Provided by: ganeti_2.9.3-1_all bug


       ganeti - cluster-based virtualization management


              # gnt-cluster init
              # gnt-node add
              # gnt-instance add -n \
              > -o debootstrap --disk 0:size=30g \
              > -t plain


       The  Ganeti  software manages physical nodes and virtual instances of a cluster based on a
       virtualization software.  The current version (2.3) supports Xen 3.x and KVM (72 or above)
       as hypervisors, and LXC as an experimental hypervisor.

Quick start

       First  you  must install the software on all the cluster nodes, either from sources or (if
       available) from a package.  The next step is to create the initial cluster  configuration,
       using gnt-cluster init.

       Then you can add other nodes, or start creating instances.

Cluster architecture

       In  Ganeti  2.0, the architecture of the cluster is a little more complicated than in 1.2.
       The cluster is coordinated by a master daemon (ganeti-masterd(8)), running on  the  master
       node.   Each  node  runs  (as  before)  a  node daemon, and the master has the RAPI daemon
       running too.

   Node roles
       Each node can be in one of the following states:

       master Only one node per cluster can be in this role, and this node is the one holding the
              authoritative  copy  of  the  cluster  configuration  and the one that can actually
              execute commands on the cluster and modify the cluster  state.   See  more  details
              under Cluster configuration.

              The  node receives the full cluster configuration (configuration file and jobs) and
              can become a master via the gnt-cluster master-failover command.   Nodes  that  are
              not in this state cannot transition into the master role due to missing state.

              This the normal state of a node.

              Nodes  in  this  state  are  functioning normally but cannot receive new instances,
              because the intention is to set them to offline or remove them from the cluster.

              These nodes are still recorded in the Ganeti  configuration,  but  except  for  the
              master  daemon  startup  voting  procedure,  they are not actually contacted by the
              master.  This state was added in order to allow broken  machines  (that  are  being
              repaired) to remain in the cluster but without creating problems.

   Node flags
       Nodes have two flags which govern which roles they can take:

              The node can become a master candidate, and furthermore the master node.  When this
              flag is disabled, the node cannot become  a  candidate;  this  can  be  useful  for
              special networking cases, or less reliable hardware.

              The  node  can  host  instances.   When  enabled (the default state), the node will
              participate in instance allocation, capacity calculation, etc.  When disabled,  the
              node will be skipped in many cluster checks and operations.

   Node Parameters
       The  ndparams  refer to node parameters.  These can be set as defaults on cluster and node
       group levels, but they take effect for nodes only.

       Currently we support the following node parameters:

              Path to an executable used as the out-of-band helper as  described  in  the  Ganeti
              Node OOB Management Framework (design-oob.rst) design document.

              This  should  reflect  the  I/O  performance  of  local attached storage (e.g.  for
              "file", "plain" and "drbd" disk templates).  It doesn't have to  match  the  actual
              spindle  count  of (any eventual) mechanical hard-drives, its meaning is site-local
              and just the relative values matter.

              When this Boolean flag is enabled, physical disks  on  the  node  are  assigned  to
              instance  disks  in  an  exclusive  manner, so as to lower I/O interference between
              instances.  See the Partitioned Ganeti (design-partitioned.rst) design document for
              more  details.  This parameter cannot be set on individual nodes, as its value must
              be the same within each node group.

   Hypervisor State Parameters
       Using --hypervisor-state you  can  set  hypervisor  specific  states  as  pointed  out  in
       Ganeti Resource Model <design-resource-model.rst>.

       The format is: hypervisor:option=value.

       Currently we support the following hypervisor state values:

              Total node memory, as discovered by this hypervisor

              Memory  used  by,  or reserved for, the node itself; note that some hypervisors can
              report this in an authoritative way, other not

       mem_hv Memory used either by the hypervisor itself or  lost  due  to  instance  allocation
              rounding; usually this cannot be precisely computed, but only roughly estimated

              Total node cpu (core) count; usually this can be discovered automatically

              Number  of cores reserved for the node itself; this can either be discovered or set
              manually.  Only used for estimating how many VCPUs are left for instances

       Note that currently this option is unused by Ganeti; values will be recorded but will  not
       influence the Ganeti operation.

   Disk State Parameters
       Using   --disk-state   you   can   set   disk   specific   states   as   pointed   out  in
       Ganeti Resource Model <design-resource-model.rst>.

