Provided by: crmsh_1.2.5+hg1034-1ubuntu3_all bug


       crm - Pacemaker command line interface for configuration and management


       crm [-D output_type] [-f file] [-c cib] [-H hist_src] [-hFRDw]
       [--version] [args]


       Pacemaker configuration is stored in a CIB file (Cluster Information
       Base). The CIB is a set of instructions coded in XML. Editing the CIB
       is a challenge, not only due to its complexity and a wide variety of
       options, but also because XML is more computer than user friendly. The
       crm shell alleviates this issue significantly by introducing small and
       simple configuration language. The CIB is translated into this language
       on the fly.

       crm is also a management tool. For management tasks it relies almost
       exclusively on other command line tools, such as crm_resource(8) or
       crm_attribute(8). Use of these programs is, however, plagued by the
       notorious weakness common to all UNIX tools: a multitude of options,
       necessary for operation and yet very hard to remember. crm tries to
       present a consistent interface to the user and to hide the arcane

       It may be used either as an interactive shell or for single commands
       directly on the shell’s command line. It is also possible to feed it a
       set of commands from standard input or a file, thus turning it into a
       scripting tool. Templates with ready made configurations may help
       newbies learn about the cluster configuration or facilitate testing

       The crm shell is line oriented: every command must start and finish on
       the same line. It is possible to use a continuation character (\) to
       write one command in two or more lines. The continuation character is
       commonly used when displaying configurations.


       -f, --file=FILE
           Load commands from the given file. If the file is - then use
           terminal stdin.

       -c, --cib=CIB
           Start the session with the given shadow CIB file. Equivalent to cib

       -D, --display=OUTPUT_TYPE
           Choose one of the output options: plain, color, or uppercase. The
           default is color if the terminal emulation supports colors.
           Otherwise, plain is used.

       -F, --force
           Make crm proceed with doing changes even though it would normally
           ask user to confirm some of them. Mostly useful in scripts.

       -w, --wait
           Make crm wait for the cluster transition to finish (for the changes
           to take effect) after each processed line.

       -H, --history=DIR|FILE
           The history commands can examine either live cluster (default) or a
           report generated by hb_report. Use this option to specify a
           directory or file containing the report.

       -h, --help
           Print help page.

           Print crmsh version and build information (Mercurial Hg changeset

       -R, --regression-tests
           Run in the regression test mode. Used mainly by the regression
           testing suite.

       -d, --debug
           Print some debug information. Used by developers. [Not yet refined
           enough to print useful information for other users.]


       Arguably the most important aspect of crm is the user interface. We
       begin with an informal introduction so that the reader may get
       acquainted with it and get a general feeling of the tool. It is
       probably best just to give some examples:

        1. Command line (one-shot) use:

               # crm resource stop www_app

        2. Interactive use:

               # crm
               crm(live)# resource
               crm(live)resource# unmanage tetris_1
               crm(live)resource# end
               crm(live)# node standby node4

        3. Cluster configuration:

               # crm configure<<EOF
                 # resources
                 primitive disk0 iscsi \
                   params portal=
                 primitive fs0 Filesystem \
                   params device=/dev/disk/by-label/disk0 directory=/disk0 fstype=ext3
                 primitive internal_ip IPaddr params ip=
                 primitive apache apache \
                   params configfile=/disk0/etc/apache2/site0.conf
                 primitive apcfence stonith:apcsmart \
                   params ttydev=/dev/ttyS0 hostlist="node1 node2" \
                   op start timeout=60s
                 primitive pingd pingd \
                   params name=pingd dampen=5s multiplier=100 host_list="r1 r2"
                 # monitor apache and the UPS
                 monitor apache 60s:30s
                 monitor apcfence 120m:60s
                 # cluster layout
                 group internal_www \
                   disk0 fs0 internal_ip apache
                 clone fence apcfence \
                   meta globally-unique=false clone-max=2 clone-node-max=1
                 clone conn pingd \
                   meta globally-unique=false clone-max=2 clone-node-max=1
                 location node_pref internal_www \
                   rule 50: #uname eq node1 \
                   rule pingd: defined pingd
                 # cluster properties
                 property stonith-enabled=true

       If you’ve ever done a CRM style configuration, you should be able to
       understand the above examples without much difficulties. The shell
       should provide a means to manage the cluster efficiently or put
       together a configuration in a concise manner.

       The (live) string in the prompt signifies that the current CIB in use
       is the cluster live configuration. It is also possible to work with the
       so-called shadow CIBs, i.e. configurations which are stored in files
       and aren’t active, but may be applied at any time to the cluster.

       Since the CIB is hierarchical such is the interface too. There are
       several levels and entering each of them enables the user to use a
       certain set of commands.


       Shadow CIB is a normal cluster configuration stored in a file. They may
       be manipulated in the same way like the live CIB, but these changes
       have no effect on the cluster resources. The administrator may choose
       to apply any of them to the cluster, thus replacing the running
       configuration with the one which is in the shadow CIB. The crm prompt
       always contains the name of the configuration which is currently in use
       or string live if we are using the current cluster configuration.

       At the configure level no changes take place before the commit command.
       Sometimes though, the administrator may start working with the running
       configuration, but change mind and instead of committing the changes to
       the cluster save them to a shadow CIB. This short configure session
       excerpt shows how:

               crm(live)configure# cib new test-2
               INFO: test-2 shadow CIB created
               crm(test-2)configure# commit


       Configuration templates are ready made configurations created by
       cluster experts. They are designed in such a way so that users may
       generate valid cluster configurations with minimum effort. If you are
       new to Pacemaker, templates may be the best way to start.

       We will show here how to create a simple yet functional Apache

               # crm configure
               crm(live)configure# template
               crm(live)configure template# list templates
               apache       filesystem   virtual-ip
               crm(live)configure template# new web <TAB><TAB>
               apache       filesystem   virtual-ip
               crm(live)configure template# new web apache
               INFO: pulling in template apache
               INFO: pulling in template virtual-ip
               crm(live)configure template# list
               web2-d       web2         vip2         web3         vip          web

       We enter the template level from configure. Use the list command to
       show templates available on the system. The new command creates a
       configuration from the apache template. You can use tab completion to
       pick templates. Note that the apache template depends on a virtual IP
       address which is automatically pulled along. The list command shows the
       just created web configuration, among other configurations (I hope that
       you, unlike me, will use more sensible and descriptive names).

       The show command, which displays the resulting configuration, may be
       used to get an idea about the minimum required changes which have to be
       done. All ERROR messages show the line numbers in which the respective
       parameters are to be defined:

               crm(live)configure template# show
               ERROR: 23: required parameter ip not set
               ERROR: 61: required parameter id not set
               ERROR: 65: required parameter configfile not set
               crm(live)configure template# edit

       The edit command invokes the preferred text editor with the web
       configuration. At the top of the file, the user is advised how to make
       changes. A good template should require from the user to specify only
       parameters. For example, the web configuration we created above has the
       following required and optional parameters (all parameter lines start
       with %%):

               $ grep -n ^%% ~/.crmconf/web
               23:%% ip
               31:%% netmask
               35:%% lvs_support
               61:%% id
               65:%% configfile
               71:%% options
               76:%% envfiles

       These lines are the only ones that should be modified. Simply append
       the parameter value at the end of the line. For instance, after editing
       this template, the result could look like this (we used tabs instead of
       spaces to make the values stand out):

               $ grep -n ^%% ~/.crmconf/web
               23:%% ip      
               31:%% netmask
               35:%% lvs_support
               61:%% id                websvc
               65:%% configfile        /etc/apache2/httpd.conf
               71:%% options
               76:%% envfiles

       As you can see, the parameter line format is very simple:

               %% <name> <value>

       After editing the file, use show again to display the configuration:

               crm(live)configure template# show
               primitive virtual-ip ocf:heartbeat:IPaddr \
                       params ip=""
               primitive apache ocf:heartbeat:apache \
                       params configfile="/etc/apache2/httpd.conf"
               monitor apache 120s:60s
               group websvc \
                       apache virtual-ip

       The target resource of the apache template is a group which we named
       websvc in this sample session.

       This configuration looks exactly as you could type it at the configure
       level. The point of templates is to save you some typing. It is
       important, however, to understand the configuration produced.

       Finally, the configuration may be applied to the current crm
       configuration (note how the configuration changed slightly, though it
       is still equivalent, after being digested at the configure level):

               crm(live)configure template# apply
               crm(live)configure template# cd ..
               crm(live)configure# show
               node xen-b
               node xen-c
               primitive apache ocf:heartbeat:apache \
                   params configfile="/etc/apache2/httpd.conf" \
                   op monitor interval="120s" timeout="60s"
               primitive virtual-ip ocf:heartbeat:IPaddr \
                   params ip=""
               group websvc apache virtual-ip

       Note that this still does not commit the configuration to the CIB which
       is used in the shell, either the running one (live) or some shadow CIB.
       For that you still need to execute the commit command.

