Provided by: x11-xserver-utils_7.7+2ubuntu1_i386 bug


       xmodmap  - utility for modifying keymaps and pointer button mappings in


       xmodmap [-options ...] [filename]


       The xmodmap program is used to edit and display the  keyboard  modifier
       map  and  keymap  table that are used by client applications to convert
       event keycodes into keysyms.  It is usually run from the user's session
       startup script to configure the keyboard according to personal tastes.


       The following options may be used with xmodmap:

       -display display
               This option specifies the host and display to use.

       -help   This  option  indicates that a brief description of the command
               line arguments should be printed on the standard error channel.
               This  will  be  done whenever an unhandled argument is given to

               This option  indicates  that  a  help  message  describing  the
               expression grammar used in files and with -e expressions should
               be printed on the standard error.

               This  option  indicates  that  xmodmap  should  print   logging
               information as it parses its input.

       -quiet  This  option  turns  off  the  verbose  logging.   This  is the

       -n      This option  indicates  that  xmodmap  should  not  change  the
               mappings,  but  should  display  what it would do, like make(1)
               does when given this option.

       -e expression
               This option specifies an expression to be executed.  Any number
               of expressions may be specified from the command line.

       -pm     This  option  indicates that the current modifier map should be
               printed on the standard output.   This is the default  mode  of
               operation if no other mode options are specified.

       -pk     This  option  indicates that the current keymap table should be
               printed on the standard output.

       -pke    This option indicates that the current keymap table  should  be
               printed  on the standard output in the form of expressions that
               can be fed back to xmodmap.

       -pp     This option indicates that the current pointer  map  should  be
               printed on the standard output.

       -       A lone dash means that the standard input should be used as the
               input file.

       The filename specifies a file  containing  xmodmap  expressions  to  be
       executed.   This file is usually kept in the user's home directory with
       a name like .xmodmaprc.


       The xmodmap program reads a list of expressions  and  parses  them  all
       before  attempting  to  execute any of them.  This makes it possible to
       refer to keysyms that are being redefined  in  a  natural  way  without
       having to worry as much about name conflicts.

       The   list   of   keysym   names  may  be  found  in  the  header  file
       <X11/keysymdef.h> (without the XK_ prefix), supplemented by the  keysym
       database     /usr/share/X11/XKeysymDB.     Keysyms   matching   Unicode
       characters may be specified  as  "U0020"  to  "U007E"  and  "U00A0"  to
       "U10FFFF" for all possible Unicode characters.

       keycode NUMBER = KEYSYMNAME ...
               The list of keysyms is assigned to the indicated keycode (which
               may be specified in decimal, hex or octal and can be determined
               by  running  the  xev  program).   Up  to  eight keysyms may be
               attached to a key, however the last four are not  used  in  any
               major  X  server implementation.  The first keysym is used when
               no modifier key is pressed in conjunction with  this  key,  the
               second  with  Shift, the third when the Mode_switch key is used
               with this key and the fourth  when  both  the  Mode_switch  and
               Shift keys are used.

       keycode any = KEYSYMNAME ...
               If  no  existing key has the specified list of keysyms assigned
               to it, a spare key on the keyboard is selected and the  keysyms
               are  assigned  to  it.  The list of keysyms may be specified in
               decimal, hex or octal.

       keysym KEYSYMNAME = KEYSYMNAME ...
               The KEYSYMNAME  on  the  left  hand  side  is  translated  into
               matching  keycodes  used  to  perform  the corresponding set of
               keycode expressions.  Note that if the same keysym is bound  to
               multiple  keys,  the  expression  is executed for each matching

       clear MODIFIERNAME
               This removes all entries in the  modifier  map  for  the  given
               modifier,  where  valid  name  are: Shift, Lock, Control, Mod1,
               Mod2, Mod3, Mod4, and Mod5 (case does not  matter  in  modifier
               names,  although  it  does  matter  for  all other names).  For
               example, ``clear Lock'' will remove  all  any  keys  that  were
               bound to the shift lock modifier.

               This  adds  all  keys  containing  the  given  keysyms  to  the
               indicated modifier map.  The keysym names are  evaluated  after
               all  input  expressions  are  read  to  make  it  easy to write
               expressions to swap keys (see the EXAMPLES section).

               This removes all keys containing the  given  keysyms  from  the
               indicated  modifier  map.   Unlike  add,  the  keysym names are
               evaluated as the line is read in.  This allows  you  to  remove
               keys  from  a modifier without having to worry about whether or
               not they have been reassigned.

       pointer = default
               This sets the pointer map back to its default settings  (button
               1 generates a code of 1, button 2 generates a 2, etc.).

       pointer = NUMBER ...
               This  sets  the  pointer  map  to  contain the indicated button
               codes.  The list always starts with the first physical  button.
               Setting a button code to 0 disables events from that button.