       The format is: storage_type/identifier:option=value.  Where we currently just support  lvm
       as storage type.  The identifier in this case is the LVM volume group.  By default this is

       Currently we support the following hypervisor state values:

              Total disk size (usually discovered automatically)

              Reserved disk size; this is a lower limit on the free space, if  such  a  limit  is

              Disk  that  is expected to be used by other volumes (set via reserved_lvs); usually
              should be zero

       Note that currently this option is unused by Ganeti; values will be recorded but will  not
       influence the Ganeti operation.

   Cluster configuration
       The  master  node  keeps  and  is  responsible  for  the  cluster  configuration.   On the
       filesystem, this is stored under the /var/ganeti/lib directory, and if the  master  daemon
       is stopped it can be backed up normally.

       The master daemon will replicate the configuration database called and the job
       files to all the nodes in the master candidate role.  It will also distribute  a  copy  of
       some configuration values via the ssconf files, which are stored in the same directory and
       start with a ssconf_ prefix, to all nodes.

       All cluster modification are done via jobs.  A job consists of one or  more  opcodes,  and
       the  list  of opcodes is processed serially.  If an opcode fails, the entire job is failed
       and later opcodes are no longer processed.  A job can be in one of the following states:

       queued The job has been submitted but not yet processed by the master daemon.

              The job is waiting for for locks before the first of its opcodes.

              The job is waiting for locks, but is has been marked for cancellation.  It will not
              transition to running, but to canceled.

              The job is currently being executed.

              The job has been canceled before starting execution.

              The job has finished successfully.

       error  The job has failed during runtime, or the master daemon has been stopped during the
              job execution.

Common command line features

       Many Ganeti commands provide the  following  options.   The  availability  for  a  certain
       command can be checked by calling the command using the --help option.

       gnt-... command [--dry-run] [--priority {low | normal | high}]
       [--submit] [--print-job-id]

       The --dry-run option can be used to check whether an operation would succeed.

       The option --priority sets the priority for opcodes submitted by the command.

       The  --submit  option  is  used  to send the job to the master daemon but not wait for its
       completion.  The job ID will be shown so that it can be examined using gnt-job info.

       The --print-job-id option makes the command print the job id as first line on  stdout,  so
       that it is easy to parse by other programs.

       For  certain  commands  you  can use environment variables to provide default command line
       arguments.  Just assign the  arguments  as  a  string  to  the  corresponding  environment
       variable.   The format of that variable name is binary_command.  binary is the name of the
       gnt-* script all upper case and dashes replaced by underscores, and command is the command
       invoked on that script.

       Currently  supported commands are gnt-node list, gnt-group list and gnt-instance list.  So
       you can configure default command line flags by setting GNT_NODE_LIST, GNT_GROUP_LIST  and

   Debug options
       If  the  variable  FORCE_LUXI_SOCKET  is  set,  it  will override the socket used for LUXI
       connections by command-line tools (gnt-*).  This is useful mostly for debugging, and  some
       operations  won't  work  at  all  if,  for  example, you point this variable to the confd-
       supplied query socket and try to submit a job.

       If the variable is set to the value master, it will connect to the correct  path  for  the
       master  daemon  (even  if,  for  example,  split  queries  are enabled and this is a query
       operation).  If set to query, it will always (try to) connect to the query socket, even if
       split  queries are disabled.  Otherwise, the value is taken to represent a filesystem path
       to the socket to use.

Field formatting

       Multiple ganeti commands use the same framework for tabular  listing  of  resources  (e.g.
       gnt-instance  list,  gnt-node  list,  gnt-group list, gnt-debug locks, etc.)  .  For these
       commands, special states are denoted via a special symbol (in terse mode) or a string  (in
       verbose mode):

       *, (offline)
              The  node  in  question  is marked offline, and thus it cannot be queried for data.
              This result is persistent until the node is de-offlined.

       ?, (nodata)
              Ganeti expected to receive an answer from this entity, but  the  cluster  RPC  call
              failed  and/or  we  didn't  receive  a  valid  answer;  usually more information is
              available in the node daemon log (if the node is alive) or the master  daemon  log.
              This result is transient, and re-running command might return a different result.

       -, (unavail)
              The  respective  field  doesn't  make  sense for this entity; e.g.  querying a down
              instance for its current memory 'live' usage, or querying a non-vm_capable node for
              disk/memory data.  This result is persistent, and until the entity state is changed
              via ganeti commands, the result won't change.

       ??, (unknown)
              This field is not known (note that this is different from  entity  being  unknown).
              Either you have mis-typed the field name, or you are using a field that the running
              Ganeti master daemon doesn't know.   This  result  is  persistent,  re-running  the
              command won't change it.