       To complete our example, we should also define the preferred node to
       run the service:

               crm(live)configure# location websvc-pref websvc 100: xen-b

       If you are not happy with some resource names which are provided by
       default, you can rename them now:

               crm(live)configure# rename virtual-ip intranet-ip
               crm(live)configure# show
               node xen-b
               node xen-c
               primitive apache ocf:heartbeat:apache \
                       params configfile="/etc/apache2/httpd.conf" \
                       op monitor interval="120s" timeout="60s"
               primitive intranet-ip ocf:heartbeat:IPaddr \
                       params ip=""
               group websvc apache intranet-ip
               location websvc-pref websvc 100: xen-b

       To summarize, working with templates typically consists of the
       following steps:

       ·   new: create a new configuration from templates

       ·   edit: define parameters, at least the required ones

       ·   show: see if the configuration is valid

       ·   apply: apply the configuration to the configure level


       The amount of detail in a cluster makes all configurations prone to
       errors. By far the largest number of issues in a cluster is due to bad
       resource configuration. The shell can help quickly diagnose such
       problems. And considerably reduce your keyboard wear.

       Let’s say that we entered the following configuration:

               node xen-b
               node xen-c
               node xen-d
               primitive fencer stonith:external/libvirt \
                       params hypervisor_uri="qemu+tcp://" \
                           hostlist="xen-b xen-c xen-d" \
                       op monitor interval="2h"
               primitive svc ocf:heartbeat:Xinetd \
                       params service="systat" \
                       op monitor interval="30s"
               primitive intranet-ip ocf:heartbeat:IPaddr2 \
                       params ip="" \
                       op monitor interval="30s"
               primitive apache ocf:heartbeat:apache \
                       params configfile="/etc/apache2/httpd.conf" \
                       op monitor interval="120s" timeout="60s"
               group websvc apache intranet-ip
               location websvc-pref websvc 100: xen-b

       Before typing commit to submit the configuration to the cib we can make
       sure that all resources are usable on all nodes:

               crm(live)configure# rsctest websvc svc fencer

       It is important that resources being tested are not running on any
       nodes. Otherwise, the rsctest command will refuse to do anything. Of
       course, if the current configuration resides in a CIB shadow, then a
       commit is irrelevant. The point being that resources are not running on
       any node.  Note on stopping all resources

       Alternatively to not committing a configuration, it is also possible to
       tell Pacemaker not to start any resources:

               crm(live)configure# property stop-all-resources="yes"

       Almost none---resources of class stonith are still started. But shell
       is not as strict when it comes to stonith resources.

       Order of resources is significant insofar that a resource depends on
       all resources to its left. In most configurations, it’s probably
       practical to test resources in several runs, based on their

       Apart from groups, crm does not interpret constraints and therefore
       knows nothing about resource dependencies. It also doesn’t know if a
       resource can run on a node at all in case of an asymmetric cluster. It
       is up to the user to specify a list of eligible nodes if a resource is
       not meant to run on every node.


       The crm makes extensive use of tab completion. The completion is both
       static (i.e. for crm commands) and dynamic. The latter takes into
       account the current status of the cluster or information from installed
       resource agents. Sometimes, completion may also be used to get short
       help on resource parameters. Here a few examples:

               crm(live)# resource
               crm(live)resource# <TAB><TAB>
               bye           failcount     move          restart       unmigrate
               cd            help          param         show          unmove
               cleanup       list          promote       start         up
               demote        manage        quit          status utilization
               end           meta          refresh       stop
               exit          migrate       reprobe       unmanage
               crm(live)resource# end
               crm(live)# configure
               crm(live)configure# primitive fence-1 <TAB><TAB>
               heartbeat:  lsb:        ocf:        stonith:
               crm(live)configure# primitive fence-1 stonith:<TAB><TAB>
               apcmaster                external/ippower9258     fence_legacy
               apcmastersnmp            external/kdumpcheck      ibmhmc
               apcsmart                 external/libvirt         ipmilan
               baytech                  external/nut             meatware
               bladehpi                 external/rackpdu         null
               cyclades                 external/riloe           nw_rpc100s
               drac3                    external/sbd             rcd_serial
               external/drac5           external/ssh             rps10
               external/dracmc-telnet   external/ssh-bad         ssh
               external/hmchttp         external/ssh-slow        suicide
               external/ibmrsa          external/vmware          wti_mpc
               external/ibmrsa-telnet   external/xen0            wti_nps
               external/ipmi            external/xen0-ha
               crm(live)configure# primitive fence-1 stonith:ipmilan params <TAB><TAB>
               auth=      hostname=  ipaddr=    login=     password=  port=      priv=
               crm(live)configure# primitive fence-1 stonith:ipmilan params auth=<TAB><TAB>
               auth* (string)
                   The authorization type of the IPMI session ("none", "straight", "md2", or "md5")
               crm(live)configure# primitive fence-1 stonith:ipmilan params auth=


       Resource definitions may be checked against the meta-data provided with
       the resource agents. These checks are currently carried out:

       ·   are required parameters set

       ·   existence of defined parameters

       ·   timeout values for operations

       The parameter checks are obvious and need no further explanation.
       Failures in these checks are treated as configuration errors.

       The timeouts for operations should be at least as long as those
       recommended in the meta-data. Too short timeout values are a common
       mistake in cluster configurations and, even worse, they often slip
       through if cluster testing was not thorough. Though operation timeouts
       issues are treated as warnings, make sure that the timeouts are usable
       in your environment. Note also that the values given are just advisory
       minimum---your resources may require longer timeouts.

       User may tune the frequency of checks and the treatment of errors by
       the check-frequency and check-mode preferences.

       Note that if the check-frequency is set to always and the check-mode to
       strict, errors are not tolerated and such configuration cannot be


       By default, the users from the haclient group have full access to the
       cluster (or, more precisely, to the CIB). Access control lists allow
       for finer access control to the cluster.

       Access control lists consist of an ordered set of access rules. Each
       rule allows read or write access or denies access completely. Rules are
       typically combined to produce a specific role. Then, users may be
       assigned a role.

       For instance, this is a role which defines a set of rules allowing
       management of a single resource:

               role bigdb_admin \
                   write meta:bigdb:target-role \
                   write meta:bigdb:is-managed \
                   write location:bigdb \
                   read ref:bigdb

       The first two rules allow modifying the target-role and is-managed meta
       attributes which effectively enables users in this role to stop/start
       and manage/unmanage the resource. The constraints write access rule
       allows moving the resource around. Finally, the user is granted read
       access to the resource definition.

       For proper operation of all Pacemaker programs, it is advisable to add
       the following role to all users:

               role read_all \
                   read cib

       For finer grained read access try with the rules listed in the
       following role:

               role basic_read \
                   read node attribute:uname \
                   read node attribute:type \
                   read property \
                   read status

       It is however possible that some Pacemaker programs (e.g. ptest) may
       not function correctly if the whole CIB is not readable.

       Some of the ACL rules in the examples above are expanded by the shell
       to XPath specifications. For instance, meta:bigdb:target-role is a
       shortcut for
       You can see the expansion by showing XML:

               crm(live) configure# show xml bigdb_admin
                 <acl_role id="bigdb_admin">
                     <write id="bigdb_admin-write"

       Many different XPath expressions can have equal meaning. For instance,
       the following two are equal, but only the first one is going to be
       recognized as shortcut:


       XPath is a powerful language, but you should try to keep your ACL
       xpaths simple and the builtin shortcuts should be used whenever


       We define a small and simple language. Most commands consist of just a
       list of simple tokens. The only complex constructs are found at the
       configure level.

       The syntax is described in a somewhat informal manner: <> denotes a
       string, [] means that the construct is optional, the ellipsis (...)
       signifies that the previous construct may be repeated, | means pick one
       of many, and the rest are literals (strings, :, =).

       Show cluster status. The status is displayed by crm_mon. Supply
       additional arguments for more information or different format. See
       crm_mon(8) for more details.


                   status [<option> ...]

                   option :: bynode | inactive | ops | timing | failcounts

   cib (shadow CIBs)
       This level is for management of shadow CIBs. It is available both at
       the top level and the configure level.

       All the commands are implemented using cib_shadow(8) and the CIB_shadow
       environment variable. The user prompt always includes the name of the
       currently active shadow or the live CIB.

           Create a new shadow CIB. The live cluster configuration and status
           is copied to the shadow CIB. Specify withstatus if you want to edit
           the status section of the shadow CIB (see the cibstatus section).
           Add force to force overwriting the existing shadow CIB.

