:\
                    set-shrink-factor(+)\n\
               7:Shrink the display   (Key\\: Ctrl--):Zoom out:\
                    set-shrink-factor(-)\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               8:Jump back to the previous hyperlink   (Key\\: B):\
                    Back hyperlink:htex-back()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               10:Print this document:Print:print()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               11:Toggle marks for odd pages   (Key\\: 1m):\
                    Toggle odd:toggle-mark(1)\n\
               12:Toggle marks for even pages   (Key\\: 2m):\
                    Toggle even:toggle-mark(2)\n\
               13:Toggle mark for current page   (Key\\: 2m):\
                    Toggle current:toggle-mark()\n\
               14:Unmark all pages   (Key\\: 0m):\
                    Unmark all:toggle-mark(0)\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               18:Display fonts darker   (Key\\: Alt-Ctrl-+):\
                    Fonts darker:change-density(5)\n\
               19:Display fonts lighter   (Key\\: Alt-Ctrl--):\
                    Fonts lighter:change-density(-5)\n

       When the mouse remains over a toolbar button for a certain period, a `tooltip'  window  is
       shown,  describing  what  the  button  does  using the short tooltip string from the above
       resource. At the same time, the long tooltip string is displayed in the  statusline.   The
       appearance and behaviour of these tooltips can be customized via the following resources:

       tipShell.background
              Background color of the tooltip window.

       tipShell.fontSet
              Font used for the tooltip.

       tipShell.waitPeriod
              The time (in milliseconds) the mouse pointer needs to be over the button before the
              tooltip is shown. Set it to a negative value to suppress the tooltips altogether.

GREYSCALING AND COLORMAPS

       The greyscale anti-aliasing feature in xdvi will not work at its best if the display  does
       not have enough colors available.  This can happen if other applications are using most of
       the colormap (even if they are iconified).  If this occurs, then xdvi will print an  error
       message and turn on the -copy option.  This will result in overstrike characters appearing
       wrong; it may also result in poor display quality if the number  of  available  colors  is
       very small.

       Typically  this  problem  occurs  on displays that allocate eight bits of video memory per
       pixel.  To see how many bits per pixel your  display  uses,  type  xwininfo  in  an  xterm
       window, and then click the mouse on the root window when asked.  The ``Depth:'' entry will
       tell you how many bits are allocated per pixel.

       Displays using at least 15 bits per pixel are typically TrueColor visuals,  which  do  not
       have  this  problem,  since  their  colormap is permanently allocated and available to all
       applications.  (The visual class is also displayed by xwininfo.)  For more information  on
       visual classes see the documentation for the X Window System.

       To  alleviate  this problem, therefore, one may (a) run with more bits per pixel (this may
       require adding more video memory or  replacing  the  video  card),  (b)  shut  down  other
       applications that may be using much of the colormap and then restart xdvi, or (c) run xdvi
       with the -install option.

       One application which is often the cause of this problem is Netscape.  In this case  there
       are  two  more alternatives to remedying the situation.  One can run ``netscape -install''
       to cause Netscape to install a private colormap.  This  can  cause  colors  to  change  in
       bizarre  ways  when  the mouse is moved to a different window.  Or, one can run ``netscape
       -ncols 220'' to limit Netscape to a smaller number  of  colors.   A  smaller  number  will
       ensure  that  other  applications  have  more colors available, but will degrade the color
       quality in the Netscape window.

HANDLING OF POSTSCRIPT FIGURES

       Xdvi can display Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) files included in the dvi file.  Such files
       are  first  searched  for  in  the  directory where the dvi file is, and then using normal
       Kpathsea rules.  There is an exception to this, however:  if the file name begins  with  a
       backtick  (`),  then the remaining characters in the file name give a shell command (often
       zcat) which is executed; its standard output is then sent to be interpreted as PostScript.
       Since  the  execution  of  arbitrary  shell commands with the user's permissions is a huge
       security risk, evaluation of these backtick commands is disabled by default. It  needs  to
       be  activated  via  the  -allowshell command-line option.  NOTE: You should never use this
       option when viewing documents that you didn't compile yourself. The backtick specials  are
       not  needed  for uncompressing gzipped PostScript files, since xdvi can do that on the fly
       if the filename ends with .eps.gz or .eps.Z (and if the first bytes of the  file  indicate
       that  the  file  is  indeed  compressed).   This  is both safer and more flexible than the
       backtick approach, since the default file searching rules will  apply  to  such  filenames
       too.