   Key-value parameters
       Multiple  options  take  parameters  that  are  of  the  form  key=value,key=value,...  or
       category:key=value,....  Examples are the hypervisor parameters, backend parameters,  etc.
       For  these,  it's  possible  to  use  values  that  contain  commas by escaping with via a
       backslash (which needs two if not single-quoted, due to shell behaviour):

              # gnt-instance modify -H kernel_path=an\\,example instance1
              # gnt-instance modify -H kernel_path='an\,example' instance1

   Query filters
       Most commands listing resources (e.g.  instances or nodes) support filtering.  The  filter
       language  is  similar to Python expressions with some elements from Perl.  The language is
       not generic.  Each condition must consist of a field name and a value (except for  boolean
       checks), a field can not be compared to another field.  Keywords are case-sensitive.

       Examples (see below for syntax details):

       · List webservers:

                gnt-instance list --filter 'name =* "web*"'

       · List  instances  with three or six virtual CPUs and whose primary nodes reside in groups
         starting with the string "rack":

                gnt-instance list --filter
                  '(be/vcpus == 3 or be/vcpus == 6) and =~ m/^rack/'

       · Nodes hosting primary instances:

                gnt-node list --filter 'pinst_cnt != 0'

       · Nodes which aren't master candidates:

                gnt-node list --filter 'not master_candidate'

       · Short version for globbing patterns:

                gnt-instance list '*.site1' '*.site2'

       Syntax in pseudo-BNF:

              <quoted-string> ::= /* String quoted with single or double quotes,
                                     backslash for escaping */

              <integer> ::= /* Number in base-10 positional notation */

              <re> ::= /* Regular expression */

                Modifier "i": Case-insensitive matching, see

                Modifier "s": Make the "." special character match any character,
                including newline, see
              <re-modifiers> ::= /* empty */ | i | s

              <value> ::= <quoted-string> | <integer>

              <condition> ::=
                { /* Value comparison */
                  <field> { == | != | < | <= | >= | > } <value>

                  /* Collection membership */
                  | <value> [ not ] in <field>

                  /* Regular expressions (recognized delimiters
                     are "/", "#", "^", and "|"; backslash for escaping)
                  | <field> { =~ | !~ } m/<re>/<re-modifiers>

                  /* Globbing */
                  | <field> { =* | !* } <quoted-string>

                  /* Boolean */
                  | <field>

              <filter> ::=
                { [ not ] <condition> | ( <filter> ) }
                [ { and | or } <filter> ]


       ==     Equality

       !=     Inequality

       <      Less than

       <=     Less than or equal

       >      Greater than

       >=     Greater than or equal

       =~     Pattern match using regular expression

       !~     Logically negated from =~

       =*     Globbing, see glob(7), though only * and ?  are supported

       !*     Logically negated from =*

       in, not in
              Collection membership and negation

Common daemon functionality

       All Ganeti daemons re-open the log file(s) when sent a SIGHUP signal.  logrotate(8) can be
       used to rotate Ganeti's log files.


       Report   bugs   to  project  website  (  or  contact  the
       developers using the Ganeti mailing list (


       Ganeti overview and specifications: ganeti(7) (general  overview),  ganeti-os-interface(7)
       (guest OS definitions), ganeti-extstorage-interface(7) (external storage providers).

       Ganeti   commands:   gnt-cluster(8)   (cluster-wide   commands),  gnt-job(8)  (job-related
       commands), gnt-node(8) (node-related commands), gnt-instance(8) (instance commands),  gnt-
       os(8)  (guest  OS  commands),  gnt-storage(8) (storage commands), gnt-group(8) (node group
       commands), gnt-backup(8) (instance import/export commands), gnt-debug(8) (debug commands).

       Ganeti daemons: ganeti-watcher(8) (automatic instance restarter),  ganeti-cleaner(8)  (job
       queue  cleaner), ganeti-noded(8) (node daemon), ganeti-masterd(8) (master daemon), ganeti-
       rapi(8) (remote API daemon).

       Ganeti htools: htools(1) (generic binary), hbal(1) (cluster balancer), hspace(1) (capacity
       calculation),  hail(1) (IAllocator plugin), hscan(1) (data gatherer from remote clusters),
       hinfo(1) (cluster information printer), mon-collector(7) (data collectors interface).


       Copyright (C) 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Google Inc.  Permission is  granted
       to  copy,  distribute  and/or  modify under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License,  or  (at  your
       option) any later version.

       On  Debian  systems,  the  complete text of the GNU General Public License can be found in