           To start with an empty configuration that is not copied from the
           live CIB, specify the empty keyword. (This also allows a shadow CIB
           to be created in case no cluster is running.)


                       new <cib> [withstatus] [force] [empty]

           Delete an existing shadow CIB.


                       delete <cib>

           Copy the current cluster configuration into the shadow CIB.


                       reset <cib>

           Apply a shadow CIB to the cluster.


                       commit <cib>

           Choose a CIB source. If you want to edit the status from the shadow
           CIB specify withstatus (see cibstatus). Leave out the CIB name to
           switch to the running CIB.


                       use [<cib>] [withstatus]

           Print differences between the current cluster configuration and the
           active shadow CIB.



           List existing shadow CIBs.



           At times it may be useful to create a shadow file from the existing
           CIB. The CIB may be specified as file or as a PE input file number.
           The shell will look up files in the local directory first and then
           in the PE directory (typically /var/lib/pengine). Once the CIB file
           is found, it is copied to a shadow and this shadow is immediately
           available for use at both configure and cibstatus levels.

           If the shadow name is omitted then the target shadow is named after
           the input CIB file.

           Note that there are often more than one PE input file, so you may
           need to specify the full name.


                       import {<file>|<number>} [<shadow>]


                       import pe-warn-2222
                       import 2289 issue2

           Enter edit and manage the CIB status section level. See the CIB
           status management section.

       This level contains commands which show various information about the
       installed resource agents. It is available both at the top level and at
       the configure level.

           Print all resource agents' classes and, where appropriate, a list
           of available providers.



           List available resource agents for the given class. If the class is
           ocf, supply a provider to get agents which are available only from
           that provider.


                       list <class> [<provider>]


                       list ocf pacemaker

       meta (info)
           Show the meta-data of a resource agent type. This is where users
           can find information on how to use a resource agent. It is also
           possible to get information from some programs: pengine, crmd, cib,
           and stonithd. Just specify the program name instead of an RA.


                       info [<class>:[<provider>:]]<type>
                       info <type> <class> [<provider>] (obsolete)


                       info apache
                       info ocf:pacemaker:Dummy
                       info stonith:ipmilan
                       info pengine

           List providers for a resource agent type. The class parameter
           defaults to ocf.


                       providers <type> [<class>]


                       providers apache

       At this level resources may be managed.

       All (or almost all) commands are implemented with the CRM tools such as

       status (show, list)
           Print resource status. If the resource parameter is left out status
           of all resources is printed.


                       status [<rsc>]

           Start a resource by setting the target-role attribute. If there are
           multiple meta attributes sets, the attribute is set in all of them.
           If the resource is a clone, all target-role attributes are removed
           from the children resources.

           For details on group management see options manage-children.


                       start <rsc>

           Stop a resource using the target-role attribute. If there are
           multiple meta attributes sets, the attribute is set in all of them.
           If the resource is a clone, all target-role attributes are removed
           from the children resources.

           For details on group management see options manage-children.


                       stop <rsc>

           Restart a resource. This is essentially a shortcut for resource
           stop followed by a start. The shell is first going to wait for the
           stop to finish, that is for all resources to really stop, and only
           then to order the start action. Due to this command entailing a
           whole set of operations, informational messages are printed to let
           the user see some progress.

           For details on group management see options manage-children.


                       restart <rsc>


                       # crm resource restart g_webserver
                       INFO: ordering g_webserver to stop
                       waiting for stop to finish .... done
                       INFO: ordering g_webserver to start

           Promote a master-slave resource using the target-role attribute.


                       promote <rsc>

           Demote a master-slave resource using the target-role attribute.


                       demote <rsc>

           Manage a resource using the is-managed attribute. If there are
           multiple meta attributes sets, the attribute is set in all of them.
           If the resource is a clone, all is-managed attributes are removed
           from the children resources.

           For details on group management see options manage-children.


                       manage <rsc>

           Unmanage a resource using the is-managed attribute. If there are
           multiple meta attributes sets, the attribute is set in all of them.
           If the resource is a clone, all is-managed attributes are removed
           from the children resources.

           For details on group management see options manage-children.


                       unmanage <rsc>

       migrate (move)
           Migrate a resource to a different node. If node is left out, the
           resource is migrated by creating a constraint which prevents it
           from running on the current node. Additionally, you may specify a
           lifetime for the constraint---once it expires, the location
           constraint will no longer be active.


                       migrate <rsc> [<node>] [<lifetime>] [force]

       unmigrate (unmove)
           Remove the constraint generated by the previous migrate command.


                       unmigrate <rsc>

           Show/edit/delete a parameter of a resource.


                       param <rsc> set <param> <value>
                       param <rsc> delete <param>
                       param <rsc> show <param>


                       param ip_0 show ip

           Sensitive parameters can be kept in local files rather than CIB in
           order to prevent accidental data exposure. Use the secret command
           to manage such parameters. stash and unstash move the value from
           the CIB and back to the CIB respectively. The set subcommand sets
           the parameter to the provided value. delete removes the parameter
           completely. show displays the value of the parameter from the local
           file. Use check to verify if the local file content is valid.


                       secret <rsc> set <param> <value>
                       secret <rsc> stash <param>
                       secret <rsc> unstash <param>
                       secret <rsc> delete <param>
                       secret <rsc> show <param>
                       secret <rsc> check <param>


                       secret fence_1 show password
                       secret fence_1 stash password
                       secret fence_1 set password secret_value

           Show/edit/delete a meta attribute of a resource. Currently, all
           meta attributes of a resource may be managed with other commands
           such as resource stop.


                       meta <rsc> set <attr> <value>
                       meta <rsc> delete <attr>
                       meta <rsc> show <attr>


                       meta ip_0 set target-role stopped

           Show/edit/delete a utilization attribute of a resource. These
           attributes describe hardware requirements. By setting the
           placement-strategy cluster property appropriately, it is possible
           then to distribute resources based on resource requirements and
           node size. See also node utilization attributes.


                       utilization <rsc> set <attr> <value>
                       utilization <rsc> delete <attr>
                       utilization <rsc> show <attr>


                       utilization xen1 set memory 4096

           Show/edit/delete the failcount of a resource.


                       failcount <rsc> set <node> <value>
                       failcount <rsc> delete <node>
                       failcount <rsc> show <node>


                       failcount fs_0 delete node2

           Cleanup resource status. Typically done after the resource has
           temporarily failed. If a node is omitted, cleanup on all nodes. If
           there are many nodes, the command may take a while.


                       cleanup <rsc> [<node>]

           Refresh CIB from the LRM status.


                       refresh [<node>]

           Probe for resources not started by the CRM.


                       reprobe [<node>]

           Start tracing RA for the given operation. The trace files are
           stored in $HA_VARLIB/trace_ra. If the operation to be traced is
           monitor, note that the number of trace files can grow very quickly.


                       trace <rsc> <op> [<interval>]


                       trace fs start

           Stop tracing RA for the given operation.


                       untrace <rsc> <op> [<interval>]


                       untrace fs start

       Node management and status commands.

           Show nodes' status as XML. If the node parameter is omitted then
           all nodes are shown.


                       status [<node>]

           Show a node definition. If the node parameter is omitted then all
           nodes are shown.


                       show [<node>]

           Set a node to standby status. The node parameter defaults to the
           node where the command is run. Additionally, you may specify a
           lifetime for the standby---if set to reboot, the node will be back
           online once it reboots. forever will keep the node in standby after


                       standby [<node>] [<lifetime>]

                       lifetime :: reboot | forever

           Set a node to online status. The node parameter defaults to the
           node where the command is run.


                       online [<node>]

           Set the node status to maintenance. This is equivalent to the
           cluster-wide maintenance-mode property but puts just one node into
           the maintenance mode. The node parameter defaults to the node where
           the command is run.


                       maintenance [<node>]

           Set the node’s maintenance status to off. The node should be now
           again fully operational and capable of running resource operations.


                       ready [<node>]

           Make CRM fence a node. This functionality depends on stonith
           resources capable of fencing the specified node. No such stonith
           resources, no fencing will happen.


                       fence <node>

           Resets and clears the state of the specified node. This node is
           afterwards assumed clean and offline. This command can be used to
           manually confirm that a node has been fenced (e.g., powered off).

           Be careful! This can cause data corruption if you confirm that a
           node is down that is, in fact, not cleanly down - the cluster will
           proceed as if the fence had succeeded, possibly starting resources
           multiple times.


                       clearstate <node>

           Delete a node. This command will remove the node from the CIB and,
           in case the cluster stack is running, use the appropriate program
           (crm_node or hb_delnode) to remove the node from the membership.