TYPE 1 FONTS

       Using  FreeType (version 2), xdvi can render PostScript<tm> Type 1 fonts directly, without
       the route via TeX pixel (pk) fonts. The advantage of this is that only one  size  of  each
       font  needs  to be stored on disk.  Unless the -notype1fonts option is used, xdvi will try
       to render every font using FreeType. Only as a fallback will it invoke an external program
       (like  mktexpk,  which  in  turn may invoke utilities like ps2pk or gsftopk) to generate a
       pixel font from the Type 1 source. The direct  rendering  of  the  Computer  Modern  fonts
       should  work  out-of-the  box,  whereas  other  Type  1  fonts  such  as the 35 `standard'
       PostScript<tm> fonts resident in printers may need to be  made  accessible  for  use  with
       xdvi,  unless  your system administrator or TeX distribution has already done so (which is
       the case e.g. for current TeX Live systems). For the  35  PostScript<tm>  resident  fonts,
       xdvik  will  search  using the Fontmap provided with Ghostscript, if necessary.  Also, the
       xdvik distribution comes with a utility called t1mapper to make these fonts available  for
       xdvi; see the manual page for t1mapper(1) for usage details.  This program is likely to be
       dropped in the future, however, since it is probably not needed anymore.

SPECIALS (GENERALLY)

       Any of the specials used by xdvi may be preceded by the characters  ``xdvi:''.   Doing  so
       does  not  change  the  behavior of the special under xdvi, but it tells other dvi drivers
       (such as e.g. dvips) to ignore the special.

SOURCE SPECIALS

       Some TeX implementations or macro packages provide the facility to  automatically  include
       so-called  `source specials' into a DVI file.  These contain the line number, eventually a
       column number, and the filename of the .tex source. This makes it possible to jump from  a
       .dvi  file  to  the  corresponding  place  in  the .tex source and vice versa (also called
       `inverse search' - jumping from the DVI file to the TeX file is  also  known  as  `reverse
       search', and jumping from the TeX file to the DVI file as `forward search').

       To  be  usable  with  xdvi, source specials in the dvi file must have one of the following
       formats:

                src:line[ ]filename
                src:line:col[ ]filename
                src:line
                src:line:col
                src::col

       If filename or line are omitted, the most  recent  values  are  used.   The  first  source
       special  on  each  page  must  be  in  one  of the first two forms, since defaults are not
       inherited across pages.

       You will need a TeX implementation that provides an appropriate switch (e.g.  -src)  or  a
       macro     package     (such     as    srcltx.sty    or    srctex.sty,    available    from
       CTAN:macros/latex/contrib/supported/srcltx/) to insert such source specials into  the  DVI
       file.

       For  reverse search, the combination Ctrl-Mouse 1 will make xdvi open an editor (the value
       of the -editor command line option) with the file and the line number of the .tex  source.
       See the description of the -editor option for more information and example settings.

       For  forward search, xdvi has a -sourceposition option that makes xdvi jump to the page in
       the DVI file corresponding to the given line (or the closest line having a source special)
       of  the  specified  file  and  highlight  the  found  region.  See  the description of the
       -sourceposition option for more details.

       More information on setting up various editors for use with source specials can  be  found
       at:

            http://xdvi.sourceforge.net/inverse-search.html

PAPERSIZE SPECIALS

       xdvi accepts specials to set the paper size for the document.  These specials should be of
       the form

                papersize=[*]width,height

       where width and height give the width and height of  the  paper,  respectively.   Each  of
       these  should  appear  in  the  form of a decimal number followed by any of the two-letter
       abbreviations for units accepted by TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or  sp).   If  an
       asterisk  (*)  appears  just before the width, then the measurements refer to the document
       dimensions (e.g., pt as opposed to truept).  This allows a macro package to vary the  page
       size according to elements of the document; e.g.,

            \special{xdvi: papersize=*\number\wd\mybox sp,
                     \number\ht\mybox sp}

       Except for the asterisk, this format is compatible with dvips.

       The  last  papersize  special  on a page determines the size of that page.  If there is no
       such special on a given page, the most recent papersize is  used,  or,  if  there  are  no
       papersize  specials on any preceding page, then the value of the paper resource (or -paper
       option on the command line) is used.  Thus the paper size may vary for different pages  of
       the dvi file.

       If  the paper resource (or -paper command-line option) begins with a plus sign (`+'), then
       all papersize specials in the dvi file are ignored.