       Lines that begin with an exclamation point (!) are taken as comments.

       If  you  want  to  change  the binding of a modifier key, you must also
       remove it from the appropriate modifier map.


       Many pointers are designed such that the first button is pressed  using
       the  index  finger  of  the  right  hand.   People  who are left-handed
       frequently find that it is more comfortable to reverse the button codes
       that  get  generated  so  that  the primary button is pressed using the
       index finger of the left hand.  This  could  be  done  on  a  3  button
       pointer as follows:
       %  xmodmap -e "pointer = 3 2 1"

       Many  applications  support the notion of Meta keys (similar to Control
       keys except that Meta is held down instead of Control).  However,  some
       servers  do  not have a Meta keysym in the default keymap table, so one
       needs to be added by hand.  The following command will attach  Meta  to
       the  Multi-language key (sometimes labeled Compose Character).  It also
       takes advantage of the fact that applications  that  need  a  Meta  key
       simply  need  to  get the keycode and don't require the keysym to be in
       the first column of the keymap table.   This  means  that  applications
       that  are  looking for a Multi_key (including the default modifier map)
       won't notice any change.
       %  xmodmap -e "keysym Multi_key = Multi_key Meta_L"

       Similarly, some keyboards have an Alt key but no  Meta  key.   In  that
       case the following may be useful:
       %  xmodmap -e "keysym Alt_L = Meta_L Alt_L"

       One  of  the more simple, yet convenient, uses of xmodmap is to set the
       keyboard's  "rubout"  key  to  generate  an  alternate  keysym.    This
       frequently  involves  exchanging  Backspace  with  Delete  to  be  more
       comfortable to the user.  If the ttyModes resource in xterm is  set  as
       well,  all  terminal emulator windows will use the same key for erasing
       %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
       %  echo "XTerm*ttyModes:  erase ^?" | xrdb -merge

       Some keyboards do not automatically generate less than and greater than
       characters  when  the  comma  and period keys are shifted.  This can be
       remedied with xmodmap by resetting  the  bindings  for  the  comma  and
       period with the following scripts:
       ! make shift-, be < and shift-. be >
       keysym comma = comma less
       keysym period = period greater

       One  of  the  more  irritating  differences  between  keyboards  is the
       location of the Control and CapsLock keys.  A common use of xmodmap  is
       to swap these two keys as follows:
       ! Swap Caps_Lock and Control_L
       remove Lock = Caps_Lock
       remove Control = Control_L
       keysym Control_L = Caps_Lock
       keysym Caps_Lock = Control_L
       add Lock = Caps_Lock
       add Control = Control_L

       This  example  can be run again to swap the keys back to their previous

       The keycode command is useful for assigning the same keysym to multiple
       keycodes.   Although  unportable,  it  also  makes it possible to write
       scripts that can reset the keyboard to a known  state.   The  following
       script  sets  the  backspace  key  to generate Delete (as shown above),
       flushes all existing caps lock bindings, makes the CapsLock  key  be  a
       control  key, make F5 generate Escape, and makes Break/Reset be a shift
       ! On the HP, the following keycodes have key caps as listed:
       !     101  Backspace
       !      55  Caps
       !      14  Ctrl
       !      15  Break/Reset
       !      86  Stop
       !      89  F5
       keycode 101 = Delete
       keycode 55 = Control_R
       clear Lock
       add Control = Control_R
       keycode 89 = Escape
       keycode 15 = Caps_Lock
       add Lock = Caps_Lock


       DISPLAY to get default host and display number.


       X(7), xev(1), setxkbmap(1), XStringToKeysym(3), Xlib  documentation  on
       key and pointer events


       Every  time  a  keycode expression is evaluated, the server generates a
       MappingNotify event on every client.  This can  cause  some  thrashing.
       All  of  the  changes  should  be  batched  together  and done at once.
       Clients that receive keyboard input  and  ignore  MappingNotify  events
       will not notice any changes made to keyboard mappings.

       Xmodmap  should  generate  "add" and "remove" expressions automatically
       whenever a keycode that is already bound to a modifier is changed.

       There should be a way to have the remove expression accept keycodes  as
       well as keysyms for those times when you really mess up your mappings.


       Jim  Fulton,  MIT  X  Consortium,  rewritten from an earlier version by
       David Rosenthal of Sun Microsystems.