           If the node is still listed as active and a member of our partition
           we refuse to remove it. With the global force option (-F) we will
           try to delete the node anyway.


                       delete <node>

           Edit node attributes. This kind of attribute should refer to
           relatively static properties, such as memory size.


                       attribute <node> set <attr> <value>
                       attribute <node> delete <attr>
                       attribute <node> show <attr>


                       attribute node_1 set memory_size 4096

           Edit node utilization attributes. These attributes describe
           hardware characteristics as integer numbers such as memory size or
           the number of CPUs. By setting the placement-strategy cluster
           property appropriately, it is possible then to distribute resources
           based on resource requirements and node size. See also resource
           utilization attributes.


                       utilization <node> set <attr> <value>
                       utilization <node> delete <attr>
                       utilization <node> show <attr>


                       utilization node_1 set memory 16384
                       utilization node_1 show cpu

           Edit node attributes which are in the CIB status section, i.e.
           attributes which hold properties of a more volatile nature. One
           typical example is attribute generated by the pingd utility.


                       status-attr <node> set <attr> <value>
                       status-attr <node> delete <attr>
                       status-attr <node> show <attr>


                       status-attr node_1 show pingd

       A cluster may consist of two or more subclusters in different and
       distant locations. This set of commands supports such setups.

           Tickets are cluster-wide attributes. They can be managed at the
           site where this command is executed.

           It is then possible to constrain resources depending on the ticket
           availability (see the rsc_ticket command for more details).


                       ticket {grant|revoke|standby|activate|show|time|delete} <ticket>


                       ticket grant ticket1

       The user may set various options for the crm shell itself.

           Based on the skill-level setting, the user is allowed to use only a
           subset of commands. There are three levels: operator,
           administrator, and expert. The operator level allows only commands
           at the resource and node levels, but not editing or deleting
           resources. The administrator may do that and may also configure the
           cluster at the configure level and manage the shadow CIBs. The
           expert may do all.


                       skill-level <level>

                       level :: operator | administrator | expert
           Note on security

           The skill-level option is advisory only. There is nothing stopping
           any users change their skill level (see Access Control Lists (ACL)
           on how to enforce access control).

           Sufficient privileges are necessary in order to manage a cluster:
           programs such as crm_verify or crm_resource and, ultimately,
           cibadmin have to be run either as root or as the CRM owner user
           (typically hacluster). You don’t have to worry about that if you
           run crm as root. A more secure way is to run the program with your
           usual privileges, set this option to the appropriate user (such as
           hacluster), and setup the sudoers file.


                       user system-user


                       user hacluster

           The edit command invokes an editor. Use this to specify your
           preferred editor program. If not set, it will default to either the
           value of the EDITOR environment variable or to one of the standard
           UNIX editors (vi,emacs,nano).


                       editor program


                       editor vim

           The view command displays text through a pager. Use this to specify
           your preferred pager program. If not set, it will default to either
           the value of the PAGER environment variable or to one of the
           standard UNIX system pagers (less,more,pg).

           crm by default sorts CIB elements. If you want them appear in the
           order they were created, set this option to no.


                       sort-elements {yes|no}


                       sort-elements no

           In normal operation, crm runs a command and gets back immediately
           to process other commands or get input from the user. With this
           option set to yes it will wait for the started transition to
           finish. In interactive mode dots are printed to indicate progress.


                       wait {yes|no}


                       wait yes

           crm can adorn configurations in two ways: in color (similar to for
           instance the ls --color command) and by showing keywords in upper
           case. Possible values are plain, color, and uppercase. It is
           possible to combine the latter two in order to get an upper case
           xmass tree. Just set this option to color,uppercase.

           With output set to color, a comma separated list of colors from
           this option are used to emphasize:

           ·   keywords

           ·   object ids

           ·   attribute names

           ·   attribute values

           ·   scores

           ·   resource references

           crm can show colors only if there is curses support for python
           installed (usually provided by the python-curses package). The
           colors are whatever is available in your terminal. Use normal if
           you want to keep the default foreground color.

           This user preference defaults to
           yellow,normal,cyan,red,green,magenta which is good for terminals
           with dark background. You may want to change the color scheme and
           save it in the preferences file for other color setups.


                   colorscheme yellow,normal,blue,red,green,magenta

           Semantic check of the CIB or elements modified or created may be
           done on every configuration change (always), when verifying
           (on-verify) or never. It is by default set to always. Experts may
           want to change the setting to on-verify.

           The checks require that resource agents are present. If they are
           not installed at the configuration time set this preference to

           See Configuration semantic checks for more details.

           Semantic check of the CIB or elements modified or created may be
           done in the strict mode or in the relaxed mode. In the former
           certain problems are treated as configuration errors. In the
           relaxed mode all are treated as warnings. The default is strict.

           See Configuration semantic checks for more details.

           The shell (as in /bin/sh) parser strips quotes from the command
           line. This may sometimes make it really difficult to type values
           which contain white space. One typical example is the configure
           filter command. The crm shell will supply extra quotes around
           arguments which contain white space. The default is yes.  Note on
           quotes use

           Adding quotes around arguments automatically has been introduced
           with version 1.2.2 and it is technically a regression. Being a
           regression is the only reason the add-quotes option exists. If you
           have custom shell scripts which would break, just set the
           add-quotes option to no.

           For instance, with adding quotes enabled, it is possible to do the

                   # crm configure primitive d1 ocf:heartbeat:Dummy meta description="some description here"
                   # crm configure filter 'sed "s/hostlist=./&node-c /"' fencing

           Some resource management commands, such as resource stop, when the
           target resource is a group, may not always produce desired result.
           Each element, group and the primitive members, can have a meta
           attribute and those attributes may end up with conflicting values.
           Consider the following construct:

                   crm(live)# configure show svc fs virtual-ip
                   primitive fs ocf:heartbeat:Filesystem \
                           params device="/dev/drbd0" directory="/srv/nfs" fstype="ext3" \
                           op monitor interval="10s" \
                           meta target-role="Started"
                   primitive virtual-ip ocf:heartbeat:IPaddr2 \
                           params ip="" iflabel="1" \
                           op monitor interval="10s" \
                           op start interval="0" \
                           meta target-role="Started"
                   group svc fs virtual-ip \
                           meta target-role="Stopped"

           Even though the element svc should be stopped, the group is
           actually running because all its members have the target-role set
           to Started:

                   crm(live)# resource show svc
                   resource svc is running on: xen-f

           Hence, if the user invokes resource stop svc the intention is not
           clear. This preference gives the user an opportunity to better
           control what happens if attributes of group members have values
           which are in conflict with the same attribute of the group itself.

           Possible values are ask (the default), always, and never. If set to
           always, the crm shell removes all children attributes which have
           values different from the parent. If set to never, all children
           attributes are left intact. Finally, if set to ask, the user will
           be asked for each member what is to be done.

           Display all current settings.

           Save current settings to the rc file ($HOME/.config/crm/rc). On
           further crm runs, the rc file is automatically read and parsed.

       This level enables all CIB object definition commands.

       The configuration may be logically divided into four parts: nodes,
       resources, constraints, and (cluster) properties and attributes. Each
       of these commands support one or more basic CIB objects.

       Nodes and attributes describing nodes are managed using the node

       Commands for resources are:

       ·   primitive

       ·   monitor

       ·   group

       ·   clone

       ·   ms/master (master-slave)

       In order to streamline large configurations, it is possible to define a
       template which can later be referenced in primitives:

       ·   rsc_template

       In that case the primitive inherits all attributes defined in the

       There are three types of constraints:

       ·   location

       ·   colocation

       ·   order

       It is possible to define fencing order (stonith resource priorities):

       ·   fencing_topology

       Finally, there are the cluster properties, resource meta attributes
       defaults, and operations defaults. All are just a set of attributes.
       These attributes are managed by the following commands:

       ·   property

       ·   rsc_defaults

       ·   op_defaults

       In addition to the cluster configuration, the Access Control Lists
       (ACL) can be setup to allow access to parts of the CIB for users other
       than root and hacluster. The following commands manage ACL:

       ·   user

       ·   role

       The changes are applied to the current CIB only on ending the
       configuration session or using the commit command.

       Comments start with # in the first line. The comments are tied to the
       element which follows. If the element moves, its comments will follow.

           The node command describes a cluster node. Nodes in the CIB are
           commonly created automatically by the CRM. Hence, you should not
           need to deal with nodes unless you also want to define node
           attributes. Note that it is also possible to manage node attributes
           at the node level.


                       node <uname>[:<type>]
                         [attributes <param>=<value> [<param>=<value>...]]
                         [utilization <param>=<value> [<param>=<value>...]]

                       type :: normal | member | ping


                       node node1
                       node big_node attributes memory=64

           The primitive command describes a resource. It may be referenced
           only once in group, clone, or master-slave objects. If it’s not
           referenced, then it is placed as a single resource in the CIB.

           Operations may be specified in three ways. "Anonymous" as a simple
           list of "op" specifications. Use that if you don’t want to
           reference the set of operations elsewhere. That’s by far the most
           common way to define operations. If reusing operation sets is
           desired, use the "operations" keyword along with the id to give the
           operations set a name and the id-ref to reference another set of

           Operation’s attributes which are not recognized are saved as
           instance attributes of that operation. A typical example is

           For multistate resources, roles are specified as role=<role>.