COLOR SPECIALS

       The color specials supported by xdvi are the same as those supported by dvips, except that
       the  literal  PostScript  color specification (as in the AggiePattern example in the dvips
       documentation) is not supported.  There are also some restrictions due to the  way  xdvi's
       drawing   routines  are  implemented;  e.g. the \colorbox and \fcolorbox macros don't work
       with xdvi.  See the section LIMITATIONS below for more information on these  restrictions.
       Xdvi supports the same list of named colors as dvips does, namely:

       Apricot,  Aquamarine,  Bittersweet,  Black,  Blue, BlueGreen, BlueViolet, BrickRed, Brown,
       BurntOrange,  CadetBlue,  CarnationPink,  Cerulean,   CornflowerBlue,   Cyan,   Dandelion,
       DarkOrchid,   Emerald,   ForestGreen,   Fuchsia,   Goldenrod,  Gray,  Green,  GreenYellow,
       JungleGreen,  Lavender,  LimeGreen,  Magenta,  Mahogany,  Maroon,   Melon,   MidnightBlue,
       Mulberry,  NavyBlue,  OliveGreen, Orange, OrangeRed, Orchid, Peach, Periwinkle, PineGreen,
       Plum, ProcessBlue, Purple, RawSienna, Red,  RedOrange,  RedViolet,  Rhodamine,  RoyalBlue,
       RoyalPurple,  RubineRed,  Salmon,  SeaGreen,  Sepia,  SkyBlue, SpringGreen, Tan, TealBlue,
       Thistle,  Turquoise,  Violet,  VioletRed,  White,  WildStrawberry,  Yellow,   YellowGreen,
       YellowOrange.

       Note that these names are case sensitive.

       The  documentation  of  the  LaTeX  color package provides more details on how to use such
       specials with LaTeX; see the dvips documentation for a detailed description of the  syntax
       and semantics of the color specials.

SIGNALS

       When xdvi receives a SIGUSR1 signal, it rereads the dvi file.

ENVIRONMENT

       Xdvik  uses  the same environment variables and algorithms for searching for font files as
       TeX and friends.  See the documentation for the  Kpathsea  library,  kpathsea.dvi,  for  a
       detailed description of these.

       In addition, xdvik accepts the following variables:

       DISPLAY
              Specifies which graphics display terminal to use.

       KPATHSEA_DEBUG
              Trace Kpathsea lookups; set it to -1 (= all bits on) for complete tracing.

       EXTENSIONMAPS
              A  list  of  files  to  be searched for mime types entries (as for Acrobat Reader).
              Earlier entries in one of these files override later ones.  If this variable is not
              set, the following default path is used:

              $HOME/.mime.types:/etc/mime.types:\
                  /usr/etc/mime.types:/usr/local/etc/mime.types

       MAILCAPS
              A  list  of  files  to be searched for mailcap entries, as defined by RFC 1343. See
              this RFC or the mailcap(4) manual page for a detailed description  of  the  mailcap
              file format.  Currently, only the following mailcap features are supported:

              test=command
                     The  entry is only used if command can be executed via the system() call and
                     if the system() call returns with value 0 (success).  The command string may
                     contain the format string %s, which will be replaced by the file name.

              needsterminal
                     If  this flag is used, the command will be executed in a new xterm window by
                     prepending ``xterm -e '' to the command string.

              All other fields in the mailcap entry are ignored by xdvi.  Earlier entries in  one
              of  these files override later ones.  If the variable is not defined, the following
              default path is used:

                  $HOME/.mailcap:/etc/mailcap:/usr/etc/mailcap:\
                      /usr/local/etc/mailcap

              For security reasons, some special characters (i.e.: ( ) ` \ ;) are escaped in  the
              argument before passing it to system().

       BROWSER
              Determines  the  web browser used to open external links (i.e., all URLs that don't
              start with the `file:' scheme and are not relative links in the  local  DVI  file),
              and  to open links for which no viewer has been specified in the mailcap files. The
              value of this variable is a colon-separated list of commands. Xdvi will try each of
              them  in  sequence  until one succeeds (i.e. doesn't immediately return with status
              0). This allows you to  specify  your  favourite  browser  at  the  beginning,  and
              fallback  browsers  at the end. Every occurrence of %s in the string is replaced by
              the target URL; every occurrence of %% is replaced by a single  %.   If  no  %s  is
              present, the URL string is added as an extra argument.
              An example setting is:

              netscape  -raise  -remote  'openURL(%s,new-window)':xterm  -e lynx %s:xterm -e wget
              %s:lynx %s:wget %s

              See

              http://www.catb.org/~esr/BROWSER/

              for more details on the BROWSER environment variable.