           A template may be defined for resources which are of the same type
           and which share most of the configuration. See rsc_template for
           more information.


                       primitive <rsc> {[<class>:[<provider>:]]<type>|@<template>}
                         [params attr_list]
                         [meta attr_list]
                         [utilization attr_list]
                         [operations id_spec]
                           [op op_type [<attribute>=<value>...] ...]

                       attr_list :: [$id=<id>] <attr>=<val> [<attr>=<val>...] | $id-ref=<id>
                       id_spec :: $id=<id> | $id-ref=<id>
                       op_type :: start | stop | monitor


                       primitive apcfence stonith:apcsmart \
                         params ttydev=/dev/ttyS0 hostlist="node1 node2" \
                         op start timeout=60s \
                         op monitor interval=30m timeout=60s

                       primitive www8 apache \
                         params configfile=/etc/apache/www8.conf \
                         operations $id-ref=apache_ops

                       primitive db0 mysql \
                         params config=/etc/mysql/db0.conf \
                         op monitor interval=60s \
                         op monitor interval=300s OCF_CHECK_LEVEL=10

                       primitive r0 ocf:linbit:drbd \
                         params drbd_resource=r0 \
                         op monitor role=Master interval=60s \
                         op monitor role=Slave interval=300s

                       primitive xen0 @vm_scheme1 \
                         params xmfile=/etc/xen/vm/xen0

           Monitor is by far the most common operation. It is possible to add
           it without editing the whole resource. Also, long primitive
           definitions may be a bit uncluttered. In order to make this command
           as concise as possible, less common operation attributes are not
           available. If you need them, then use the op part of the primitive


                       monitor <rsc>[:<role>] <interval>[:<timeout>]


                       monitor apcfence 60m:60s

           Note that after executing the command, the monitor operation may be
           shown as part of the primitive definition.

           The group command creates a group of resources.


                       group <name> <rsc> [<rsc>...]
                         [meta attr_list]
                         [params attr_list]

                       attr_list :: [$id=<id>] <attr>=<val> [<attr>=<val>...] | $id-ref=<id>


                       group internal_www disk0 fs0 internal_ip apache \
                         meta target_role=stopped

           The clone command creates a resource clone. It may contain a single
           primitive resource or one group of resources.


                       clone <name> <rsc>
                         [meta attr_list]
                         [params attr_list]

                       attr_list :: [$id=<id>] <attr>=<val> [<attr>=<val>...] | $id-ref=<id>


                       clone cl_fence apc_1 \
                         meta clone-node-max=1 globally-unique=false

       ms (master)
           The ms command creates a master/slave resource type. It may contain
           a single primitive resource or one group of resources.


                       ms <name> <rsc>
                         [meta attr_list]
                         [params attr_list]

                       attr_list :: [$id=<id>] <attr>=<val> [<attr>=<val>...] | $id-ref=<id>


                       ms disk1 drbd1 \
                         meta notify=true globally-unique=false
           Note on id-ref usage

           Instance or meta attributes (‘params` and meta) may contain a
           reference to another set of attributes. In that case, no other
           attributes are allowed. Since attribute sets’ ids, though they do
           exist, are not shown in the crm, it is also possible to reference
           an object instead of an attribute set. crm will automatically
           replace such a reference with the right id:

                   crm(live)configure# primitive a2 www-2 meta $id-ref=a1
                   crm(live)configure# show a2
                   primitive a2 ocf:heartbeat:apache \
                       meta $id-ref="a1-meta_attributes"

           It is advisable to give meaningful names to attribute sets which
           are going to be referenced.

           The rsc_template command creates a resource template. It may be
           referenced in primitives. It is used to reduce large configurations
           with many similar resources.


                       rsc_template <name> [<class>:[<provider>:]]<type>
                         [params attr_list]
                         [meta attr_list]
                         [utilization attr_list]
                         [operations id_spec]
                           [op op_type [<attribute>=<value>...] ...]

                       attr_list :: [$id=<id>] <attr>=<val> [<attr>=<val>...] | $id-ref=<id>
                       id_spec :: $id=<id> | $id-ref=<id>
                       op_type :: start | stop | monitor


                       rsc_template public_vm ocf:heartbeat:Xen \
                         op start timeout=300s \
                         op stop timeout=300s \
                         op monitor interval=30s timeout=60s \
                         op migrate_from timeout=600s \
                         op migrate_to timeout=600s
                       primitive xen0 @public_vm \
                         params xmfile=/etc/xen/xen0
                       primitive xen1 @public_vm \
                         params xmfile=/etc/xen/xen1

           location defines the preference of nodes for the given resource.
           The location constraints consist of one or more rules which specify
           a score to be awarded if the rule matches.


                       location <id> <rsc> {node_pref|rules}

                       node_pref :: <score>: <node>

                       rules ::
                         rule [id_spec] [$role=<role>] <score>: <expression>
                         [rule [id_spec] [$role=<role>] <score>: <expression> ...]

                       id_spec :: $id=<id> | $id-ref=<id>
                       score :: <number> | <attribute> | [-]inf
                       expression :: <simple_exp> [bool_op <simple_exp> ...]
                       bool_op :: or | and
                       simple_exp :: <attribute> [type:]<binary_op> <value>
                                     | <unary_op> <attribute>
                                     | date <date_expr>
                       type :: string | version | number
                       binary_op :: lt | gt | lte | gte | eq | ne
                       unary_op :: defined | not_defined

                       date_expr :: lt <end>
                                    | gt <start>
                                    | in_range start=<start> end=<end>
                                    | in_range start=<start> <duration>
                                    | date_spec <date_spec>
                       duration|date_spec ::
                                    | monthdays=<value>
                                    | weekdays=<value>
                                    | yearsdays=<value>
                                    | months=<value>
                                    | weeks=<value>
                                    | years=<value>
                                    | weekyears=<value>
                                    | moon=<value>


                       location conn_1 internal_www 100: node1

                       location conn_1 internal_www \
                         rule 50: #uname eq node1 \
                         rule pingd: defined pingd

                       location conn_2 dummy_float \
                         rule -inf: not_defined pingd or pingd number:lte 0

       colocation (collocation)
           This constraint expresses the placement relation between two or
           more resources. If there are more than two resources, then the
           constraint is called a resource set.

           Collocation resource sets have an extra attribute (sequential) to
           allow for sets of resources which don’t depend on each other in
           terms of state. The shell syntax for such sets is to put resources
           in parentheses.

           Sets cannot be nested.

           The optional ‘node-attribute` references an attribute in nodes’
           instance attributes.


                       colocation <id> <score>: <rsc>[:<role>] <rsc>[:<role>] ...


                       colocation dummy_and_apache -inf: apache dummy
                       colocation c1 inf: A ( B C )

           This constraint expresses the order of actions on two resources or
           more resources. If there are more than two resources, then the
           constraint is called a resource set.

           Ordered resource sets have an extra attribute to allow for sets of
           resources whose actions may run in parallel. The shell syntax for
           such sets is to put resources in parentheses.

           If the subsequent resource can start or promote after any one of
           the resources in a set has done, enclose the set in brackets ([ and

           Sets cannot be nested.

           Three strings are reserved to specify a kind of order constraint:
           Mandatory, Optional, and Serialize. It is preferred to use one of
           these settings instead of score. Previous versions mapped scores 0
           and inf to keywords advisory and mandatory. That is still valid but
           deprecated.  Note on resource sets' XML attributes

           The XML attribute require-all controls whether all resources in a
           set are, well, required. The bracketed sets actually have this
           attribute as well as sequential set to false. If you need a
           different combination, for whatever reason, just set one of the
           attributes within the set. Something like this:

                   crm(live)configure# order o1 Mandatory: [ A B sequential=true ] C

           It is up to you to find out whether such a combination makes sense.


                       order <id> {kind|<score>}: <rsc>[:<action>] <rsc>[:<action>] ...

                       kind :: Mandatory | Optional | Serialize


                       order c_apache_1 Mandatory: apache:start ip_1
                       order o1 Serialize: A ( B C )
                       order order_2 Mandatory: [ A B ] C

           This constraint expresses dependency of resources on cluster-wide
           attributes, also known as tickets. Tickets are mainly used in
           geo-clusters, which consist of multiple sites. A ticket may be
           granted to a site, thus allowing resources to run there.

           The loss-policy attribute specifies what happens to the resource
           (or resources) if the ticket is revoked. The default is either stop
           or demote depending on whether a resource is multi-state.

           See also the site set of commands.


                       rsc_ticket <id> <ticket_id>: <rsc>[:<role>] [<rsc>[:<role>] ...]

                       loss_policy_action :: stop | demote | fence | freeze


                       rsc_ticket ticket-A_public-ip ticket-A: public-ip
                       rsc_ticket ticket-A_bigdb ticket-A: bigdb loss-policy=fence
                       rsc_ticket ticket-B_storage ticket-B: drbd-a:Master drbd-b:Master

           Set the cluster (crm_config) options.


                       property [$id=<set_id>] <option>=<value> [<option>=<value> ...]


                       property stonith-enabled=true

           Set defaults for the resource meta attributes.


                       rsc_defaults [$id=<set_id>] <option>=<value> [<option>=<value> ...]


                       rsc_defaults failure-timeout=3m

           If multiple fencing (stonith) devices are available capable of
           fencing a node, their order may be specified by fencing_topology.
           The order is specified per node.

           Stonith resources can be separated by , in which case all of them
           need to succeed. If they fail, the next stonith resource (or set of
           resources) is used. In other words, use comma to separate resources
           which all need to succeed and whitespace for serial order. It is
           not allowed to use whitespace around comma.

           If the node is left out, the order is used for all nodes. That
           should reduce the configuration size in some stonith setups.


                       fencing_topology stonith_resources [stonith_resources ...]
                       fencing_topology fencing_order [fencing_order ...]

                       fencing_order :: <node>: stonith_resources [stonith_resources ...]

                       stonith_resources :: <rsc>[,<rsc>...]


                       fencing_topology poison-pill power
                       fencing_topology \
                           node-a: poison-pill power
                           node-b: ipmi serial

           An ACL role is a set of rules which describe access rights to CIB.
           Rules consist of an access right read, write, or deny and a
           specification denoting part of the configuration to which the
           access right applies. The specification can be an XPath or a
           combination of tag and id references. If an attribute is appended,
           then the specification applies only to that attribute of the
           matching element.

           There is a number of shortcuts for XPath specifications. The meta,
           params, and utilization shortcuts reference resource meta
           attributes, parameters, and utilization respectively. The location
           may be used to specify location constraints most of the time to
           allow resource move and unmove commands. The property references
           cluster properties. The node allows reading node attributes.
           nodeattr and nodeutil reference node attributes and node capacity
           (utilization). The status shortcut references the whole status
           section of the CIB. Read access to status is necessary for various
           monitoring tools such as crm_mon(8) (aka crm status).


                       role <role-id> rule [rule ...]

                       rule :: acl-right cib-spec [attribute:<attribute>]

                       acl-right :: read | write | deny

                       cib-spec :: xpath-spec | tag-ref-spec
                       xpath-spec :: xpath:<xpath> | shortcut
                       tag-ref-spec :: tag:<tag> | ref:<id> | tag:<tag> ref:<id>

                       shortcut :: meta:<rsc>[:<attr>]


                       role app1_admin \
                           write meta:app1:target-role \
                           write meta:app1:is-managed \
                           write location:app1 \
                           read ref:app1

           Users which normally cannot view or manage cluster configuration
           can be allowed access to parts of the CIB. The access is defined by
           a set of read, write, and deny rules as in role definitions or by
           referencing roles. The latter is considered best practice.


                       user <uid> {roles|rules}

                       roles :: role:<role-ref> [role:<role-ref> ...]
                       rules :: rule [rule ...]


                       user joe \
                           role:app1_admin \

           Set defaults for the operations meta attributes.


                       op_defaults [$id=<set_id>] <option>=<value> [<option>=<value> ...]


                       op_defaults record-pending=true

           CIB’s content is validated by a RNG schema. Pacemaker supports
           several, depending on version. Currently supported schemas are
           pacemaker-1.0, pacemaker-1.1, and pacemaker-1.2.

           Use this command to display or switch to another RNG schema.


                       schema [<schema>]


                       schema pacemaker-1.1

           The show command displays objects. It may display all objects or a
           set of objects. The user may also choose to see only objects which
           were changed. Optionally, the XML code may be displayed instead of
           the CLI representation.


                       show [xml] [<id> ...]
                       show [xml] changed

           This command invokes the editor with the object description. As
           with the show command, the user may choose to edit all objects or a
           set of objects.

           If the user insists, he or she may edit the XML edition of the
           object. If you do that, don’t modify any id attributes.


                       edit [xml] [<id> ...]
                       edit [xml] changed
           Note on renaming element ids

           The edit command sometimes cannot properly handle modifying element
           ids. In particular for elements which belong to group or ms
           resources. Group and ms resources themselves also cannot be
           renamed. Please use the rename command instead.

           This command filters the given CIB elements through an external
           program. The program should accept input on stdin and send output
           to stdout (the standard UNIX filter conventions). As with the show
           command, the user may choose to filter all or just a subset of

           It is possible to filter the XML representation of objects, but
           probably not as useful as the configuration language. The
           presentation is somewhat different from what would be displayed by
           the show command---each element is shown on a single line, i.e.
           there are no backslashes and no other embelishments.

           Don’t forget to put quotes around the filter if it contains spaces.


                       filter <prog> [xml] [<id> ...]
                       filter <prog> [xml] changed


                       filter "sed '/^primitive/s/target-role=[^ ]*//'"
                       # crm configure filter "sed '/^primitive/s/target-role=[^ ]*//'"

           Delete one or more objects. If an object to be deleted belongs to a
           container object, such as a group, and it is the only resource in
           that container, then the container is deleted as well. Any related
           constraints are removed as well.


                       delete <id> [<id>...]

           This command takes the timeouts from the actions section of the
           resource agent meta-data and sets them for the operations of the


                       default-timeouts <id> [<id>...]
           Note on default-timeouts

           You may be happy using this, but your applications may not. And it
           will tell you so at the worst possible moment. You have been

           Rename an object. It is recommended to use this command to rename a
           resource, because it will take care of updating all related
           constraints and a parent resource. Changing ids with the edit
           command won’t have the same effect.

           If you want to rename a resource, it must be in the stopped state.


                       rename <old_id> <new_id>

           Add or remove primitives in a group. The add subcommand appends the
           new group member by default. Should it go elsewhere, there are
           after and before clauses.


                       modgroup <id> add <id> [after <id>|before <id>]
                       modgroup <id> remove <id>


                       modgroup share1 add storage2 before share1-fs

           Refresh the internal structures from the CIB. All changes made
           during this session are lost.



           The erase clears all configuration. Apart from nodes. To remove
           nodes, you have to specify an additional keyword nodes.

           Note that removing nodes from the live cluster may have some
           strange/interesting/unwelcome effects.


                       erase [nodes]

       ptest (simulate)
           Show PE (Policy Engine) motions using ptest(8) or crm_simulate(8).

           A CIB is constructed using the current user edited configuration
           and the status from the running CIB. The resulting CIB is run
           through ptest (or crm_simulate) to show changes which would happen
           if the configuration is committed.

           The status section may be loaded from another source and modified
           using the cibstatus level commands. In that case, the ptest command
           will issue a message informing the user that the Policy Engine
           graph is not calculated based on the current status section and
           therefore won’t show what would happen to the running but some
           imaginary cluster.

           If you have graphviz installed and X11 session, dotty(1) is run to
           display the changes graphically.

           Add a string of v characters to increase verbosity. ptest can also
           show allocation scores. utilization turns on information about the
           remaining capacity of nodes. With the actions option, ptest will
           print all resource actions.

           The ptest program has been replaced by crm_simulate in newer
           Pacemaker versions. In some installations both could be installed.
           Use simulate to enfore using crm_simulate.


                       ptest [nograph] [v...] [scores] [actions] [utilization]


                       ptest scores
                       ptest vvvvv
                       simulate actions

           Test resources with current resource configuration. If no nodes are
           specified, tests are run on all known nodes.

           The order of resources is significant: it is assumed that later
           resources depend on earlier ones.

           If a resource is multi-state, it is assumed that the role on which
           later resources depend is master.

           Tests are run sequentially to prevent running the same resource on
           two or more nodes. Tests are carried out only if none of the
           specified nodes currently run any of the specified resources.
           However, it won’t verify whether resources run on the other nodes.

           Superuser privileges are obviously required: either run this as
           root or setup the sudoers file appropriately.

           Note that resource testing may take some time.


                       rsctest <rsc_id> [<rsc_id> ...] [<node_id> ...]


                       rsctest my_ip websvc
                       rsctest websvc nodeB

   cib (shadow CIBs)
       This level is for management of shadow CIBs. It is available at the
       configure level to enable saving intermediate changes to a shadow CIB
       instead of to the live cluster. This short excerpt shows how:

               crm(live)configure# cib new test-2
               INFO: test-2 shadow CIB created
               crm(test-2)configure# commit

       Note how the current CIB in the prompt changed from live to test-2
       after issuing the cib new command. See also the CIB shadow management
       for more information.

           Enter edit and manage the CIB status section level. See the CIB
           status management section.