       GS_LIB A colon-separated list of directories to search for Fontmap files,  etc.,  as  used
              for  Ghostscript.  It has the same meaning as it does when running Ghostscript.  In
              xdvik, it is used when searching for font files when the map file does not  give  a
              file  name  for  the font (this should be quite rare).  The command gs -h will list
              the default value that Ghostscript uses.   See  also  the  XDVI_GS_LIB  environment
              variable (below).

       XDVI_GS_LIB
              This  has  the same effect as GS_LIB but affects only xdvi.  Use this when you want
              to use a different value for GS_LIB when running xdvi, but use either the compiled-
              in  default value or some other value when running Ghostscript.  If both GS_LIB and
              XDVI_GS_LIB are set, then xdvi uses XDVI_GS_LIB.  To use the default value compiled
              in  to  xdvi  while  still  retaining  the  ability  to  set  GS_LIB  for  use with
              Ghostscript, you can set XDVI_GS_LIB to the empty string.

       TMPDIR The directory to  use  for  storing  temporary  files  created  when  uncompressing
              PostScript files.

       XEDITOR
              Determines  the editor command used for source special `reverse search', if neither
              the -editor command-line option nor the .editor resource are  specified.   See  the
              description of the -editor command line option for details on the format.

       VISUAL Determines  an  editor  to  be  opened  in  an  xterm window if neither of -editor,
              .editor, or XEDITOR is specified.

       EDITOR Determines an editor to be opened  in  an  xterm  window  if  neither  of  -editor,
              .editor, XEDITOR or VISUAL is specified.

       WWWBROWSER
              Obsolete; use BROWSER instead.

LIMITATIONS

       xdvi  accepts  many  but  not  all  types  of  PostScript specials accepted by dvips.  For
       example, it accepts most specials generated by epsf and  psfig.   It  does  not,  however,
       support  bop-hook  or  eop-hook,  nor  does  it  allow  PostScript  commands to affect the
       rendering of things that are not PostScript (for example, the ``NEAT'' and  rotated  ``A''
       examples  in  the dvips manual).  These restrictions are due to the design of xdvi; in all
       likelihood they will always remain.

       LaTeX2e rotation specials are currently not supported.

       MetaPost files containing included text are not supported.

       Xdvi's color handling doesn't support the \colorbox and \fcolorbox macros;   this  is  not
       likely  to change in the near future. This also means that e.g. colored tables (as created
       by the colortbl package) may render incorrectly: Text in colors different from the default
       foreground  color  may  not  be  displayed. When the page is redrawn (e.g. after using the
       magnifier), the background color of the cells may overdraw the text.

FILES

       $HOME/.xdvirc
              A file that holds all settings that the user changed via the  keys,  the  `Options'
              and  the Xaw `Modes' menu and the dialogs, as X resources. These resources override
              the settings in $HOME/.Xdefaults.  This file is ignored if the -q option is used or
              the noInitFile X resource is set.

       config.xdvi
              An  optional  configuration  file  for  the  Type  1  font  setup,  which specifies
              dvips-style map files specific to xdvik.  If used, it  should  be  present  in  the
              directory  determined by the TEXCONFIG environment variable.  Its format is similar
              to configuration files for dvips, except that it is only scanned for the  names  of
              map files (p and p+ directives).

SEE ALSO

       X(1),  dvips(1),  mktexpk(1),  ps2pk(1), gsftopk(1), t1mapper(1), mailcap(4), the Kpathsea
       documentation, and the Xdvik home page at http://xdvi.sourceforge.net/.

AUTHORS

       Eric Cooper, CMU, did a version for direct output  to  a  QVSS.  Modified  for  X  by  Bob
       Scheifler, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science. Modified for X11 by Mark Eichin, MIT SIPB.
       Additional enhancements by many others.

       The current maintainer of the original xdvi is Paul Vojta, U.C. Berkeley.

       Code for the xdvik variant has been contributed by many people, whose names are  scattered
       across the source files. Xdvik is hosted on CTAN:dviware/xdvik and on SourceForge; for the
       most up-to-date information, please visit:

       http://xdvi.sourceforge.net

       Please report all bugs to the SourceForge bug tracker:

       http://sourceforge.net/tracker/?func=add&group_id=23164&atid=377580