           The specified template is loaded into the editor. It’s up to the
           user to make a good CRM configuration out of it. See also the
           template section.


                       template [xml] url


                       template two-apaches.txt

           Commit the current configuration to the CIB in use. As noted
           elsewhere, commands in a configure session don’t have immediate
           effect on the CIB. All changes are applied at one point in time,
           either using commit or when the user leaves the configure level. In
           case the CIB in use changed in the meantime, presumably by somebody
           else, the crm shell will refuse to apply the changes. If you know
           that it’s fine to still apply them add force.


                       commit [force]

           Verify the contents of the CIB which would be committed.



           If you get the CIB not supported error, which typically means that
           the current CIB version is coming from the older release, you may
           try to upgrade it to the latest revision. The command to perform
           the upgrade is:

                   # cibadmin --upgrade --force

           If we don’t recognize the current CIB as the old one, but you’re
           sure that it is, you may force the command.


                       upgrade [force]

           Save the current configuration to a file. Optionally, as XML. Use -
           instead of file name to write the output to stdout.


                       save [xml] <file>


                       save myfirstcib.txt

           Load a part of configuration (or all of it) from a local file or a
           network URL. The replace method replaces the current configuration
           with the one from the source. The update tries to import the
           contents into the current configuration. The file may be a CLI file
           or an XML file.


                       load [xml] <method> URL

                       method :: replace | update


                       load xml update myfirstcib.xml
                       load xml replace

           Create a graphviz graphical layout from the current cluster

           Currently, only dot (directed graph) is supported. It is
           essentially a visualization of resource ordering.

           The graph may be saved to a file which can be used as source for
           various graphviz tools (by default it is displayed in the user’s
           X11 session). Optionally, by specifying the format, one can also
           produce an image instead.

           For more or different graphviz attributes, it is possible to save
           the default set of attributes to an ini file. If this file exists
           it will always override the builtin settings. The exportsettings
           subcommand also prints the location of the ini file.


                       graph [<gtype> [<file> [<img_format>]]]
                       graph exportsettings

                       gtype :: dot
                       img_format :: `dot` output format (see the `-T` option)


                       graph dot
                       graph dot
                       graph dot clu1.conf.svg svg

           Even though we promissed no xml, it may happen, but hopefully very
           very seldom, that an element from the CIB cannot be rendered in the
           configuration language. In that case, the element will be shown as
           raw xml, prefixed by this command. That element can then be edited
           like any other. If the shell finds out that after the change it can
           digest it, then it is going to be converted into the normal
           configuration language. Otherwise, there is no need to use xml for


                       xml <xml>

       User may be assisted in the cluster configuration by templates prepared
       in advance. Templates consist of a typical ready configuration which
       may be edited to suit particular user needs.

       This command enters a template level where additional commands for
       configuration/template management are available.

           Create a new configuration from one or more templates. Note that
           configurations and templates are kept in different places, so it is
           possible to have a configuration name equal a template name.

           If you already know which parameters are required, you can set them
           directly on the command line.

           The parameter name id is set by default to the name of the


                       new <config> <template> [<template> ...] [params name=value ...]"


                       new vip virtual-ip
                       new bigfs ocfs2 params device=/dev/sdx8 directory=/bigfs

           Load an existing configuration. Further edit, show, and apply
           commands will refer to this configuration.


                       load <config>

           Edit current or given configuration using your favourite editor.


                       edit [<config>]

           Remove a configuration. The loaded (active) configuration may be
           removed by force.


                       delete <config> [force]

           List existing configurations or templates.


                       list [templates]

           Copy the current or given configuration to the current CIB. By
           default, the CIB is replaced, unless the method is set to "update".


                       apply [<method>] [<config>]

                       method :: replace | update

           Process the current or given configuration and display the result.


                       show [<config>]

       The status section of the CIB keeps the current status of nodes and
       resources. It is modified only on events, i.e. when some resource
       operation is run or node status changes. For obvious reasons, the CRM
       has no user interface with which it is possible to affect the status
       section. From the user’s point of view, the status section is
       essentially a read-only part of the CIB. The current status is never
       even written to disk, though it is available in the PE (Policy Engine)
       input files which represent the history of cluster motions. The current
       status may be read using the cibadmin -Q command.

       It may sometimes be of interest to see how status changes would affect
       the Policy Engine. The set of ‘cibstatus` level commands allow the user
       to load status sections from various sources and then insert or modify
       resource operations or change nodes’ state.

       The effect of those changes may then be observed by running the ptest
       command at the configure level or simulate and run commands at this
       level. The ptest runs with the user edited CIB whereas the latter two
       commands run with the CIB which was loaded along with the status

       The simulate and run commands as well as all status modification
       commands are implemented using crm_simulate(8).

           Load a status section from a file, a shadow CIB, or the running
           cluster. By default, the current (live) status section is modified.
           Note that if the live status section is modified it is not going to
           be updated if the cluster status changes, because that would
           overwrite the user changes. To make crm drop changes and resume use
           of the running cluster status, run load live.

           All CIB shadow configurations contain the status section which is a
           snapshot of the status section taken at the time the shadow was
           created. Obviously, this status section doesn’t have much to do
           with the running cluster status, unless the shadow CIB has just
           been created. Therefore, the ptest command by default uses the
           running cluster status section.


                       load {<file>|shadow:<cib>|live}


                       load bug-12299.xml
                       load shadow:test1

           The current internal status section with whatever modifications
           were performed can be saved to a file or shadow CIB.

           If the file exists and contains a complete CIB, only the status
           section is going to be replaced and the rest of the CIB will remain
           intact. Otherwise, the current user edited configuration is saved
           along with the status section.

           Note that all modifications are saved in the source file as soon as
           they are run.


                       save [<file>|shadow:<cib>]


                       save bug-12299.xml

           Show the origin of the status section currently in use. This
           essentially shows the latest load argument.



           Show the current status section in the XML format. Brace yourself
           for some unreadable output. Add changed option to get a human
           readable output of all changes.


                       show [changed]

           Change the node status. It is possible to throw a node out of the
           cluster, make it a member, or set its state to unclean.

               Set the node_statecrmd attribute to online and the expected and
               join attributes to member. The effect is that the node becomes
               a cluster member.

               Set the node_statecrmd attribute to offline and the expected
               attribute to empty. This makes the node cleanly removed from
               the cluster.

               Set the node_statecrmd attribute to offline and the expected
               attribute to member. In this case the node has unexpectedly


                       node <node> {online|offline|unclean}


                       node xen-b unclean

           Edit the outcome of a resource operation. This way you can tell CRM
           that it ran an operation and that the resource agent returned
           certain exit code. It is also possible to change the operation’s
           status. In case the operation status is set to something other than
           done, the exit code is effectively ignored.


                       op <operation> <resource> <exit_code> [<op_status>] [<node>]

                       operation :: probe | monitor[:<n>] | start | stop |
                          promote | demote | notify | migrate_to | migrate_from
                       exit_code :: <rc> | success | generic | args |
                          unimplemented | perm | installed | configured | not_running |
                          master | failed_master
                       op_status :: pending | done | cancelled | timeout | notsupported | error

                       n :: the monitor interval in seconds; if omitted, the first
                          recurring operation is referenced
                       rc :: numeric exit code in range 0..9


                       op start d1 xen-b generic
                       op start d1 xen-b 1
                       op monitor d1 xen-b not_running
                       op stop d1 xen-b 0 timeout

           Set the quorum value.


                       quorum <bool>


                       quorum false

           Modify the ticket status. Tickets can be granted and revoked.
           Granted tickets could be activated or put in standby.


                       ticket <ticket> {grant|revoke|activate|standby}


                       ticket ticketA grant

           Run the policy engine with the edited status section.

           Add a string of v characters to increase verbosity. Specify scores
           to see allocation scores also. utilization turns on information
           about the remaining capacity of nodes.

           If you have graphviz installed and X11 session, dotty(1) is run to
           display the changes graphically.


                       run [nograph] [v...] [scores] [utilization]



           Run the policy engine with the edited status section and simulate
           the transition.

           Add a string of v characters to increase verbosity. Specify scores
           to see allocation scores also. utilization turns on information
           about the remaining capacity of nodes.

           If you have graphviz installed and X11 session, dotty(1) is run to
           display the changes graphically.


                       simulate [nograph] [v...] [scores] [utilization]



       Examining Pacemaker’s history is a particularly involved task. The
       number of subsystems to be considered, the complexity of the
       configuration, and the set of various information sources, most of
       which are not exactly human readable, keep analyzing resource or node
       problems accessible to only the most knowledgeable. Or, depending on
       the point of view, to the most persistent. The following set of
       commands has been devised in hope to make cluster history more

       Of course, looking at all history could be time consuming regardless of
       how good tools at hand are. Therefore, one should first say which
       period he or she wants to analyze. If not otherwise specified, the last
       hour is considered. Logs and other relevant information is collected
       using hb_report. Since this process takes some time and we always need
       fresh logs, information is refreshed in a much faster way using
       pssh(1). If python-pssh is not found on the system, examining live
       cluster is still possible though not as comfortable.

       Apart from examining live cluster, events may be retrieved from a
       report generated by hb_report (see also the -H option). In that case we
       assume that the period stretching the whole report needs to be
       investigated. Of course, it is still possible to further reduce the
       time range.

       If you think you may have found a bug or just need clarification from
       developers or your support, the session pack command can help create a
       report. This is an example:

               crm(live)history# timeframe "Jul 18 12:00" "Jul 18 12:30"
               crm(live)history# session save strange_restart
               crm(live)history# session pack
               Report saved in .../strange_restart.tar.bz2

       In order to reduce report size and allow developers to concentrate on
       the issue, you should beforehand limit the time frame. Giving a
       meaningful session name helps too.

           The info command shows most important information about the





           The latest command shows a bit of recent history, more precisely
           whatever happened since the last cluster change (the latest
           transition). If the transition is running, the shell will first
           wait until it finishes.





       limit (timeframe)
           All history commands look at events within certain period. It
           defaults to the last hour for the live cluster source. There is no
           limit for the hb_report source. Use this command to set the

           The time period is parsed by the dateutil python module. It covers
           wide range of date formats. For instance:

           ·   3:00 (today at 3am)

           ·   15:00 (today at 3pm)

           ·   2010/9/1 2pm (September 1st 2010 at 2pm)

           We won’t bother to give definition of the time specification in
           usage below. Either use common sense or read the dateutil

           If dateutil is not available, then the time is parsed using
           strptime and only the kind as printed by date(1) is allowed:

           ·   Tue Sep 15 20:46:27 CEST 2010


                       limit [<from_time> [<to_time>]]


                       limit 10:15
                       limit 15h22m 16h
                       limit "Sun 5 20:46" "Sun 5 22:00"

           Events to be examined can come from the current cluster or from a
           hb_report report. This command sets the source. source live sets
           source to the running cluster and system logs. If no source is
           specified, the current source information is printed.

           In case a report source is specified as a file reference, the file
           is going to be unpacked in place where it resides. This directory
           is not removed on exit.


                       source [<dir>|<file>|live]


                       source live
                       source /tmp/customer_case_22.tar.bz2
                       source /tmp/customer_case_22

           This command makes sense only for the live source and makes crm
           collect the latest logs and other relevant information from the
           logs. If you want to make a completely new report, specify force.


                       refresh [force]

           How much detail to show from the logs.


                       detail <detail_level>

                       detail_level :: small integer (defaults to 0)


                       detail 1

           In case the host this program runs on is not part of the cluster,
           it is necessary to set the list of nodes.


                       setnodes node <node> [<node> ...]


                       setnodes node_a node_b

           Show actions and any failures that happened on all specified
           resources on all nodes. Normally, one gives resource names as
           arguments, but it is also possible to use extended regular
           expressions. Note that neither groups nor clones or master/slave
           names are ever logged. The resource command is going to expand all
           of these appropriately, so that clone instances or resources which
           are part of a group are shown.


                       resource <rsc> [<rsc> ...]


                       resource bigdb public_ip
                       resource my_.*_db2
                       resource ping_clone

           Show important events that happened on a node. Important events are
           node lost and join, standby and online, and fence. Use either node
           names or extended regular expressions.


                       node <node> [<node> ...]


                       node node1

           Show messages logged on one or more nodes. Leaving out a node name
           produces combined logs of all nodes. Messages are sorted by time
           and, if the terminal emulations supports it, displayed in different
           colours depending on the node to allow for easier reading.

           The sorting key is the timestamp as written by syslog which
           normally has the maximum resolution of one second. Obviously,
           messages generated by events which share the same timestamp may not
           be sorted in the same way as they happened. Such close events may
           actually happen fairly often.


                       log [<node>]


                       log node-a

           If a log is infested with irrelevant messages, those messages may
           be excluded by specifying a regular expression. The regular
           expressions used are Python extended. This command is additive. To
           drop all regular expressions, use exclude clear. Run exclude only
           to see the current list of regular expressions. Excludes are saved
           along with the history sessions.


                       exclude [<regex>|clear]


                       exclude kernel.*ocfs2

           Every event in the cluster results in generating one or more Policy
           Engine (PE) files. These files describe future motions of
           resources. The files are listed as full paths in the current report
           directory. Add v to also see the creation time stamps.


                       peinputs [{<range>|<number>} ...] [v]

                       range :: <n1>:<n2>


                       peinputs 440:444 446
                       peinputs v

           This command will print actions planned by the PE and run graphviz
           (dotty) to display a graphical representation of the transition. Of
           course, for the latter an X11 session is required. This command
           invokes ptest(8) in background.

           The showdot subcommand runs graphviz (dotty) to display a graphical
           representation of the .dot file which has been included in the
           report. Essentially, it shows the calculation produced by pengine
           which is installed on the node where the report was produced. In
           optimal case this output should not differ from the one produced by
           the locally installed pengine.

           The log subcommand shows the full log for the duration of the

           A transition can also be saved to a CIB shadow for further analysis
           or use with cib or configure commands (use the save subcommand).
           The shadow file name defaults to the name of the PE input file.

           If the PE input file number is not provided, it defaults to the
           last one, i.e. the last transition. The last transition can also be
           referenced with number 0. If the number is negative, then the
           corresponding transition relative to the last one is chosen.

           If there are warning and error PE input files or different nodes
           were the DC in the observed timeframe, it may happen that PE input
           file numbers collide. In that case provide some unique part of the
           path to the file.

           After the ptest output, logs about events that happened during the
           transition are printed.


                       transition [<number>|<index>|<file>] [nograph] [v...] [scores] [actions] [utilization]
                       transition showdot [<number>|<index>|<file>]
                       transition log [<number>|<index>|<file>]
                       transition save [<number>|<index>|<file> [name]]


                       transition 444
                       transition -1
                       transition pe-error-3.bz2
                       transition node-a/pengine/pe-input-2.bz2
                       transition showdot 444
                       transition log
                       transition save 0 enigma-22

           Every transition is saved as a PE file. Use this command to render
           that PE file either as configuration or status. The configuration
           output is the same as crm configure show.


                       show <pe> [status]

                       pe :: <number>|<index>|<file>|live


                       show 2066
                       show pe-input-2080.bz2 status

           Create a graphviz graphical layout from the PE file (the
           transition). Every transition contains the cluster configuration
           which was active at the time. See also generate a directed graph
           from configuration.


                       graph <pe> [<gtype> [<file> [<img_format>]]]

                       gtype :: dot
                       img_format :: `dot` output format (see the `-T` option)


                       graph -1
                       graph 322 dot
                       graph 322 dot clu1.conf.svg svg

           A transition represents a change in cluster configuration or state.
           Use diff to see what has changed between two transitions.

           If you want to specify the current cluster configuration and
           status, use the string live.

           Normally, the first transition specified should be the one which is
           older, but we are not going to enforce that.

           Note that a single configuration update may result in more than one


                       diff <pe> <pe> [status] [html]

                       pe :: <number>|<index>|<file>|live


                       diff 2066 2067
                       diff pe-input-2080.bz2 live status

           Sometimes you may want to get back to examining a particular
           history period or bug report. In order to make that easier, the
           current settings can be saved and later retrieved.

           If the current history being examined is coming from a live cluster
           the logs, PE inputs, and other files are saved too, because they
           may disappear from nodes. For the existing reports coming from
           hb_report, only the directory location is saved (not to waste

           A history session may also be packed into a tarball which can then
           be sent to support.

           Leave out subcommand to see the current session.


                       session [{save|load|delete} <name> | pack [<name>] | update | list]


                       session save bnc966622
                       session load rsclost-2
                       session list

   end (cd, up)
       The end command ends the current level and the user moves to the parent
       level. This command is available everywhere.



       The help command prints help for the current level or for the specified
       topic (command). This command is available everywhere.


                   help [<topic>]

   quit (exit, bye)
       Leave the program.


       Even though all sensible configurations (and most of those that are
       not) are going to be supported by the crm shell, I suspect that it may
       still happen that certain XML constructs may confuse the tool. When
       that happens, please file a bug report.

       The crm shell will not try to update the objects it does not
       understand. Of course, it is always possible to edit such objects in
       the XML format.


       Dejan Muhamedagic, <> and many OTHERS


       crm_resource(8), crm_attribute(8), crm_mon(8), cib_shadow(8), ptest(8),
       dotty(1), crm_simulate(8), cibadmin(8)


       Copyright (C) 2008-2011 Dejan Muhamedagic. Free use of this software is
       granted under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL).